ATTITUDES TO SEXUAL VIOLENCE
Chinese Education and Society. (1994). "Sexual
behavior in modern China." Chinese Education
and Society 27: 8-24.
The results of surveys in China that examined
the attitudes that subjects assume when one spouse wishes to
have sex and the other does not and the attitude toward women
who have been raped are discussed. Although the results indicate
that the total incidence of one partner forcing the other to
engage in sex amounts to about three percent, the actual figure
that this translates to is as many as several millions of couples.
The results also indicate that the methods used to effect forcible
sexual relations differ between the genders, due to the characteristics
of human sex physiology. When men force women to partake in
sex, they usually do so through violence, battery, and rape.
The survey figures indicate that about 11 percent of urban spouses
"cold-shoulder" or keep a distance from women who have been
raped, and it is proposed that this result is evidence of the
influence of the chastity concept, which still has an extremely
profound influence on modern Chinese social life. Reproduced
with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction
or distribution is prohibited without permission.
Chung, M. Y., T. W. Wong, et al. (1996). "Wife
battering in Hong Kong: Accident and emergency nurses' attitudes
and beliefs." Accident & Emergency Nursing
A questionnaire was sent to all nurses working
in Accident and Emergency departments in Hong Kong, to survey
their attitudes, beliefs and practice in the handling of wife
battering cases presenting to the Emergency department. Questions
about incidence, epidemiology, rationale for intervention and
effects on children of abused women were included. Traditional
cultural beliefs were found to be an important factor influencing
nurses' attitude in this issue. Nurses on the whole were not
well prepared to handle victims of domestic violence. The importance
of training and nurse protocol for the handling of these patients
Khan, M. E., I. Khan, et al. (1998). Men's
Attitude Towards Sexuality and their Sexual Behaviour: Observations
from Rural Gujarat. IUSSP Seminar on Men, Family Formation
and Reproduction, Buenos Aires, Population Council.
This paper describes the attitude and
sexual behavior of men in rural Gujarat. Based on a sample survey
of 460 men, 10 focus group discussions and 7 in-depth case studies,
the paper reveals that today a relatively larger proportion
of men are more relaxed about pre and extra-marital sex. Many
approved of sex outside wedlock, particularly for men. Still
more than half strongly disapprove such sexual practices and
perceive only marginal change as compared to earlier times.
This paper also shows that although changing sexual behavior
is approved of and tolerated, different standards are followed
for men and women. While a certain amount of flexibility is
accepted in the sexual behavior of men, the situation is quite
different for women. The maryada (prestige) of the family will
be endangered more by women's deviant behavior than men's.
Contrary to general belief, this paper
shows that more than one-fourth of the men interviewed have
experienced sex outside wedlock. Though most (two-thirds) encounters
take place before marriage, extramarital sex is not uncommon
(one-third of the total reporting sex outside wedlock). The
search for enjoyment and the desire for variation in sex are
considered the main reasons for such changes.
The study reveals that sexual relationships
outside wedlock are generally taking place within the community,
and sexual partners are friends, relatives or colleagues. Very
few men mentioned commercial sex workers. Most of the reported
sex was unsafe and very few used condoms. An attempt to identify
the factors determining the frequency of intercourse revealed
that, generally, higher frequency of sex is attributed to an
individually higher urge for sex. However, it is interesting
to note that less frequent sex was linked with the fear of perceived
loss of strength due to the wastage of semen, a drop of which
is considered to be of 50-90 drops of blood.
The study confirms the wide prevalence
of sexual violence and coercion within the family, and should
be viewed as a matter of serious concern. This paper shows that
men not only control all decisions related to reproduction and
contraceptive use but also insist on the maintenance of status
quo in the presence of power equations in the family and community
at large. Only strong advocacy and major social changes that
could empower women can alter this equation.
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Central & South America & the Caribbeans
Williams, L., G. Forster, et al. (1999). "Rape
attitudes amongst British medical students." Medical
Education 33(1): 24-7.
Objectives To examine the rape attitudes of
a sample of 252 British medical students. Design: A 20-item
questionnaire was used. Setting: A London medical school. Subjects:
Fourth-year medical students. Results: In general, students
were well informed on legal and factual issues regarding rape
and sexual assault. However, significant differences were found
in the attitudes to rape between males and females. Female students
were significantly more positive in their responses to victims.
Conclusions: These results support findings from previous studies
of rape attitudes in other professional groups. Better knowledge
and enlightened attitudes amongst health care staff can have
a significant impact on the management of sexual assault and
influence the likelihood of victims presenting for treatment.
In conclusion, this study emphasizes the importance of teaching
about sexual violence in British medical schools.
Frank, M. W., H. M. Bauer, et al. (1999). "Virginity
examinations in Turkey - Role of forensic physicians in controlling
female sexuality." Journal of the American
Medical Association 282(5): 485-490.
Context: Although the Turkish Medical Association
has deemed "virginity examinations" a form of gender-based violence,
women in Turkey are often subjected to such examinations by
forensic physicians for both legal and social reasons. Little
is known about these physicians' role and attitudes in this
practice. Objectives: To assess forensic physicians' experiences
and attitudes regarding virginity examinations in Turkey and
suggest potential solutions to the problems identified. Design:
Cross-sectional self-administered survey. Setting: Surveys were
completed during the Forensic Science Congress held in Kusadasi
in April 1998 as well as in urban academic and medical practice
settings between April and October 1998. Participants of 158
physicians who practice, are formally trained in, or are in
training for forensic medicine, 118 completed the survey (response
rate, 74.7%). Main Outcome Measures: Frequency and circumstances
of conducting virginity examinations, opinions regarding beneficial
and adverse consequences of these examinations, and recommendations
for changing the practice, as measured by a 100-item questionnaire.
Results: Overall, survey respondents reported conducting 5901
examinations in the previous 12 months; 4045 were conducted
because of alleged sexual assault and 1856 for social reasons,
Although 68% of forensic physicians indicated that they believed
virginity examinations are inappropriate in the absence of an
allegation of sexual assault, 45% had conducted examinations
for social reasons. The majority of the respondents (93%) agreed
that the examinations are psychologically traumatic for the
patient. In addition, more than half (58%) reported that at
least 50% of patients undergo examinations against their will.
Conclusions: Nearly half of forensic physicians in Turkey conduct
virginity examinations for social reasons despite beliefs that
such examinations are inappropriate, traumatic to the patient,
and often performed against the patient's will. Physicians'
participation in such practices is inconsistent with principles
of bioethics and international human rights.
Anonymous (1995). "Crimes of the tongue." Psychology
Today 28(2): 19-.
A team of UCLA researchers has discovered
that verb choice (active voice or passive voice) affects how
harshly people judge certain criminals. The ways in which verb
voice influences how the sexes view sex crime perpetrators are
discussed. Copyright Sussex Publishers, Inc. Mar. 1995
Anonymous (1999). "ACOG educational bulletin. Adolescent
victims of sexual assault. Number 252, October 1998. American
College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists." International
Journal of Gynaecology & Obstetrics 64(2): 195-9.
Acquaintance rape and date rape are widespread
problems among adolescents. Clinicians are faced with the challenging
responsibility of identifying victims and providing effective
interventional and preventive counseling. Recognizing the behavioral
signals exhibited by victims and understanding adolescents'
attitudes toward violence can help the health care provider
to screen patients for current or past assaults. All adolescents
need to be empowered with preventive strategies to avoid future
violence in their relationships. Obstetrician-gynecologists
must work with other health care and legal professionals to
develop approaches to help adolescents. The prevalence of adolescent
victimization warrants routine screening and effective counseling
strategies by all obstetrician-gynecologists. [References: 30]
Blumenthal, J. A. (1998). "The reasonable woman
standard: A meta-analytic review of gender differences in perceptions
of sexual harassment." Law & Human Behavior
Courts and legislatures have begun to develop
the "reasonable woman standard" (RWS) as a criterion for deciding
sexual harassment trials. This standard rests on assumptions
of a "wide divergence" between the perceptions of men and women
when viewing social-sexual behavior that may be considered harassing.
Narrative reviews of the literature on such perceptions have
suggested that these assumptions are only minimally supported.
To test these assumptions quantitatively, a meta-analytic review
was conducted that assessed the size, stability, and moderators
of gender differences in perceptions of sexual harassment. The
effect of the actor's status relative to the target also was
evaluated meta-analytically, as one alternative to the importance
of gender effects. Results supported the claims of narrative
reviews for a relatively small gender effect, and draw attention
to the status effect. In discussing legal implications of the
present findings, earlier claims are echoed suggesting caution
in establishing the reasonable woman standard, and one alternative
to the RWS, the "reasonable victim standard," is discussed.
Boxley, J., L. Lawrence, et al. (1995). "A preliminary-study
of 8th grade students attitudes toward rape myths and women's
roles." Journal of School Health
This preliminary study examined the relationship
between sex- role stereotypes of women and beliefs in rape myths
among adolescents. A 35-item survey was completed by 211 female
and males in eighth grade health classes. Findings indicate
both females and males accept some rape myths and sex-role stereotyping
of women. The data also indicated an association between belief
in rape myths and sex-role stereotyping of women. Few racial
and age differences emerged. The most profound differences involved
gender. Most adolescents rejected rape myths, but 10% of girls
mid 30% of boys tended to accept rape myths. Most females (98.2%)
and males (83.3%) rejected sex-role stereotypes of women. According
to feminist perspective, sex-role stereotyping of women's role
in society is associated with tolerance of sexual violence toward
Breitenbecher, K. H. (1999). "The association between
the perception of threat in a dating situation and sexual victimization."
Violence & Victims 14(2): 135-46.
The purpose of the present investigation was
to assess the relation between threat perception in a dating
situation and sexual victimization. During an initial session,
participants in the experimental condition (n = 116) viewed
a video that depicts a heterosexual couple interacting on a
date and reflects risk factors for sexual assault. Participants
in the control condition (n = 108) viewed a video that does
not contain such risk factors. Participants in each condition
also responded to survey instruments assessing demographic variables,
history of child sexual abuse, history of adolescent sexual
assault, and perception of threat cues in the stimulus videos.
A subset of participants (n = 66) returned for a 5-month follow-up
session and was assessed for experience of sexual assault during
the follow-up period. Results fail to support an association
between threat perception and sexual victimization history or
an association between threat perception and sexual victimization
during the follow-up period.
Campbell, R. (1995). "The role of work experience
and individual beliefs in police officers' perceptions of date
rape: An integration of quantitative and qualitative methods."
American Journal of Community Psychology
Surveyed police officers from two police
departments in the Midwest on their perceptions of date rape
(N = 91). The aim of this research was to examine the influence
of officers' work experiences and general beliefs about women
on their perceptions of date rape. Two approaches were utilized.
First, using quantitative structural-equation modeling, a model
that integrated work experiences and individual beliefs was
evaluated using LISREL VII. Results suggest a direct path from
the work experience variables to perceptions of date rape: Officers
with more experience with rape cases held more sympathetic beliefs
about date rape and date rape victims. Officers who found their
training on rape to be very helpful, and those who reported
that their work environment was sexualized and sexual harassment
was a problem, were also less victim blaming. An indirect influence
of these variables was also supported. Officers with more experience,
those who perceived their training as helpful, and those with
heightened awareness of sexual harassment in the workplace also
held more favorable attitudes toward women, which, in turn,
predicted less victim-blaming perceptions of date rape. Second,
qualitative methods were used to have the police define and
describe in their own words what has shaped their beliefs about
date rape. These narratives were content analyzed by two raters.
The qualitative results validated the quantitative findings
as the officers were most likely to mention professional experience
with rape cases and departmental training as important factors
that changed their opinions. Work climate and personal experiences
were also cited as influential. Implications for integrating
qualitative and quantitative methods in research, and training
interventions with police are discussed.
Caron, S. L. and D. B. Carter (1997). "The relationships
among sex role orientation, egalitarianism, attitudes toward sexuality,
and attitudes toward violence against women." Journal
of Social Psychology 137(5): 568-587.
Relationships among U.S. college students'
(N = 618) attitudes toward rape myths and their sex role orientation,
effective responses to sexuality, sex role egalitarianism, and
attitudes toward violence against women were investigated. Results
indicated that men were more tolerant of rape, more likely to
attribute blame for rape to the victim, and less negative in
their views of rapists than women were. In addition, for men,
but not for women, masculinity and femininity were predictive
of rape attitudes and attributions of blame to rape victims.
Positive attitudes toward sexuality were predictive of intolerance
of rape for the total sample and for men, but not for women,
and were predictive of perceptions of women as innocent victims
of rape for both the total sample and the sexes separately.
Attitudes toward pornography were unrelated to attitudes toward
rape. Acceptance of violence against women and a lack of sexual
egalitarianism were predictive of acceptance of rape myths.
Androgynous, masculine, and feminine individuals were less tolerant
of rape than undifferentiated persons were.
Dixon, T. L. and D. G. Linz (1997). "Obscenity
law and sexually explicit rap music: Understanding the effects
of sex, attitudes, and beliefs." Journal
of Applied Communication Research 25(3): 217-241.
This study investigated listeners' judgments
regarding the offensiveness of sexually explicit lyrics found
in rap music produced by 2 Live Crew Subjects were exposed to
music and lyrics in a 2 (subject sex-male, female) x 2 (musical
genre-2 Live Crew Rap, Non-Rap) x 3 (sexual explicitness-high,
medium, low)factorial design. They then made judgments of patent
offensiveness, prurient appeal and artistic merit regarding
2 Live Crew and rap music in general. The results indicated
that the 2 Live Crew music that was high in sexual explicitness
was rated as more patently offensive than other equally sexually
explicit materials. Surprisingly, women did not find the 2 Live
Crew more offensive than men. Rebellious sexual attitudes, the
belief that rap music causes societal degradation, and disaffection
toward society helped predict subject responses to all materials
on patent offensiveness and prurient appeal scales. Appreciation
of linguistic exaggeration, popularly known as ''playing the
dozens,'' and African American humor predicted whether subjects
would find artistic merit in rap. Listeners' endorsement of
rebellious sexual attitudes and the belief that rap contributes
to societal degradation also predicted responses to 2 Live Crew
on a combination of the three variables associated with obscenity
law (patent offensiveness, prurient appeal, and artistic merit).
Theoretical implications and legal applications of the findings
Ford, C. A. and F. J. Donis (1996). "The relationship
between age and gender in workers' attitudes toward sexual harassment."
Journal of Psychology 130(6): 627-33.
The relationship between gender, age, and
workers' attitudes toward sexual harassment as measured by the
Sexual Harassment Attitudes Scale was examined. Participants
were full-time workers employed at a local hardware-manufacturing
company or a local utility company in New England. Results indicated
that the women younger than 40 years old were significantly
less tolerant of sexual harassment than older women were. In
contrast, male workers' tolerance of sexual harassment decreased
with age up until the age of 50 years, after which their tolerance
level of sexual harassment increased significantly.
Gylys, J. A. and J. R. McNamara (1996). "Acceptance
of rape myths among prosecuting attorneys." Psychological
Reports 79(1): 15-8.
Surveys containing a measurement of acceptance
of rape myths were mailed to 310 prosecuting attorneys from
87 counties in Ohio. Among the 182 (58.7%) participants who
responded, self-reported acceptance of rape myths was low. Males
endorsed rape myths more strongly than females, but the sex
differences were small in magnitude. No demographic variables
were significant in predicting the acceptance of rape myths
in a regression analysis. The current findings are informative
because they provide the only direct measure of prosecutors'
attitudes towards rape victims that have been reported in the
past 15 years.
Hurt, L. E., R. L. Wiener, et al. (1999). "Gender
differences in evaluating social-sexual conduct in the workplace."
Behavioral Sciences & the Law 17(4):
Qualitative interviews exploring gender differences
in perceptions of sexual harassment were conducted with 100
full-time St. Louis area employees. Women more than men reported
that telling dirty/sexual jokes was a non-harassing behavior,
qualified behaviors as harassing when they happened in the workplace,
and considered behaviors as non-harassing when the man's intentions
were not harmful. Men more than women reported that requesting
a date was a non-harassing behavior, qualified behaviors as
harassing when the woman did not welcome the behavior, and considered
behaviors as non-harassing when they did not violate workplace
norms. Logistic regression analysis predicted the respondent
gender with 86% accuracy. Finally, concept mapping suggested
that when women think about harassers they are concerned with
power and social aptitude, while men seem to be more concerned
about the responsibility and psychological adjustment of perpetrators
of sexual harassment. When women think about victims of harassment
they are concerned with a woman's assertiveness and work effectiveness,
while men are more concerned with the psychological state of
the woman and how provocative she is when they think about victims
of sexual harassment. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Kershner, R. (1996). "Adolescent attitudes about
rape." Adolescence 31(121): 29-33.
A very significant problem in society is adolescent
rape victimization and the growing number of adolescent perpetrators.
This paper examines adolescent attitudes about rape in order
to develop curricular materials. It is found that adolescents
exhibit conservative attitudes about gender roles, general rape
myths, and victim issues.
Lanis, K. and K. Covell (1995). "Images of women
in advertisements - Effects on attitudes related to sexual aggression."
Sex Roles 32(9-10): 639-649.
While the power of advertisements has long
been known, investigations of sociocultural influences on sexual
attitudes have been limited primarily to studies of sexually
aggressive media. In this study we examined the effects on sexual
attitudes of different portrayals of women in advertisements.
Male and female white middle-class university students were
exposed to one of three groups of advertisements. In one condition
women were depicted as sex objects, in another in progressive
or role-reversed roles, and a third condition comprised product
oriented advertisements containing no human figures. Sexual
attitudes were assessed using four subscales of Burt's Sexual
Attitude Survey of 1980, a measure of attitudes believed to
be rape-supportive, and conducive to sexual aggression against
women. Before completing the survey, subjects rated a series
of advertisements on appeal and aesthetic dimensions. Whereas
the product oriented advertisements were rated as more appealing
than those featuring female figures, analyses showed that males
exposed to the sex-object advertisements significantly more
accepting of rape-supportive attitudes, and females exposed
to the progressive female images were less accepting of such
attitudes than were controls.
Lenihan, G. O. and M. E. Rawlins (1994). "Rape
supportive attitudes among Greek students before and after a date
rape prevention program." Journal of College
Student Development 35(6): 450-455.
This study assessed rape supportive attitudes
of sorority and fraternity members and evaluated a date rape
education program with comparison to a non-Greek group studied
earlier Greek students registered more desirable scores than
non-Greeks on an attitudes measure, but the education program
did not improve their scores.
Miller, C., H. L. Miller, et al. (1999). "Issues
in balancing teenage clients' confidentiality and reporting statutory
rape among Kansas Title X clinic staff." Public
Health Nursing 16(5): 329-36.
Through Federal welfare reform, Congress directed
states to aggressively enforce statutory rape laws. Family planning
professionals deal with many adolescent clients, and their support
for such enforcement or willingness to report is unclear. The
authors of this study examined current attitudes and practices
of family planning program managers (FPPMs) about statutory
rape law enforcement, including current reporting practices.
In 1997, all 77 local Kansas Title X FPPMs were surveyed. Structured
telephone interviews were conducted with 10 FPPMs to add detail
to quantitative responses. Sixty-eight FPPMs responded to the
written survey (88%). Of these, 79% supported aggressive enforcement,
and 43% thought enforcement would reduce adolescent pregnancy
rates. With increased enforcement, 38% believed teenagers would
be discouraged from seeking reproductive health care, compared
to 41% who believed they would not. Among key informants, all
of whom were FPPMs, willingness to report cases was mixed, with
those who would report wanting the flexibility to judge on a
case-by-case basis. For those not reporting cases, confidentiality
concerns overrode beliefs in any positive outcome of enforcement.
Kansas Title X FPPMs strongly supported aggressive enforcement,
but had mixed beliefs about negative consequences. Among those
interviewed, there were also mixed beliefs and practices about
reporting. Reporting from FPPMs will be sporadic and arbitrary
unless protocols are developed and laws are clarified.
Rodriguez, M. A., E. McLoughlin, et al. (1999).
"Mandatory reporting of intimate partner violence to police: Views
of physicians in California." American
Journal of Public Health 89(4): 575-8.
Objectives: This study examined physicians'
perspectives on mandatory reporting of intimate partner violence
to police. Methods: We surveyed a stratified random sample of
California physicians practicing emergency, family, and internal
medicine and obstetrics/gynecology. Results: An estimated 59%
of California primary care and emergency physicians (n = 508,
71% response rate) reported that they might not comply with
the reporting law if a patient objects. Primary care physicians
reported lower compliance. Most physicians agreed that the legislation
has potential risks, raises ethical concerns, and may provide
benefits. Conclusions: Physicians' stated noncompliance and
perceived negative consequences raise the possibility that California's
mandatory reporting law is problematic and ineffective.
Ryan, K. and Kanjorski. (1998). "The enjoyment
of sexist humor, rape attitudes, and relationship aggression in
college students." Sex Roles: A Journal
of Research 38(9-10): 743(14).
The current study tested Freud's (1905/1960)
theory that sexist humor may be associated with hostility toward
women and extended previous research showing a link between
hostile humor and aggression. College students (N=399 - approximately
92% white, 5% African American, and 3% other minorities) rated
10 sexist jokes on their perceived funniness. Results showed
that the enjoyment of sexist humor was positively correlated
with rape-related attitudes and beliefs, the self-reported likelihood
of forcing sex, and psychological, physical, and sexual aggression
in men. For women, the enjoyment of sexist humor was only positively
correlated with Adversarial Sexual Beliefs and Acceptance of
Interpersonal Violence. Women also found the jokes to be less
enjoyable, less acceptable, and more offensive than the omen,
but hey were not significantly less likely to tell the jokes.
Varelas, N. and L. A. Foley. (1998). "Blacks' and
whites' perceptions of interracial and intraracial date rape."
Journal of Social Psychology 138(3):
The prevalence of rape myths contributes to
victims' reluctance to report rapes. Black (n = 30) and White
(n = 96) U.S. college students responded to the Rape Myth Scale
(Burt, 1980) and read a scenario of an acquaintance rape; the
race of the perpetrator and victim (Black or White) were varied.
The respondents assessed the victim's and perpetrator's responsibility
and evaluated the incident. As hypothesized, the respondents
with strong beliefs in rape myths were more tolerant of the
rapist and less tolerant of the victim than were those with
weaker beliefs. There was limited support for the myth of the
Black rapist and White victim; however, the myth of the Black
rapist appeared particularly strong among the Black respondents.
The women responded more negatively to the rapist and more positively
to the victim than the men did. Such biases in attitudes toward
rape could keep women from reporting rapes and accused rapists
from receiving fair trials.
Weisz, M. G. and C. M. Earls. (1995). "The effects
of exposure to filmed sexual violence on attitudes toward rape."
Journal of Interpersonal Violence
This research investigated the effects of
sexual violence presented in feature-length films. One hundred
ninety-three university students (87 males and 106 females)
were randomly assigned to view one of four films: (a) sexual
aggression against a male (Deliverance); (b) sexual aggression
against a female (Straw Dogs); (c) physical aggression (Die
Hard 2); or (d) a neutral film containing no explicit scenes
of physical or sexual aggression (Days of Thunder). After viewing
the film, all subjects were asked to complete a 252-item questionnaire
consisting of one of four randomly ordered presentations of
the following measures: the Acceptance of Interpersonal Violence
Scale, the Rape Myth Acceptance Scale, the Attraction to Sexual
Aggression Scale, the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory, the Marlowe-Crowne
Social Desirability Scale, the Mehrabian-Epstein Empathy Scale,
and a movie rating questionnaire. Participants then viewed a
reenactment of a rape trial and completed a 23- item rape trial
questionnaire. Results showed large and consistent differences
between males and females; that is, males were more accepting
of interpersonal violence and rape myths, more attracted to
sexual aggression, less sympathetic toward the rape trial victim,
and less likely to judge the defendant as guilty of rape. Of
particular interest was the finding that males were equally
affected by a film depicting sexual violence regardless of victim
gender. On the other hand, females were not affected by film
Yick, A. G. and P. Agbayanisiewert. (1997). "Perceptions
of domestic violence in a Chinese American community." Journal
of Interpersonal Violence 12(6): 832-846.
Thirty-one Chinese adults (16 men and 15
women) were randomly selected using a 1995 telephone directory
for the San Gabriel Valley in Los Angeles County. A telephone
questionnaire on perceptions of domestic violence was administered.
Respondents defined domestic violence as physical or sexual
acts of aggression between spouses as opposed to psychological
aggression. Chinese men and women did not agree that the use
of violence in the home or that hitting is an effective problem-
solving strategy. However, they tended to justify it in cases
of self-defence and defense of a child. Domestic violence was
attributed to individual and environmental factors. Minimal
gender differences were found; however, age and length of residence
in the United States were significantly related to various perceptions
of domestic violence. The cultural context of domestic violence
and implications for social work interventions and research
Thompson, R. (1998). Survey
Report Attitudes of Young Territorians Towards Domestic Violence
and Sexual Assault. Darwin, Office of Women's Policy Department
of the Chief Minister: 1-21.
This Occasional Paper, produced in association
with the Northern Territory Government Domestic Violence Strategy,
discusses the organization's efforts to strengthen local research
on the knowledge and attitudes of youth on sexual and domestic
violence. A seven-question survey was distributed to a random
sample of urban kids in the Northern Territory through schools
and a conference. The key findings included the following statistics:
98% of all respondents thought that domestic violence is a crime,
and 96% agreed that fighting between adults can affect children.
90% disagreed that girls who are raped asked for it. 89% agreed
that alcohol consumption is not a viable excuse for domestic
violence. 49% knew someone who had been a victim of domestic
violence. The detailed results of the study and several charts
are included. The study shows that the Domestic Violence Community
Education Program has effectively raised awareness of sexual
and domestic violence. However, many respondents were uncertain
about emotional, psychological, economic and social abuse. A
copy of the actual survey is included. [Abstract: M.Singer,
International, multi-region focus & non-specific
McKeel, J. A. and M. J. Sprakowski. (1993). "How
shelter counselor's views about responsibility for wife abuse
relate to services they provide to battered women." Journal
of Family Violence 8(2): 101-112.
St Lawrence, J. S. and D. J. Joyner. (1991). "The
effects of sexually violent rock music on males' acceptance of
violence against women." Psychology of
Women Quarterly 15(1): 49-.
An investigation of the effects of sexually
violent music on undergraduate males' attitudes toward women,
acceptance of violence against women and self-reported sexual
arousal is presented. Results indicate that exposure to heavy
metal rock music, irrespective of lyric content, increased males;
sex-role stereotyping and negative attitudes toward women.
Williams, J. E. (1984). "Secondary victimization:
Confronting public attitudes about rape." Victimology
Resources for research and training on sexual
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