No references



Chinese Education and Society. (1994). "Sexual behavior in modern China." Chinese Education and Society 27: 8-24.

The results of surveys in China that examined the attitudes that subjects assume when one spouse wishes to have sex and the other does not and the attitude toward women who have been raped are discussed. Although the results indicate that the total incidence of one partner forcing the other to engage in sex amounts to about three percent, the actual figure that this translates to is as many as several millions of couples. The results also indicate that the methods used to effect forcible sexual relations differ between the genders, due to the characteristics of human sex physiology. When men force women to partake in sex, they usually do so through violence, battery, and rape. The survey figures indicate that about 11 percent of urban spouses "cold-shoulder" or keep a distance from women who have been raped, and it is proposed that this result is evidence of the influence of the chastity concept, which still has an extremely profound influence on modern Chinese social life. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction or distribution is prohibited without permission.

Chung, M. Y., T. W. Wong, et al. (1996). "Wife battering in Hong Kong: Accident and emergency nurses' attitudes and beliefs." Accident & Emergency Nursing 4(3): 152-5.

A questionnaire was sent to all nurses working in Accident and Emergency departments in Hong Kong, to survey their attitudes, beliefs and practice in the handling of wife battering cases presenting to the Emergency department. Questions about incidence, epidemiology, rationale for intervention and effects on children of abused women were included. Traditional cultural beliefs were found to be an important factor influencing nurses' attitude in this issue. Nurses on the whole were not well prepared to handle victims of domestic violence. The importance of training and nurse protocol for the handling of these patients was discussed.

Khan, M. E., I. Khan, et al. (1998). Men's Attitude Towards Sexuality and their Sexual Behaviour: Observations from Rural Gujarat. IUSSP Seminar on Men, Family Formation and Reproduction, Buenos Aires, Population Council.

This paper describes the attitude and sexual behavior of men in rural Gujarat. Based on a sample survey of 460 men, 10 focus group discussions and 7 in-depth case studies, the paper reveals that today a relatively larger proportion of men are more relaxed about pre and extra-marital sex. Many approved of sex outside wedlock, particularly for men. Still more than half strongly disapprove such sexual practices and perceive only marginal change as compared to earlier times. This paper also shows that although changing sexual behavior is approved of and tolerated, different standards are followed for men and women. While a certain amount of flexibility is accepted in the sexual behavior of men, the situation is quite different for women. The maryada (prestige) of the family will be endangered more by women's deviant behavior than men's.

Contrary to general belief, this paper shows that more than one-fourth of the men interviewed have experienced sex outside wedlock. Though most (two-thirds) encounters take place before marriage, extramarital sex is not uncommon (one-third of the total reporting sex outside wedlock). The search for enjoyment and the desire for variation in sex are considered the main reasons for such changes.

The study reveals that sexual relationships outside wedlock are generally taking place within the community, and sexual partners are friends, relatives or colleagues. Very few men mentioned commercial sex workers. Most of the reported sex was unsafe and very few used condoms. An attempt to identify the factors determining the frequency of intercourse revealed that, generally, higher frequency of sex is attributed to an individually higher urge for sex. However, it is interesting to note that less frequent sex was linked with the fear of perceived loss of strength due to the wastage of semen, a drop of which is considered to be of 50-90 drops of blood.

The study confirms the wide prevalence of sexual violence and coercion within the family, and should be viewed as a matter of serious concern. This paper shows that men not only control all decisions related to reproduction and contraceptive use but also insist on the maintenance of status quo in the presence of power equations in the family and community at large. Only strong advocacy and major social changes that could empower women can alter this equation.

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Central & South America & the Caribbeans

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Williams, L., G. Forster, et al. (1999). "Rape attitudes amongst British medical students." Medical Education 33(1): 24-7.

Objectives To examine the rape attitudes of a sample of 252 British medical students. Design: A 20-item questionnaire was used. Setting: A London medical school. Subjects: Fourth-year medical students. Results: In general, students were well informed on legal and factual issues regarding rape and sexual assault. However, significant differences were found in the attitudes to rape between males and females. Female students were significantly more positive in their responses to victims. Conclusions: These results support findings from previous studies of rape attitudes in other professional groups. Better knowledge and enlightened attitudes amongst health care staff can have a significant impact on the management of sexual assault and influence the likelihood of victims presenting for treatment. In conclusion, this study emphasizes the importance of teaching about sexual violence in British medical schools.


Middle East

Frank, M. W., H. M. Bauer, et al. (1999). "Virginity examinations in Turkey - Role of forensic physicians in controlling female sexuality." Journal of the American Medical Association 282(5): 485-490.

Context: Although the Turkish Medical Association has deemed "virginity examinations" a form of gender-based violence, women in Turkey are often subjected to such examinations by forensic physicians for both legal and social reasons. Little is known about these physicians' role and attitudes in this practice. Objectives: To assess forensic physicians' experiences and attitudes regarding virginity examinations in Turkey and suggest potential solutions to the problems identified. Design: Cross-sectional self-administered survey. Setting: Surveys were completed during the Forensic Science Congress held in Kusadasi in April 1998 as well as in urban academic and medical practice settings between April and October 1998. Participants of 158 physicians who practice, are formally trained in, or are in training for forensic medicine, 118 completed the survey (response rate, 74.7%). Main Outcome Measures: Frequency and circumstances of conducting virginity examinations, opinions regarding beneficial and adverse consequences of these examinations, and recommendations for changing the practice, as measured by a 100-item questionnaire. Results: Overall, survey respondents reported conducting 5901 examinations in the previous 12 months; 4045 were conducted because of alleged sexual assault and 1856 for social reasons, Although 68% of forensic physicians indicated that they believed virginity examinations are inappropriate in the absence of an allegation of sexual assault, 45% had conducted examinations for social reasons. The majority of the respondents (93%) agreed that the examinations are psychologically traumatic for the patient. In addition, more than half (58%) reported that at least 50% of patients undergo examinations against their will. Conclusions: Nearly half of forensic physicians in Turkey conduct virginity examinations for social reasons despite beliefs that such examinations are inappropriate, traumatic to the patient, and often performed against the patient's will. Physicians' participation in such practices is inconsistent with principles of bioethics and international human rights.


North America

Anonymous (1995). "Crimes of the tongue." Psychology Today 28(2): 19-.

A team of UCLA researchers has discovered that verb choice (active voice or passive voice) affects how harshly people judge certain criminals. The ways in which verb voice influences how the sexes view sex crime perpetrators are discussed. Copyright Sussex Publishers, Inc. Mar. 1995

Anonymous (1999). "ACOG educational bulletin. Adolescent victims of sexual assault. Number 252, October 1998. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists." International Journal of Gynaecology & Obstetrics 64(2): 195-9.

Acquaintance rape and date rape are widespread problems among adolescents. Clinicians are faced with the challenging responsibility of identifying victims and providing effective interventional and preventive counseling. Recognizing the behavioral signals exhibited by victims and understanding adolescents' attitudes toward violence can help the health care provider to screen patients for current or past assaults. All adolescents need to be empowered with preventive strategies to avoid future violence in their relationships. Obstetrician-gynecologists must work with other health care and legal professionals to develop approaches to help adolescents. The prevalence of adolescent victimization warrants routine screening and effective counseling strategies by all obstetrician-gynecologists. [References: 30]

Blumenthal, J. A. (1998). "The reasonable woman standard: A meta-analytic review of gender differences in perceptions of sexual harassment." Law & Human Behavior 22(1): 33-57.

Courts and legislatures have begun to develop the "reasonable woman standard" (RWS) as a criterion for deciding sexual harassment trials. This standard rests on assumptions of a "wide divergence" between the perceptions of men and women when viewing social-sexual behavior that may be considered harassing. Narrative reviews of the literature on such perceptions have suggested that these assumptions are only minimally supported. To test these assumptions quantitatively, a meta-analytic review was conducted that assessed the size, stability, and moderators of gender differences in perceptions of sexual harassment. The effect of the actor's status relative to the target also was evaluated meta-analytically, as one alternative to the importance of gender effects. Results supported the claims of narrative reviews for a relatively small gender effect, and draw attention to the status effect. In discussing legal implications of the present findings, earlier claims are echoed suggesting caution in establishing the reasonable woman standard, and one alternative to the RWS, the "reasonable victim standard," is discussed.

Boxley, J., L. Lawrence, et al. (1995). "A preliminary-study of 8th grade students attitudes toward rape myths and women's roles." Journal of School Health 65(3): 96-100.

This preliminary study examined the relationship between sex- role stereotypes of women and beliefs in rape myths among adolescents. A 35-item survey was completed by 211 female and males in eighth grade health classes. Findings indicate both females and males accept some rape myths and sex-role stereotyping of women. The data also indicated an association between belief in rape myths and sex-role stereotyping of women. Few racial and age differences emerged. The most profound differences involved gender. Most adolescents rejected rape myths, but 10% of girls mid 30% of boys tended to accept rape myths. Most females (98.2%) and males (83.3%) rejected sex-role stereotypes of women. According to feminist perspective, sex-role stereotyping of women's role in society is associated with tolerance of sexual violence toward women.

Breitenbecher, K. H. (1999). "The association between the perception of threat in a dating situation and sexual victimization." Violence & Victims 14(2): 135-46.

The purpose of the present investigation was to assess the relation between threat perception in a dating situation and sexual victimization. During an initial session, participants in the experimental condition (n = 116) viewed a video that depicts a heterosexual couple interacting on a date and reflects risk factors for sexual assault. Participants in the control condition (n = 108) viewed a video that does not contain such risk factors. Participants in each condition also responded to survey instruments assessing demographic variables, history of child sexual abuse, history of adolescent sexual assault, and perception of threat cues in the stimulus videos. A subset of participants (n = 66) returned for a 5-month follow-up session and was assessed for experience of sexual assault during the follow-up period. Results fail to support an association between threat perception and sexual victimization history or an association between threat perception and sexual victimization during the follow-up period.

Campbell, R. (1995). "The role of work experience and individual beliefs in police officers' perceptions of date rape: An integration of quantitative and qualitative methods." American Journal of Community Psychology 23(2): 249-77.

Surveyed police officers from two police departments in the Midwest on their perceptions of date rape (N = 91). The aim of this research was to examine the influence of officers' work experiences and general beliefs about women on their perceptions of date rape. Two approaches were utilized. First, using quantitative structural-equation modeling, a model that integrated work experiences and individual beliefs was evaluated using LISREL VII. Results suggest a direct path from the work experience variables to perceptions of date rape: Officers with more experience with rape cases held more sympathetic beliefs about date rape and date rape victims. Officers who found their training on rape to be very helpful, and those who reported that their work environment was sexualized and sexual harassment was a problem, were also less victim blaming. An indirect influence of these variables was also supported. Officers with more experience, those who perceived their training as helpful, and those with heightened awareness of sexual harassment in the workplace also held more favorable attitudes toward women, which, in turn, predicted less victim-blaming perceptions of date rape. Second, qualitative methods were used to have the police define and describe in their own words what has shaped their beliefs about date rape. These narratives were content analyzed by two raters. The qualitative results validated the quantitative findings as the officers were most likely to mention professional experience with rape cases and departmental training as important factors that changed their opinions. Work climate and personal experiences were also cited as influential. Implications for integrating qualitative and quantitative methods in research, and training interventions with police are discussed.

Caron, S. L. and D. B. Carter (1997). "The relationships among sex role orientation, egalitarianism, attitudes toward sexuality, and attitudes toward violence against women." Journal of Social Psychology 137(5): 568-587.

Relationships among U.S. college students' (N = 618) attitudes toward rape myths and their sex role orientation, effective responses to sexuality, sex role egalitarianism, and attitudes toward violence against women were investigated. Results indicated that men were more tolerant of rape, more likely to attribute blame for rape to the victim, and less negative in their views of rapists than women were. In addition, for men, but not for women, masculinity and femininity were predictive of rape attitudes and attributions of blame to rape victims. Positive attitudes toward sexuality were predictive of intolerance of rape for the total sample and for men, but not for women, and were predictive of perceptions of women as innocent victims of rape for both the total sample and the sexes separately. Attitudes toward pornography were unrelated to attitudes toward rape. Acceptance of violence against women and a lack of sexual egalitarianism were predictive of acceptance of rape myths. Androgynous, masculine, and feminine individuals were less tolerant of rape than undifferentiated persons were.

Dixon, T. L. and D. G. Linz (1997). "Obscenity law and sexually explicit rap music: Understanding the effects of sex, attitudes, and beliefs." Journal of Applied Communication Research 25(3): 217-241.

This study investigated listeners' judgments regarding the offensiveness of sexually explicit lyrics found in rap music produced by 2 Live Crew Subjects were exposed to music and lyrics in a 2 (subject sex-male, female) x 2 (musical genre-2 Live Crew Rap, Non-Rap) x 3 (sexual explicitness-high, medium, low)factorial design. They then made judgments of patent offensiveness, prurient appeal and artistic merit regarding 2 Live Crew and rap music in general. The results indicated that the 2 Live Crew music that was high in sexual explicitness was rated as more patently offensive than other equally sexually explicit materials. Surprisingly, women did not find the 2 Live Crew more offensive than men. Rebellious sexual attitudes, the belief that rap music causes societal degradation, and disaffection toward society helped predict subject responses to all materials on patent offensiveness and prurient appeal scales. Appreciation of linguistic exaggeration, popularly known as ''playing the dozens,'' and African American humor predicted whether subjects would find artistic merit in rap. Listeners' endorsement of rebellious sexual attitudes and the belief that rap contributes to societal degradation also predicted responses to 2 Live Crew on a combination of the three variables associated with obscenity law (patent offensiveness, prurient appeal, and artistic merit). Theoretical implications and legal applications of the findings are discussed.

Ford, C. A. and F. J. Donis (1996). "The relationship between age and gender in workers' attitudes toward sexual harassment." Journal of Psychology 130(6): 627-33.

The relationship between gender, age, and workers' attitudes toward sexual harassment as measured by the Sexual Harassment Attitudes Scale was examined. Participants were full-time workers employed at a local hardware-manufacturing company or a local utility company in New England. Results indicated that the women younger than 40 years old were significantly less tolerant of sexual harassment than older women were. In contrast, male workers' tolerance of sexual harassment decreased with age up until the age of 50 years, after which their tolerance level of sexual harassment increased significantly.

Gylys, J. A. and J. R. McNamara (1996). "Acceptance of rape myths among prosecuting attorneys." Psychological Reports 79(1): 15-8.

Surveys containing a measurement of acceptance of rape myths were mailed to 310 prosecuting attorneys from 87 counties in Ohio. Among the 182 (58.7%) participants who responded, self-reported acceptance of rape myths was low. Males endorsed rape myths more strongly than females, but the sex differences were small in magnitude. No demographic variables were significant in predicting the acceptance of rape myths in a regression analysis. The current findings are informative because they provide the only direct measure of prosecutors' attitudes towards rape victims that have been reported in the past 15 years.

Hurt, L. E., R. L. Wiener, et al. (1999). "Gender differences in evaluating social-sexual conduct in the workplace." Behavioral Sciences & the Law 17(4): 413-33.

Qualitative interviews exploring gender differences in perceptions of sexual harassment were conducted with 100 full-time St. Louis area employees. Women more than men reported that telling dirty/sexual jokes was a non-harassing behavior, qualified behaviors as harassing when they happened in the workplace, and considered behaviors as non-harassing when the man's intentions were not harmful. Men more than women reported that requesting a date was a non-harassing behavior, qualified behaviors as harassing when the woman did not welcome the behavior, and considered behaviors as non-harassing when they did not violate workplace norms. Logistic regression analysis predicted the respondent gender with 86% accuracy. Finally, concept mapping suggested that when women think about harassers they are concerned with power and social aptitude, while men seem to be more concerned about the responsibility and psychological adjustment of perpetrators of sexual harassment. When women think about victims of harassment they are concerned with a woman's assertiveness and work effectiveness, while men are more concerned with the psychological state of the woman and how provocative she is when they think about victims of sexual harassment. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Kershner, R. (1996). "Adolescent attitudes about rape." Adolescence 31(121): 29-33.

A very significant problem in society is adolescent rape victimization and the growing number of adolescent perpetrators. This paper examines adolescent attitudes about rape in order to develop curricular materials. It is found that adolescents exhibit conservative attitudes about gender roles, general rape myths, and victim issues.

Lanis, K. and K. Covell (1995). "Images of women in advertisements - Effects on attitudes related to sexual aggression." Sex Roles 32(9-10): 639-649.

While the power of advertisements has long been known, investigations of sociocultural influences on sexual attitudes have been limited primarily to studies of sexually aggressive media. In this study we examined the effects on sexual attitudes of different portrayals of women in advertisements. Male and female white middle-class university students were exposed to one of three groups of advertisements. In one condition women were depicted as sex objects, in another in progressive or role-reversed roles, and a third condition comprised product oriented advertisements containing no human figures. Sexual attitudes were assessed using four subscales of Burt's Sexual Attitude Survey of 1980, a measure of attitudes believed to be rape-supportive, and conducive to sexual aggression against women. Before completing the survey, subjects rated a series of advertisements on appeal and aesthetic dimensions. Whereas the product oriented advertisements were rated as more appealing than those featuring female figures, analyses showed that males exposed to the sex-object advertisements significantly more accepting of rape-supportive attitudes, and females exposed to the progressive female images were less accepting of such attitudes than were controls.

Lenihan, G. O. and M. E. Rawlins (1994). "Rape supportive attitudes among Greek students before and after a date rape prevention program." Journal of College Student Development 35(6): 450-455.

This study assessed rape supportive attitudes of sorority and fraternity members and evaluated a date rape education program with comparison to a non-Greek group studied earlier Greek students registered more desirable scores than non-Greeks on an attitudes measure, but the education program did not improve their scores.

Miller, C., H. L. Miller, et al. (1999). "Issues in balancing teenage clients' confidentiality and reporting statutory rape among Kansas Title X clinic staff." Public Health Nursing 16(5): 329-36.

Through Federal welfare reform, Congress directed states to aggressively enforce statutory rape laws. Family planning professionals deal with many adolescent clients, and their support for such enforcement or willingness to report is unclear. The authors of this study examined current attitudes and practices of family planning program managers (FPPMs) about statutory rape law enforcement, including current reporting practices. In 1997, all 77 local Kansas Title X FPPMs were surveyed. Structured telephone interviews were conducted with 10 FPPMs to add detail to quantitative responses. Sixty-eight FPPMs responded to the written survey (88%). Of these, 79% supported aggressive enforcement, and 43% thought enforcement would reduce adolescent pregnancy rates. With increased enforcement, 38% believed teenagers would be discouraged from seeking reproductive health care, compared to 41% who believed they would not. Among key informants, all of whom were FPPMs, willingness to report cases was mixed, with those who would report wanting the flexibility to judge on a case-by-case basis. For those not reporting cases, confidentiality concerns overrode beliefs in any positive outcome of enforcement. Kansas Title X FPPMs strongly supported aggressive enforcement, but had mixed beliefs about negative consequences. Among those interviewed, there were also mixed beliefs and practices about reporting. Reporting from FPPMs will be sporadic and arbitrary unless protocols are developed and laws are clarified.

Rodriguez, M. A., E. McLoughlin, et al. (1999). "Mandatory reporting of intimate partner violence to police: Views of physicians in California." American Journal of Public Health 89(4): 575-8.

Objectives: This study examined physicians' perspectives on mandatory reporting of intimate partner violence to police. Methods: We surveyed a stratified random sample of California physicians practicing emergency, family, and internal medicine and obstetrics/gynecology. Results: An estimated 59% of California primary care and emergency physicians (n = 508, 71% response rate) reported that they might not comply with the reporting law if a patient objects. Primary care physicians reported lower compliance. Most physicians agreed that the legislation has potential risks, raises ethical concerns, and may provide benefits. Conclusions: Physicians' stated noncompliance and perceived negative consequences raise the possibility that California's mandatory reporting law is problematic and ineffective.

Ryan, K. and Kanjorski. (1998). "The enjoyment of sexist humor, rape attitudes, and relationship aggression in college students." Sex Roles: A Journal of Research 38(9-10): 743(14).

The current study tested Freud's (1905/1960) theory that sexist humor may be associated with hostility toward women and extended previous research showing a link between hostile humor and aggression. College students (N=399 - approximately 92% white, 5% African American, and 3% other minorities) rated 10 sexist jokes on their perceived funniness. Results showed that the enjoyment of sexist humor was positively correlated with rape-related attitudes and beliefs, the self-reported likelihood of forcing sex, and psychological, physical, and sexual aggression in men. For women, the enjoyment of sexist humor was only positively correlated with Adversarial Sexual Beliefs and Acceptance of Interpersonal Violence. Women also found the jokes to be less enjoyable, less acceptable, and more offensive than the omen, but hey were not significantly less likely to tell the jokes.

Varelas, N. and L. A. Foley. (1998). "Blacks' and whites' perceptions of interracial and intraracial date rape." Journal of Social Psychology 138(3): 392-400.

The prevalence of rape myths contributes to victims' reluctance to report rapes. Black (n = 30) and White (n = 96) U.S. college students responded to the Rape Myth Scale (Burt, 1980) and read a scenario of an acquaintance rape; the race of the perpetrator and victim (Black or White) were varied. The respondents assessed the victim's and perpetrator's responsibility and evaluated the incident. As hypothesized, the respondents with strong beliefs in rape myths were more tolerant of the rapist and less tolerant of the victim than were those with weaker beliefs. There was limited support for the myth of the Black rapist and White victim; however, the myth of the Black rapist appeared particularly strong among the Black respondents. The women responded more negatively to the rapist and more positively to the victim than the men did. Such biases in attitudes toward rape could keep women from reporting rapes and accused rapists from receiving fair trials.

Weisz, M. G. and C. M. Earls. (1995). "The effects of exposure to filmed sexual violence on attitudes toward rape." Journal of Interpersonal Violence 10(1): 71-84.

This research investigated the effects of sexual violence presented in feature-length films. One hundred ninety-three university students (87 males and 106 females) were randomly assigned to view one of four films: (a) sexual aggression against a male (Deliverance); (b) sexual aggression against a female (Straw Dogs); (c) physical aggression (Die Hard 2); or (d) a neutral film containing no explicit scenes of physical or sexual aggression (Days of Thunder). After viewing the film, all subjects were asked to complete a 252-item questionnaire consisting of one of four randomly ordered presentations of the following measures: the Acceptance of Interpersonal Violence Scale, the Rape Myth Acceptance Scale, the Attraction to Sexual Aggression Scale, the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory, the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale, the Mehrabian-Epstein Empathy Scale, and a movie rating questionnaire. Participants then viewed a reenactment of a rape trial and completed a 23- item rape trial questionnaire. Results showed large and consistent differences between males and females; that is, males were more accepting of interpersonal violence and rape myths, more attracted to sexual aggression, less sympathetic toward the rape trial victim, and less likely to judge the defendant as guilty of rape. Of particular interest was the finding that males were equally affected by a film depicting sexual violence regardless of victim gender. On the other hand, females were not affected by film type.

Yick, A. G. and P. Agbayanisiewert. (1997). "Perceptions of domestic violence in a Chinese American community." Journal of Interpersonal Violence 12(6): 832-846.

Thirty-one Chinese adults (16 men and 15 women) were randomly selected using a 1995 telephone directory for the San Gabriel Valley in Los Angeles County. A telephone questionnaire on perceptions of domestic violence was administered. Respondents defined domestic violence as physical or sexual acts of aggression between spouses as opposed to psychological aggression. Chinese men and women did not agree that the use of violence in the home or that hitting is an effective problem- solving strategy. However, they tended to justify it in cases of self-defence and defense of a child. Domestic violence was attributed to individual and environmental factors. Minimal gender differences were found; however, age and length of residence in the United States were significantly related to various perceptions of domestic violence. The cultural context of domestic violence and implications for social work interventions and research are discussed.



Thompson, R. (1998). Survey Report Attitudes of Young Territorians Towards Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault. Darwin, Office of Women's Policy Department of the Chief Minister: 1-21.

This Occasional Paper, produced in association with the Northern Territory Government Domestic Violence Strategy, discusses the organization's efforts to strengthen local research on the knowledge and attitudes of youth on sexual and domestic violence. A seven-question survey was distributed to a random sample of urban kids in the Northern Territory through schools and a conference. The key findings included the following statistics: 98% of all respondents thought that domestic violence is a crime, and 96% agreed that fighting between adults can affect children. 90% disagreed that girls who are raped asked for it. 89% agreed that alcohol consumption is not a viable excuse for domestic violence. 49% knew someone who had been a victim of domestic violence. The detailed results of the study and several charts are included. The study shows that the Domestic Violence Community Education Program has effectively raised awareness of sexual and domestic violence. However, many respondents were uncertain about emotional, psychological, economic and social abuse. A copy of the actual survey is included. [Abstract: M.Singer, 2000]


International, multi-region focus & non-specific geography

McKeel, J. A. and M. J. Sprakowski. (1993). "How shelter counselor's views about responsibility for wife abuse relate to services they provide to battered women." Journal of Family Violence 8(2): 101-112.

St Lawrence, J. S. and D. J. Joyner. (1991). "The effects of sexually violent rock music on males' acceptance of violence against women." Psychology of Women Quarterly 15(1): 49-.

An investigation of the effects of sexually violent music on undergraduate males' attitudes toward women, acceptance of violence against women and self-reported sexual arousal is presented. Results indicate that exposure to heavy metal rock music, irrespective of lyric content, increased males; sex-role stereotyping and negative attitudes toward women.

Williams, J. E. (1984). "Secondary victimization: Confronting public attitudes about rape." Victimology 9: 66-81.


Resources for research and training on sexual violence

No references


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