I. Society of Mozambique, by Tiffany Chasten


Mozambique is a country in Africa with a population of 18.2 million people

in 1996. Life expectancy (1996) was 46 years, 48 years for women and 45

for men. The official language is Portuguese, but English is widely

spoken. In 1980, the Roman Catholic population was less than 40%,

Muslim was less than 15%, and traditional beliefs were less than 50%. The

majority of jobs are in the field of agriculture. Also, others are mostly

employed by industries, transport, and communications. In 1995, the infant

mortality rate was approximately 113 per 1,000 live births. The most

serious health problems in Mozambique is malaria and AIDS.



II. Mozambicano Independence, by Jemi Johnson


Mozambique has had its share of troubles, and to this day continues to be

in a threatened state of turmoil. After the national liberation movement,

Frelimo, committed to independence and socialism, took power in Mozambique

in 1974, trouble ensued. Frelimo made progress overcoming Mozambique's

poverty, lack of education, and abysmal underdevolopment. However, a

group called, Renamo, backed by apartheid South Africans began killing

peasants and forced young boys into its army. The main motive behind

Renamo's force, was blatant capitalist greed.


Later on, outside forces, such as the American based Enron company

wanted Mozambique to sign a contract allowing Enron to develop and market

a huge reservoir of natural gas at Pende, in Inhambane. Mozambique's

Mineral Minister objected, but the U.S. Embassy threatened to withdraw aid

to Mozambique. To native Mozambique people, withdrawing aid is just as

deadly as a bloody war.


Plus, Mozambique continues to be drought-ravaged. Mozambique

people feel, this is due to South African's dams aggravated Mozambique's

water supply, where Mozambique's once major waterways have ceased to flow.

Mozambique drafted a document for the creation of a joint water commission

between the two countries. If South Africa did not agree to the terms,

South Africa's image could be damaged with the Organization for African




III. More on 20th Century Mozambique, by Jay Pyrtle


Mozambique, as a defined territory is 106 years old and it came into existence

as a result of an Anglo-Portuguese treaty in May 1891. It gained it independence

from Portugal in 1975, when Portugal freed all of it colonies. Mozambique was

a colony that the Portuguese abused for its natural resources and for the

people there who where captured and taken to Brazil as slaves. The

Portuguese rulers imposed a system of forces labor (chibalo).


Chibalo referred to a variety of low paid and unpaid workers. These workers

worked the land for the crops or they built things like roads to make

trade easier. Their living conditions were poor and they were not

respected at all by the Portuguese. They were uneducated and the

Portuguese made not attempt to further the people in education.

Mozambique stayed in this time of upheaval until the 1970's when the

Portuguese were overthrown and then the country entered into a bloody

civil war that lasted for over 15 years. In this war over one million

were believed to have died and over 2 million became refugees. Today

Mozambique is more settled, but still dangerous for travel. The

government is still trying to place all of the refugees in permanent

housing and trying to employ the people that had moved aroung for so long.



IV. Labor situation in Mozambique, by Brian Dickerson


Although Mozambique had been connected with Portugal since 1498, the

Portuguese didn't really do anything with the colony until the

mid-nineteenth century. At this time, Portugal began to force the

people of Mozambique to work in a system called chibalo. This was

either low-paid or unpaid work. The workers were forced to work on

state projects such as railroads or roads, and also in the growing of

food and cotton. The cotton was then exported to Portugal. This

created an influx of money for the Portuguese.