Winter 1997

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The Institute Lands are a unique tract of 589 acres of woods, farmland, and wetlands in the southwest corner of Princeton Township. Located where the Stony Brook meets the Delaware & Raritan Canal, these graceful woods and fields form a key link in the effort to preserve a network of green spaces amid the intensive development of central New Jersey’s Route 1 corridor. Over the past several years, the Institute Lands Preservation Committee and the Institute for Advanced Study have worked together to preserve these lands as a permanent treasure for the people of Princeton Township and Princeton Borough, of Mercer County, and of New Jersey.




   The Institute for Advanced Study has announced the appointment of Nathan Seiberg, one of the world’s foremost particle physicists and a leader in the area of high energy theory, as a permanent Faculty member in the School of Natural Sciences. Dr. Seiberg will begin his appointment as of July 1, 1997.
    “Nathan Seiberg’s work has led to profound transformations in our understanding of quantum field theory,” commented Phillip A. Griffiths, Director of the Institute for Advanced Study. “He has made extraordinarily significant contributions to theoretical physics and we are delighted that he will be joining the Institute community.”
    Dr. Seiberg is interested in field theory, particle physics, phenomenology, and string theory. In the last few years he has worked on the dynamics of supersymmetric field theories. His studies in this area have changed our ways of thinking about the description of elementary particles and have led to developments that have permanently enriched theoretical physics and mathematics. Dr. Seiberg’s impressive record of achievements includes seminal contributions in conformal field theory, the study of Liouville theory, and string theory.
    In awarding Dr. Seiberg a MacArthur Foundation fellowship in the spring of 1996, the Foundation noted that “Seiberg’s discoveries have had a decisive influence on the burgeoning fields of string theory and other quantum field theories and are central to the advancement of physics today. He combines theoretical work on two major fronts as part of the ongoing quest by physicists for a unifying theory to explain the inner mechanics of atoms. Seiberg’s work brings together concepts in string theory and the quantum theories of supersymmetry and strong interactions.”
In the area of string theory, Seiberg and School of Natural Sciences Professor Edward Witten have collaborated over a period of several years on various developments that indicate that different versions of string theory may actually be aspects of one underlying theory. In 1994, working together to describe the force that holds together quarks and gluons, Seiberg and Witten came up with a powerful new mathematical technique for use in particle physics.
    Dr. Seiberg was born in Israel in 1956. He received his B.Sc. from Tel Aviv University and, after military service, his Ph.D. from the Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel. He came to the Institute for Advanced Study as a postdoctoral Member after graduation and was invited to stay on as a five-year Member. In 1985, Professor Seiberg returned to the Weizmann Institute, where he served as a Senior Scientist, an Associate Professor, and a Professor before accepting a professorship at Rutgers University in 1989.



    The Institute for Advanced Study has announced the appointment of Patricia Crone as a permanent Faculty member in the School of Historical Studies. Dr. Crone, who is presently at Cambridge University, will be in residence at the Institute as of the beginning of the fall term in September 1997.
    “Dr. Crone’s work focuses on one of the most remarkable periods in history,” commented Phillip A. Griffiths, Director of the Institute. “She has brought a new perspective to the question of how and why Islamic culture was formed.”
    Dr. Crone’s scholarly and intellectual activities have concentrated on one of the most basic and complex problems of the history of Late Antiquity and of the early Middle Ages: how, between ca. 630 and 900, a recognized Islamic culture appeared and came to dominate a huge area, from Spain to the frontiers of China and India.
    “She has challenged long-held explanations,” stated Professor Oleg Grabar, of the School of Historical Studies, “and thanks to a mastery of all contemporary sources, provided new approaches for the social, economic, legal and religious patterns which transformed late antiquity.”
    Patricia Crone was born in Denmark and received her early education in Copenhagen. She completed her undergraduate and graduate work at the University of London, receiving a Ph.D. from the School of Oriental and African Studies at the University of London in 1974. For the next three years she served as a Senior Research Fellow at the University of London’s Warburg Institute. In 1977 she became a Fellow of Jesus College and University Lecturer in Islamic history at Oxford University. Dr. Crone became Assistant University Lecturer in Islamic studies and Fellow of Gonville and Caius College at Cambridge University in 1990, and has held several positions at Cambridge since then. She served as University Lecturer in Islamic studies from 1992-94, and Reader in Islamic history from 1994 until her appointment to the Institute for Advanced Study.
    The author of numerous articles and reviews, Dr. Crone has also written six books: Hagarism, the Making of the Islamic World (with Michael Cook); Slaves on Horses, the Evolution of the Islamic Polity; God’s Caliph, Religious Authority in the First Centuries of Islam; Roman, Provincial and Islamic Law; Meccan Trade and the Rise of Islam; and Pre-Industrial Societies. She serves on the editorial boards of The International History Review, Arabica, and Islamic Law and Society, and was editor (until 1992), with J.A. Hall, of the series Explorations in Social Structure. She is also a member of the editorial board of the series Studies in Human Society.



    The Institute is pleased to announce that two Members of the School of Natural Sciences were selected as Alfred P. Sloan Research Fellows: WAYNE HU, an astrophysicist, and JOHN MARCH-RUSSELL, a particle physicist, both five-year W. M. Keck Foundation Members. The Fellowship Program was established in 1955 to provide recognition to young scientists of outstanding promise and to support their research. Sloan Research Fellows are free to pursue whatever lines of inquiry are of most compelling interest to them.
    Last year, Dr. Hu was recognized by the Astronomical Society of the Pacific for his outstanding theoretical work on the anisotopies in the cosmic microwave background. Before coming to the Institute, Dr. March-Russell was at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, where he was a Department of Energy Distinguished Research Fellow, one of only twelve such awardees in the United States across all the physical sciences.

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    ALBERT HIRSCHMAN’s The Passions and the Interests, first published in 1976, has just been reissued by Princeton University Press in a twentieth anniversary edition. Hirschman, Professor Emeritus, School of Social Science, wrote the first draft of this book on the history of economic thought while he was a visiting Member at the Institute for Advanced Study in 1972-73, on leave from Harvard University.

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    On December 11, 1996, Institute Trustee MARIE-JOSÉE KRAVIS hosted a group of friends of the School of Natural Sciences for a lecture by Professor FRANK WILCZEK. Presented over lunch at Kohlberg Kravis Roberts & Co. in New York, Professor Wilczek’s talk was titled From Asymptotic Freedom to Unification to Supersymmetry.

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    JAMES J. SCHIRO, Institute Trustee and Chairman of Price Waterhouse LLP, hosted a dinner for the Institute at the company’s corporate headquarters in New York on January 15, 1997. The dinner, which featured remarks by Institute Chairman JAMES D. WOLFENSOHN, was attended by old and new friends of the Institute. Mr. Wolfensohn talked about his work as President of the World Bank, particularly in the area of education. The evening also celebrated a beautiful book on the life and work of former Institute Faculty member Albert Einstein, presented by Walter H. Weiner, CEO and Chairman of Republic National Bank.


(Association of Members of the Institute for Advanced Study)

Winter97-AMIAS1.jpg (11197 bytes)In February, former Members living in California visited with Phillip A. Griffiths and Professor Jack F. Matlock, Jr. at receptions hosted by the Institute in Los Angeles and in Oakland. At both receptions, Professor Matlock discussed his current work as George F. Kennan Professor in the School of Historical Studies, while Dr. Griffiths updated guests on recent activities and future plans of the Institute.    
AMIAS2.jpg (16787 bytes)On February 16, Dr. Griffiths traveled to Seattle where he and Professor John N. Bahcall, School of Natural Sciences, hosted a reception for former Members and others at the Alexis Hotel. Dr. Griffiths was delighted to meet with AMIAS members at all of these events and looks forward to holding other such get togethers in the future.

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   On May 16-17, 1997, AMIAS (Association of Members of the Institute for Advanced Study) will hold its biennial conference at the Institute for Advanced Study. All current and former Members are invited and encouraged to attend. A detailed schedule of events and reservation information will be mailed to all AMIAS members. Highlights of the program include talks by School of Historical Studies Professor Irving Lavin and by mathematician (and juggler!) Ronald Graham, Chief Research Scientist, AT&T Laboratories. There will also be a panel discussion entitled “Science, Society and Values,” as well as a presentation on the early history of the Institute by Elliott Shore, Librarian for the Schools of Historical Studies and Social Science. If you would like more information about AMIAS, please contact Pamela Hughes via e-mail at or by telephone at (609) 734-8204.



   Robert Taub, Artist-in-Residence at the Institute, completed his three-year project of performing and recording the entire Beethoven Piano Sonata cycle at the Institute with concerts March 18, 21, and 22, and subsequent recording sessions. Taub has brought his “shining reputation in difficult modern music,” according to The New York Times, to his performances of the Beethoven Piano Sonatas at the Institute, with the result that capacity audiences at every concert frequently offered standing ovations in response to Taub’s presentations of a Beethoven they are probably not accustomed to hearing.
    “One of the reasons I find his performances so compelling is that he plays Beethoven’s music as though it were written yesterday,” commented Glen Bowersock, Professor in the School of Historical Studies and Music Committee Chair. “This is what makes his performances of Beethoven so different from everyone else’s. He plays with the same intensity and intellectual fervor that he brings to Sessions or Babbitt or Scriabin. He has given us the Beethoven who was in the vanguard.”
    “One of the most important points of the project is trying to bring the music into a fresh perspective, as if it’s being played for the first time, just as one would with a contemporary score,” noted Taub. “My involvement with both old music and new music is, I suppose, crucial to this. One of the differences I bring to my performance of the Piano Sonatas is the refusal to be encumbered by layers and layers of tradition. I try to come to every piece that I play free of preconceptions.”
    The concerts themselves have a life far beyond the actual performance dates and Wolfensohn Hall audiences. The Institute has taped the concerts and made the tapes available to National Public Radio, which airs segments nationwide on “Performance Today.” Locally, WWFM/89.1, which covers all of New Jersey as well as part of the New York and Philadelphia metropolitan areas, has aired interviews with Taub in conjunction with the broadcast of each complete concert performance. Following each program cycle Taub played the entire program again for the professional sound engineers who came from New York to record for the Vox Classics label. To date, Volumes I, II, and III, each a double CD set, have been released; Volumes IV and V will be released later this year to complete the project.
    Asked whom he would select if he could take the next three years to immerse himself in a similar manner in the work of a different composer, Taub replied that he would choose to become involved with an era rather than an individual, and his era of choice would be the end of the 19th century through the early 20th century. “Many musical forces were forging ahead simultaneously,” Taub pointed out. “Events lead inexorably to a new kind of music.” He would explore the work of Berg, Ravel, and especially Scriabin, whose complete sonatas Taub recorded in 1992, and who he feels is one of the very few composers whose work demonstrates creative growth that compares to Beethoven’s. “The Beethoven Piano Sonatas embody an extraordinary creative evolution over the course of three decades, and the scope of this evolution is far more dramatic than that of the majority of composers. Scriabin is one of the few to compare. In Scriabin’s pivotal Fifth Sonata,” Taub continued, “one hears him change from a traditional, ultra-romantic position reflecting a deep admiration of Chopin, to a musically radical perspective.”
    In addition to performing and recording the Piano Sonatas and maintaining an active national and international concert schedule, Taub has been writing a book about the Beethoven Piano Sonatas while at the Institute. He plans to complete the manuscript by the end of 1997 for publication by Princeton University Press in 1998.
    Robert Taub has been asked to stay on for an additional year as the Institute’s Artist-in-Residence, and will take a different perspective for 1997-1998. He has organized a series of chamber music concerts at the Institute that will begin with Taub and the Stanford String Quartet collaborating in an all-Brahms program in November 1997, followed by Taub and the St. Lawrence String Quartet in January 1998, and a Robert Taub solo concert in March of 1998. His international concert schedule will include appearances in Vienna, Budapest, Norway, Holland, Singapore, and a six-city recital tour in Germany, as well as his annual performance at the Galway Music Festival in Ireland. In addition, he will give the premiere of a new Milton Babbitt concerto commissioned for him by the Geraldine R. Dodge Foundation. Maestro James Levine will conduct at Carnegie Hall.
    In between concert performances, Robert Taub demonstrates his belief in the universal appeal of music. Convinced that every child, given the opportunity, will find classical music fascinating, Taub can be found at an elementary school in North Carolina or California or Princeton, where he might occupy himself by taking a piano apart, to the great delight of his young audiences. In these informal sessions he plays a bit, “but I never play down to them” he states, talks a bit, and answers questions that range from how much he has to practice to what Beethoven was thinking about when he composed the Hammerklavier.
    The Institute has had only one other artist in residence, T.S. Eliot, who wrote The Cocktail Party while at the Institute. The opportunity to become a member of the Institute community and to immerse himself in Beethoven’s life and work “has been wonderful,” Taub declared. “The role of the Institute for Advanced Study has been critical. I consider it my artistic home. Being here has given me enormous artistic freedom, and I cherish the environment and the guiding philosophy. I wondered at the very beginning, in November 1994,” he continued, “what it would be like to play the final recital. Basically, I can’t wait to do it again. These pieces have so much to offer on so many different levels.”
    Generous support for this project has been provided by Dr. and Mrs. William Scheide, Mrs. Edith Blodgett, the Joyce and Seward Johnson Foundation, Inc., Edward T. Cone, Rosanna and Charles Jaffin, Merrill Lynch, and the Friends of the Institute for Advanced Study.



Winter97-Flowers.jpg (10055 bytes)   It has been more than five years since Princeton Township and representatives from the community first contacted the Institute for Advanced Study to talk about purchasing the development rights on 589 acres of Institute land. The Township had procured a package of grants and loans from the New Jersey Green Acres program which could provide a major start for permanently preserving this property. The Institute agreed to cooperate, and we are extremely pleased to report that a conservation easement on the Institute Lands is now in the process of being executed. The Lands will also be permanently protected as open space through the New Jersey Agricultural Retention and Development Act.
    A major conservation effort requires the cooperation and support of many people, and this was indeed the case in the preservation of the Institute Lands. The Institute Lands Preservation Committee (ILPC) was led by the Delaware & Raritan Greenway, Friends of Princeton Open Space, and the Stony Brook-Millstone Watershed Association. The ILPC worked in close cooperation with the Institute for Advanced Study. Over 800 individual supporters, in addition to the State of New Jersey, Princeton Township, Princeton Borough, Mercer County and several foundations, created a broad-based partnership. The process has been underwritten by support from the J. Seward Johnson, Sr. Charitable Trusts.
    A more detailed history of this conservation effort will appear in a later Institute Letter. The following comments, taken from the video The Institute Lands, provide a sense of the community feeling for the land and the reasons for its preservation.

Winter97-Plaque.jpg (24479 bytes)    These Woods surrounding the State Park that commemorates the Battle of Princeton saw a lot of action on the morning of January 3, 1777. They were the area where Washington’s troops walked, were deployed, and counterattacked against the British. The British retreated northward toward Nassau Hall on the College of New Jersey campus. This is hallowed ground. It is just as important to the cause of American nationhood as Valley Forge, as Yorktown, as Gettysburg, and as Vicksburg because it was on this ground that the United States was created.
James M. McPherson, George Henry Davis ‘86 Professor of American History, Princeton University

    I come from a place that used to have a lot of undeveloped land, and it’s remarkable to me, now that most of it is developed, the regret people express about that. They feel a sense of sadness that it’s gone.
Wendy Mager, President, Friends of Princeton Open Space

Winter97-BlackpollWarblerBird.jpg (7924 bytes)Winter97-EasternKingbird.jpg (11822 bytes)Winter97-PrairieWarbler.jpg (10957 bytes)    The Institute Woods is on the border of two very important geographic regions—the Coastal Plains, which constitutes two-thirds of the State’s habitat, and the Piedmont. It is right at the Institute Woods that these two areas meet, creating a wonderful stopping ground for warblers and other small birds migrating through. It is also a breeding spot. When birds come up here, they have one shot at nesting. If they don’t breed, we stand to lose many species of birds, and some of the birds are quite rare and endangered. Once you fragment the forest, you have grackles, blue jays, starlings — the very aggressive birds. The birds who are migrating need that inner area with a buffer on the outside as protection from the more aggressive birds.
Tom Southerland, Founder, Princeton Nature Tours

Winter97-SwingingBridge.jpg (42757 bytes)    I have lived in the proximity of these Woods for over half a century. They are a friend, a source of inspiration and restoration, and were they to disappear it would be like the disappearance of an old, beloved, and respected friend.
    The Institute Woods and Lands are in a statistical sense infinitesimally small when considered as a part of the total problem of conservation facing our country, but they have a symbolic significance which must not be ignored. We here in Princeton and the surrounding whole area have a relatively mature, even cosmopolitan, highly educated, and relatively affluent community. It does seem to me that unless we in this community, with all the advantages and insights we have into what is driving American civilization, are able to create an example, the chances that we could solve this as a national problem are very small. What is now a national challenge would become a national catastrophe.
Professor Emeritus George F. Kennan, School of Historical Studies, Institute for Advanced Study

    It has been a source of great satisfaction for the Institute to work with the community to preserve the Institute Lands. I am deeply grateful to all who are making this possible.
Phillip A. Griffiths, Director, Institute for Advanced Study

    This is a project that will go down in history as something the community did to preserve an historically important and environmentally sensitive piece of land for future generations to enjoy.
Florence Kahn, Campaign Director, Institute Lands Preservation Committee

Winter97PersonInWoods.jpg (14327 bytes)    The real value of this place is its uniqueness. There is only one. If you look at a map of the State of New Jersey taken from a satellite, you will see that the forests have simply been wiped out over much of the central corridor of New Jersey. There are just remnant patches now, and this 589-acre patch is not only the most diverse, it is the sole patch that is of this type of diversity anywhere in the vicinity.
Professor Henry Horn, Professor of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University

    One million people living in the region get their drinking water from the D&R Canal, and the Stony Brook is part of the Canal’s watershed. The Stony Brook stream corridor
borders the Institute Lands and includes important wetlands habitat. Preserving these lands is critical as wetlands filter pollutants from the water, making it less costly to obtain clean, drinkable water.
Peggy McNutt, Executive Director, Delaware & Raritan Greenway

    There is a tradition of walking here in Princeton which is, in my experience, unusual in the United States. When I first came here, I learned about this tradition and about how Einstein would walk from his home to the Institute with students and other colleagues walking with him. Because I live near the Institute, I see children and families spending their Saturdays and Sundays relaxing and enjoying these Institute Woods.
Richard Miles, Princeton resident



   At its first meeting on November 12, 1996, the Planned Giving Committee of the Institute voted to create the Einstein Legacy Society. The Society will honor all those who have the Institute in their will and all those who have made a planned gift. It will meet annually for lectures or concerts and a luncheon at the Institute.
    The Planned Giving Committee, chaired by Trustee Emeritus Ralph Hansmann and co-chaired by Charles and Rosanna Jaffin of the Friends of the Institute, chose to name the Society after Einstein for several reasons. “Einstein’s is the most famous name associated with the Institute,” said Mr. Hansmann. “In addition, Professor Einstein made one of the first planned gifts to the Institute when he left his house to the Institute through his will.” The house, at 112 Mercer Street, is still lived in by Institute Faculty. The current residents are Professor Frank Wilczek and his wife, Betsy Devine, and their family.
    “There are a number of people who, over the years, have told us that they have the Institute in their will, friends who have created trusts with the Institute as the ultimate beneficiary, and donors who have joined our Pooled Income Fund,” said Associate Director Rachel Gray. “We wanted to create a way to honor them and tell them how grateful we are to them for their gifts and gift intentions.”
    At its first meeting the Planned Giving Committee created a small Gift Committee to advise the Institute on gifts of real estate, tangible personal property and closely held stock. It also approved plans for a brochure entitled, “A Community of Scholars: Ways to Give to the Institute for Advanced Study.”
    The inaugural meeting of the Einstein Legacy Society was held on Wednesday, March 12, with a concert and lecture by Robert Taub, Artist-in-Residence at the Institute, followed by a luncheon in the Common Room in Fuld Hall. For more information about the Einstein Legacy Society, please contact Alison Lahnston, Senior Development Officer at the Institute, at (609) 734-8025.



   The Friends of the Institute have enjoyed a remarkably full schedule of activities this year. To date, three Friends’ Forums have taken place. The first, entitled Russia After the Elections, was given on September 25 by Jack F. Matlock, Jr., George F. Kennan Professor in the School of Historical Studies. Friends’ Executive Committee member Donald M. Wilson introduced the talk and moderated the subsequent discussion. On December 3, astrophysicist John N. Bahcall, School of Natural Sciences, addressed the question How Does the Sun Shine? Alan J. Karcher, of the Friends’ Executive Committee, introduced Professor Bahcall. Historian Fritz Stern, a visiting Member in the School of Social Science, kicked off the winter schedule with his February 19 presentation, Yet Another New Germany? Professor Stern’s talk was moderated by Friend of the Institute William P. Bundy.
    The fall Fireside Chat was given jointly by Leon Levy and his wife, Shelby White. Mr. Levy, a founding partner of Odyssey Partners, L.P., is Chair of the Executive Committee and Vice Chair of the Institute’s Board of Trustees, and President of the Corporation. Ms. White is an author, lecturer and financial journalist whose publications include the book, What Every Woman Should Know About Her Husband’s Money. Their presentation and interactive discussion, introduced by Robert F. Johnston of the Friends Executive Committee, focused on investment and the world of finance.
    The spring Fireside Chat, Vietnam: A Nation in Ascendancy, was given by Mary Cross, with an introduction by Donald Wilson. A photographer and observer of the economics and politics of the countries she visits, Ms. Cross discussed the problems the Hanoi government has had in entering the market economy while attempting to maintain control of its political and economic system. Her talk was illustrated with her own magnificent slides.
    Upcoming Friends events include a Friends’ Forum with sociologist Viviana Zelizer on April 2, a May 14 walking tour of the Institute’s grounds and trees led by Sam deTuro, and the Friends’ annual meeting and picnic on May 21.
    For information on these events, or if you are interested in becoming a Friend, please call Pamela Hughes at (609) 734-8204.

The Institute for Advanced Study extends a very warm welcome
to the following new Friends of the Institute:
Joyce and Georg Albers-Schonberg • Carol and Jan Buck • Michael Cary
Hope Cobb • Jeanne and Charles Ellis • Elizabeth and Zaki Hosny
Ann and Allen Jones • Arianne and Allen Kassof
Elizabeth and Walter Kauzmann • James C. Kellogg
Nancy and William Lifland • Pamela and Roland Machold
Jacquie and Woody Phares • Letitia and Charles Ufford • Flora and Robert Varrin
Barbara and Robert Walker • Janette and John Wheeler
Virginia August and Brian Zack • Judy and George Zoffinger



   On November 21, 1996, six institutes for advanced study, three from the United States and three from Europe, jointly awarded the 1996 New Europe Prize to Eo¨rs Szathmáry, Professor of Biology at Eotvos Lorand University in Budapest and permanent fellow at the Collegium Budapest. The prize is part of a joint effort launched by the institutes four years ago to build new intellectual resources in the former Soviet Bloc. One or two annual prizes with monetary awards are presented to East European scholars who have studied at one of the six participating institutes and who are committed to building independent centers for scholarship in their home countries.
    The 1996 award was presented during a two-day gathering of the institute directors at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences in Stanford, California. At the ceremony, Professor Szathmáry described his plans to use the award to establish a program in theoretical
biology in Budapest.
    The New Europe Prize is intended to help stabilize Central and Eastern European societies and counteract the loss of scholars to the West by building cultural and intellectual infrastructures to underpin democratic institutions.
    The six centers administering the awards are the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences in Stanford, California, Neil Smelser, Director; Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, New Jersey, Phillip A. Griffiths, Director; National Humanities Center, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, W. Robert Connor, Director; Netherlands Institute for Advanced Study, Wassenaar, Holland, Henk Wesseling, Director; Swedish Center for Advanced Study in the Social Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden, Bjorn Wittrock, Director; and Wissenschaftskolleg (Institute for Advanced Study) of Berlin, Germany, Wolf Lepenies, Director.
    The awards are underwritten by a combination of private and state funding from the United States and Western Europe, including the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation of Chicago, the Fritz Thyssen Foundation of Cologne, Germany, the Swedish Council for Studies of Higher Education, and the Ministry of Education and Science of the Netherlands.



   A conference on the history of war as part of general history, held at the Institute in 1993, led to the Institute Seminar on Force in History. After the conference, a few scholars – among them Frederick Mote of Princeton, Sebastian de Grazia of Rutgers, and Peter Paret of the Institute’s School of Historical Studies – met to explore further some of the issues that had been raised. Support from the Harry Frank Guggenheim Foundation, the Gladys Delmas Foundation, a family foundation, and from J. Richardson Dilworth, Chairman Emeritus of the Board of Trustees of the Institute, made it possible to invite participants not only from this country, but also from Asia, Australia, and Europe. Between 1994 and 1997, the Seminar held several two- or three-day meetings each year, some of which were open to interested scholars and students from the Princeton area and were associated with public lectures. Between the larger meetings, working groups held briefer sessions. The Seminar was chaired by Professor Paret.
    The purposes of the Seminar were 1) to study intellectual and cultural responses to war, and 2) to analyze the effect of these responses on the changing realities of conflict. The Seminar addressed these issues from a comparative Asian/Western perspective. Among the subjects studied were ethical and policy justifications of war in Asian and European political thought; representations of force and the commemoration of war in China; the development of legends and their impact on policy; attempts to expand war beyond accepted cultural and political concepts; character, functions, and reception of propaganda; and the relationship between war and the nation.
    Publication was not a primary goal of the Seminar, but the work of the group has led to numerous articles and several books. Professors John W. Chambers of Rutgers University and David Culbert of Louisiana State University edited a collection of essays, World War II: Film and History (O.U.P., 1996), based in part on several meetings of the Seminar. Professor Chambers is currently completing his monograph on the film All Quiet on the Western Front, which he began to write when he was a Visitor at the School of Historical Studies in 1995-96. Later this year Professor Paret is publishing a monograph on reflections of war in European art, which was the theme of several meetings in 1995. Another volume with the working title The Legend of the Levée en Masse, a collection of essays by specialists in American, Asian, and European history, is being edited by Professors Daniel Moran of the Naval Postgraduate School at Monterey and Arthur Waldron of the Naval War College and Brown University.
    In its current form the Seminar will come to an end with a meeting in May, but individual scholars will continue projects that were initiated in the Seminar or are linked to its work.



   Young mathematicians and physicists who aspire to careers in research usually proceed from their graduate studies to postdoctoral work. But a one- or two-year postdoctoral experience is rarely sufficient to develop a fruitful, long-term investigation before it is time to move on —typically to institutional employment that requires teaching and other non-research activities.
    The Institute is now half-way through a productive experiment that is demonstrating the value of longer-term scholarships for the most talented young researchers. This experiment, the W. M. Keck Foundation Prize Fellowship Program in Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, is made possible by the W. M. Keck Foundation of Los Angeles. It enables Keck Members to focus entirely on research for up to five years without the distraction of other duties. The Keck Foundation has donated $1.5 million toward the cost of the ten-year program; the Institute makes up the balance.
    Because Keck scholars are assured of long-term support, they have been able to undertake ambitious research whose scope far surpasses that of most postdoctoral programs. For example, a study by several Keck Members of the large-scale distribution of galaxies has evolved into a multi-year survey of the northern sky which now involves five other institutions. This project, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, promises to revolutionize the study of galaxies and galactic clusters.
    Most Keck scholars work in the areas of elementary particle theory, condensed matter theory, high-temperature superconductivity, or theoretical astrophysics. The program’s emphasis on physics and astronomy reflects long-standing interests of the Keck Foundation, which funded the construction of the W. M. Keck Observatory in Hawaii, housing the world’s two largest operating ground-based telescopes. The Institute’s preeminence in theoretical astrophysics provides an excellent complement to the experimental work done at the Observatory.
    The stability of a Keck membership also allows young scientists to develop collaborative ventures with permanent Faculty and other young Members. This is evident, for example, in the rich interaction between mathematicians and physicists, particularly in the field of string theory. This interaction points to a new branch of mathematical physics which promises to help theorists come to grips with string theory’s highly complex mathematical expressions. To strengthen this interaction, the School of Mathematics has now initiated its own long-term memberships which complement and emulate the Keck fellowships.
    The Keck program has strengthened the School of Natural Sciences by drawing talented young theoreticians to its ranks. This semi-permanent group of scholars has created a powerful cohesion in the research effort. The School of Natural Sciences was recently ranked by Science Watch as the most research-productive institution in the physical sciences for the past decade, and the School’s astrophysics program was also ranked foremost in a separate study.
    From the program’s inception in 1990, the quality of Keck Fellows has been extremely high. Collectively, they have to their credit nearly 100 scientific papers published or in press. Several have already moved on to tenured positions at some of the world’s leading physics research institutions, including Harvard, Princeton, Columbia, the University of Utrecht, and CERN, the European Center for Nuclear Research.
    The Members themselves offer high praise for the experience, as shown in the following excerpts from year-end reports:
    “The Institute has been an ideal place in which to carry out my work. Princeton is a true ‘hotbed’ of astronomical research, and I am involved in collaborations with a number of the people both here and at the University. I am constantly stimulated by the bright minds here, both Members of the Institute and those who come for visits.”
    “I have continued to find the IAS an excellent environment for research. The most important features are the superb group of Members and the freedom and time we have to choose lines of investigation.”
    “ stay at the Institute defines one of the most enjoyable and productive periods that I ever experienced. The Institute and Princeton University provide a fertile and stimulating environment for research in physics that has no parallel elsewhere.”
    The Keck program has been especially welcome at a time when federal funds are becoming increasingly constrained and outside grants which support long-term fundamental research are greatly reduced.
    “We are immensely grateful for the Keck program,” says Phillip A. Griffiths, Director of the Institute. “First, we can all see that it is a great success. Also, the long-term memberships have established a new institutional pattern that is leading us into exciting new science. The new level of interaction between mathematics and physics is partly a serendipitous result of the Keck grant and may prove to be the greatest benefit of all.”
    The Keck Foundation was established in 1954 as a bequest of the late William Myron Keck, founder of the Superior Oil Company. Grants focus on programs in science, engineering, and medical research.

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   J. Seward Johnson, Sr. was a successful businessman and philanthropist who expressed deep concern for the needs of others in the fields of health, the environment, cultural enrichment and education. In 1961 and 1963, the J. Seward Johnson, Sr. Charitable Trusts were established by him to support organizations and projects which would help meet these needs. In the years since Mr. Johnson’s death, the Trustees of the Johnson Trusts have been committed to meeting the changing needs of society while carrying out the general objectives and broad interests of this distinguished benefactor.
    The grant support of the J. Seward Johnson, Sr. Charitable Trusts has made a distinct difference to the Institute for Advanced Study. In 1996-97, the Trusts are supporting a special program of research at the interface of physics and mathematics, an area where a completely new outlook on quantum field theory, especially string theory, is developing. The program, led by Institute Professors Pierre Deligne and Edward Witten, is producing a remarkably fruitful scientific interaction.
    Because of the complexity of the relevant issues in both physics and mathematics, the effort required for experts in one field to reach a sufficient depth in the other takes a level and intensity of interaction that is not easily achieved in the normal ways these fields are approached. Programs of sustained, sophisticated interaction between mathematics and physics are therefore unprecedented, and this endeavor is likely to produce new insights into science which probably would not happen in any other way—or at any other place.
    In addition, a new type of scientist will evolve who is equally at home in the worlds of both physics and mathematics. This new scientist will learn to conceptualize mathematics and physics in an integrated fashion, an essential tool for the scientific and technological challenges of the future. Although the National Science Foundation awarded the Institute a three-year grant toward the funding of this special program, the support of the J. Seward Johnson, Sr. Charitable Trusts has made it possible to share the insights and emergent work of the program with a broader audience of scientists and mathematicians who are not at the Institute. Numerous workshops, seminars, and lectures are held, and lecture notes and problem sets associated with this research are on the World Wide Web.
    In a completely different area, funds from the J. Seward Johnson, Sr. Charitable Trusts have also made possible a new computer database for the Institute, allowing the development of much more coherent fundraising and public relations efforts. The support of the Trusts has often provided seed money so that operations can be improved and the mission of the institution can be more effectively carried out.
    Over the past several years, the Trusts have also underwritten the fundraising expenses of the Institute Lands Preservation Committee (ILPC). Through the dedicated efforts of this group and the support of the J. Seward Johnson, Sr. Charitable Trusts, 589 acres of Institute Woods and farmlands owned by the Institute for Advanced Study will be preserved in perpetuity.



   “The generosity of individual donors willing to support pure research conducted by individual Members at the Institute is a growing and remarkable trend,” commented Institute Director Phillip Griffiths. “We are deeply grateful to them for their gifts and for their foresight in enabling the Institute to help our scholars.”
Winter97-MChooljian.jpg (10656 bytes)    Martin and Helen Chooljian, Friends of the Institute, have provided the support for a Member in the School of Natural Sciences, Dr. Kenneth Intriligator, this year. The Chooljians have met with Dr. Intriligator several times and have attended many events of the School this year. Mr. Chooljian, a retired manufacturer who lives in Princeton, has had a life-long interest in physics. “Helen and I have always valued and supported education,” he wrote. “This year in addition to our usual alma mater gifts to Harvard College, Wellesley College, and Harvard Business School, we are pleased to support an Institute Member in Natural Sciences. Considering the Institute’s small size relative to its influence on and large contribution to the international world of education and knowledge, we feel our gift really makes a significant difference.”
Winter97-AGund.jpg (12796 bytes)    The School of Social Science is celebrating its twenty-fifth anniversary this year, and in honor of the occasion, a number of named Memberships have been given. Support for two Members in the School of Social Science has been provided by Institute Trustee Agnes Gund for the 1996-97 year. The two Gund Members are Dr. Kay B. Warren, an anthropologist from Princeton University, and Dr. Mark Turner, a cognitive scientist from the University of Maryland. Ms. Gund is the President of the Museum of Modern Art in New York.
    Additional support for the School of Social Science has come from the Ralph E. and Doris M. Hansmann Memberships. The Hansmann Members are Dr. Junji Koizumi, an anthropologist from Osaka University, and Dr. Thomas Gieryn, a sociologist from Indiana University. Writing to the Director upon his notification of the honor, Professor Koizumi wrote, “I was already honored when I was appointed a Member here, but now I am more so and deeply grateful for the generosity of the Hansmanns.”
    J. Richardson Dilworth, Trustee Emeritus and former Chairman of the Board of Trustees, and his wife, Elizabeth, have supported two Dilworth Members in the School of Historical Studies for the past several years. “The funds we have given endow Memberships in the School of Historical Studies and provide the means to help support the next generation of distinguished historians and scholars,” Mr. Dilworth wrote, adding, “Such Memberships are absolutely vital if we are to understand and learn from the past.” The Dilworth Members this year are Dr. Harry Liebersohn, a European cultural historian at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, and Dr. Daniel Woolf, who is in the field of early modern British history at Dalhousie University.