Studies on Gay & Lesbian Language: A Partial Bibliography

Copyright © Gregory Ward, 2005

Compiled by:

Gregory Ward
Department of Linguistics
Northwestern University

Thanks to all who contributed to this bibliography-in-progress. The bracketed comments are those of the contributors. Please send corrections or additions to: Gregory Ward.

 

Abrams, Brett.  1999.  Gender Hijinks and Ribald Humor: Female Impersonators and the Hollywood Nightlife, 1917-1940.  Paper presented at the Seventh Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Abrams, Brett. 1998. The Effusive Lover and the Construction of Heterosexuality. Paper presented at the Sixth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Ambrecht, Tom.  2002.  Redeeming Himself on Paper: Julien Green's Psychosomatic Pen.  Paper presented at the Ninth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, February.

Amory, Deb.  1999.  Kuchu Culture: Language and Local/Global Gay Identity in Nairobi, Kenya.  Paper presented at the Seventh Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Amory, Deb. 1998. The Violence of the Post-Colonial Closet. Paper presented at the Sixth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Anderson, Shea M. 2004. Speech of Desire: Online Cruising as a New Site for Gay Sex. Paper presented at the Eleventh Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, February.

Armbrecht, Thomas J.D.  2000.  Saturday Night Semiotics:  Hanky-Codes and Non-Verbal Communication among Gay Men.  Paper presented at the Eighth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Armstrong, James D. 1997. Homophobic Slang as Coercive Discourse among College Students. In Anna Livia and Kira Hall (eds.), Queerly Phrased: Language, Gender, and Sexuality. New York: Oxford University Press. Pp. 325-334.

Armstrong, Nancy.  2003.  Reifying the Closet: The Development of Coded Language in the Research Process.  Paper presented at the Tenth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Ashley, Leonard R.N. 1979. Kinks and Queens: Linguistic and Cultural Aspects of the Terminology for Gays. Maledicta III:215-256.

Ashley, Leonard R.N. 1980. Lovely, Blooming, Fresh, and Gay: The Onomastics of Camp. Maledicta 4.2:223-248.

Ashley, Leonard R.N. 1982. Dyke Diction: The Language of Lesbians. Maledicta VI:123-162. Also in W. Dynes and S. Donaldsen (eds.), Studies in Homosexuality. 1994. Hamden, CT: Garland.

Ashley. Leonard R.N. 1987. Sexual Slang: Prostitutes, Pedophiles, Flagellators, Transvestites, and Necrophiles. Maledicta. 9:143-198.

Atkins, Dawn and Catherine Marston. 1997. Passing or Passed By: Disabilities and Queer Community. Paper presented at the Fifth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Atkins, Dawn. 1996. Communicating Queer: Bisexuals Sharing Coming Out Stories. Paper presented at the Fourth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Atkins, Dawn. 1997. Languages of Desire: Sexual Practices and Identity. Paper presented at the Fifth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Atkins, Dawn. 1998. Transgender Identities, Transnational Processes: Language of Identity in San Francisco and Amsterdam. Paper presented at the Sixth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Avery, Jack D. and Julie M. Liss. 1996. Acoustic Characteristics of Less-Masculine-Sounding Male Speech. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 99.6:3738-3748.

Ayers, Nachamkin Beverly. 1992. Diffusing Linguistic Dichotomies. Womens' Studies Quarterly 20:111-116.

Bacon, Jen. 1997. Refusing to Get the Story Straight: Queer Narratives and the Possibility of a Cultural Rhetoric. Paper presented at the Fifth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Bagemihl, Bruce. 1997. Surrogate Phonology and Transsexual Faggotry: A Linguistic Analogy for Uncoupling Sexual Orientation from Gender Identity. In Anna Livia and Kira Hall (eds.), Queerly Phrased: Language, Gender, and Sexuality. New York: Oxford University Press. Pp. 380-401.

Baker, Paul.  2000.  Constructing Polari-Speaking Gay Identities: The Triangulation Approach.  Paper presented at the Eighth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Baker, Paul. 2001. Moral Panic and Alternative Identity Construction in Usenet. Journal of Computer Mediated Communication 17:1.

Baker, Paul. 2002. Fantabulosa: A Dictionary of Polari and Gay Slang. London: Continuum.

Baker, Paul. 2002. Polari: The Lost Language of Gay Men. London: Routledge.

Baker, Paul. 2002. Construction of Gay Identity via Polari in the Julian and Sandy Radio Sketches. Lesbian and Gay Review, 3:3:75-84.

Baker, Paul. 2002. No Fats, Femmes or Flamers: Changing Constructions of Identity and the Object of Desire in Gay Men's Magazines. In B. Benwell and T. Edwards (eds.), Masculinity and Men's Lifestyle Magazines. Sociological Review.

Baker, Paul. 2004. Gendered Discourses in Gay and Lesbian Erotic Narratives. Paper presented at the Eleventh Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, February.

Ball, Matthew. 1997. Le dictionnaire et l'idéologie dominante: le portrait des groupes marginaux. Actes du Colloque: Problèmes et méthodes de la lexicographie québécoise, 65e Congrès de l'Acfas, 13 et 14 mai, 1997. Université du Québec, Trois-Rivières.

Ball, Matthew. 1998. Dictionaries and Ideology: The Treatment of Gays, Lesbians and Bisexuals in Lexicographic Works. University of Ottawa MA Thesis.

Barat, Erszebet.  2003.  Analytical Categories and Identity of Discourses.  Paper presented at the Tenth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Barat, Erzsebet.  2003.  Abuse of Freedom to Speech: Neo-Conservative Gate-Keeping in the Hungarian Printed Media.  Paper presented at the Tenth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Barat, Erzsebet. 2004. The Labrisz Project. Paper presented at the Eleventh Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, February.

Barat, Erzsebet.  2004. Les-being and Identity Politics. Paper presented at the Eleventh Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, February.

Bardis, Panos A. 1980. A Glossary of Homosexuality. Maledicta IV:59-64.

Barnhurst, Kevin G.  2003.  The Normalization of LGBT Political News on National Public Radio: Professional journalists, pacified communities, polarized opposition.  Paper presented at the Tenth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Barrett, Rusty, Robin Queen, and Keith Walters. 1996. Butches and Bi's, Fats and Femmes: Cognitive Categories and the Linguistic Construction of Shared Queerness. Paper presented at the Fourth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Barrett, Rusty. 1994a. "She is Not White Woman": The Appropriation of (White) Women's Language by African American Drag Queens. In Mary Bucholtz, A. C. Liang, Laurel Sutton, and Caitlin Hines (eds.), Cultural Performances: Proceedings of the Third Berkeley Women and Language Conference. Berkeley, CA: Berkeley Women and Language Group. Pp. 1-14.

Barrett, Rusty. 1994b. The Markedness Model and Style Switching: Evidence from African American Drag Queens. In Pamela Silberman and Jonathan Loftin (eds.), SALSA II: Proceedings of the Second Annual Symposium About Language and Society - Austin. (Texas Linguistic Forum 34). Pp. 40-52. [For an abstract or ordering information contact: SALSA.]

Barrett, Rusty. 1995. Supermodels of the World, Unite!: Political Economy and the Language of Performance Among African American Drag Queens. In William L. Leap (ed.), Beyond the Lavender Lexicon: Authenticity, Imagination and Appropriation in Lesbian and Gay Languages. New York: Gordon and Breach Press. Pp. 207-226.

Barrett, Rusty. 1997a. The "Homo-Genius" Speech Community. In Anna Livia and Kira Hall (eds.), Queerly Phrased: Language, Gender, and Sexuality. New York: Oxford University Press.

Barrett, Rusty. 1997b. Representations of Gay Male Culture in Foreign Language Texts Marketed to Gay Men. Paper presented at the Fifth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Barton, Richard W. 1985. Language and Theorizing about the Sexual Subject: A Semiotic Approach. Studies in Symbolic Interaction 6:351-375.

Beemyn, Brett. 1998. Not a "Lower Capital" People: The Rise of Transgender Activism in Washington DC. Paper presented at the Sixth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Beemyn, Brett.  2000.  “It was like the Sun Rose”: The Coffeehouse and the Development of  Black LGB Community in Washington DC.  Paper presented at the Eighth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Behan, David. 1995. What's an Orgasm? The Language of Sex Reassignment Surgery and Transgender Identities on the Internet. Paper presented at the Third Lavender Languages and Linguistics Conference, American University, November.

Bell, Chris.  2002.  It's an "us" Thing, Miss Thang: The Philosophy of the Same Gender Loving Identity Movement.  Paper presented at the Ninth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, February.

Bell, Chris.  2003.  The Writing Is On the Stall, or, The Impact of Bathroom Graffiti at the University of Missouri, 1996-1999.  Paper presented at the Tenth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Bell, Chris. 2004. ‘…because no one is supposed to know’: Unpacking the Linguistic Inconsistencies of (and the Mainstream Fascination with) Down Low. Paper presented at the Eleventh Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, February.

Bell, Michael Stephenson. 1997. Interruption and Overlap in Gay/Lesbian Discourse. Paper presented at the Fifth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Bergman, David, ed. 1993. Camp Grounds: Style and Homosexuality. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press. [Part I (General Camp) and Part II (Applied Camp) contain some essays of sociolinguistic/discourse analytical interest. (Ron Southerland)]

Bernstein, Fred A. 2004. On Campus, Rethinking Biology 101. New York Times, 3/7/04, Section 9; Page 1; Column 1; Style Desk. [Very interesting article on the transgender/transsexual movement on college campuses. The article is long, over 2300 words, and and sympathetic; it also touches on some of the linguistic consequences, including the lexical semantics of "transgender" vs. "transsexual", the difference between "(fe)male-appearing", "(fe)male-assigned", and orientation, and of course the pronoun problem. Not only the obvious question of "she" vs. "he" for transgender students (most of the ones discussed here are biologically female but male-identified) but the sex-neutralizing of pronouns even at women's institutions like Smith ("she" and "her" replaced by "the student"), and the epicene pronoun issue. (Larry Horn)]

Blachford, G. 1981. Male Dominance and the Gay World. In Kenneth Plummer (ed.), The Making of the Modern Homosexual. London: Hutchinson. Pp. 184-210.

Bland, Lisa. 1996a. Hidden Hardware: Functions of Narratives in Lesbian Discourse. Paper presented at the Fourth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Bland, Lisa. 1996b. The Humorous Side of Butch and Femme. In Natasha Warner et al. (eds.), Gender and Belief Systems: Proceedings of the Fourth Berkeley Women and Language Conference. Berkeley: Berkeley Women and Language Group. Pp. 73-83.

Bland, Lisa. 1997. Hair-Teasing Lesbians: The Function of the Running Joke in Lesbian Discourse. Paper presented at the Fifth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Bleys, Rudi. 1995. The Geography of Perversion: Male-to-Male Sexual Behaviour Outside the West and the Ethnographic Imagination, 1750-1980. New York: NYU Press. [Not really about language but extremely interesting with a view of language and gender that considers gender as problematic. Bleys shows impressive scholarship. (Christina Paulston)]

Bloom, Amy. 1994. The Body Lies. New Yorker Magazine July 18 1994. Pp. 38-47.

Boland Daniel. 1998. When "Gay Speech" Isn"t "Gay Speech": Code-Switching among Gay Male Friends. Paper presented at the Sixth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Bolton, Ralph. 1995. Sex Talk: Bodies and Behaviors in Gay Erotica. In William L. Leap (ed.), Beyond the Lavender Lexicon: Authenticity, Imagination and Appropriation in Lesbian and Gay Languages. New York: Gordon and Breach Press.

Bonnet, Marie-Jo. 1997. Sappho, or the Importance of Culture in the Language of Love: Tribade, Lesbienne, Homosexuelle. In Anna Livia and Kira Hall (eds.), Queerly Phrased: Language, Gender, and Sexuality. New York: Oxford University Press.

Borish, Kelly. 1995. Of Moose and Women: Coming Out through a Role Model. Paper presented at the Third Lavender Languages and Linguistics Conference, American University, November.

Bornstein, Kate. 1994. Gender Outlaw: On Men, Women, and the Rest of Us. Routledge (paperback Vintage 1995). [Radical ideas about the absurdity of a binary gender system, put forward so engagingly and reasonably that it is hard to disagree. (Eleanor Olds Batchelder)]

Boswell, John. 1980. Christianity, Social Tolerance, and Homosexuality. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. [This book deserves inclusion because of its lengthy, and philologically sound, discussion of the words which supposedly refer to homosexuality in the Bible. Not about gay speech per se, but it represents an intersection of gay and linguistic interests. (Gene Buckley)]

Boswell, John. 1993. On the Use of the Term Homo as a Derogatory Epithet. In Marc Wolinsky and Kenneth Sherrill (eds.), Gays and the Military: Joseph Steffan versus the United States. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Pp. 49-55. [An interesting item by the late John Boswell on a topic of sociolinguistic/discourse analytical relevance (Ron Southerland)]

Boykins, Keith. 1997. "Voice" Within the African-American Community. Paper presented at the Fifth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Bramlett, Frank. 1996. Gender-Enhanced Language and the Problems of Communication. Paper presented at the Fourth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Bramlett, Frank. 1997. The Concept of the Self and the Lexicon: Language in and about Gay Communities. Working Papers in Discourse Studies: Language, Gender, and Culture 1.1:1-10.

Bramlett, Frank.  2002.  Building the Body: A Corpus of Midwestern Gay Men's Speech.  Paper presented at the Ninth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, February.

Bramlett, Frank.  2003.  Sissy Boys and Homo Heroes: Homophobic Language in a Comic Book Adventure.  Paper presented at the Tenth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Brend, Ruth. 1971. Male-Female Intonation Patterns in American English. Proceedings of the 7th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, 1971. The Hague: Mouton. Pp. 866-70.

Bright, Susie. 1993. Gaydar: Or, It Takes One to Know One Out 12:121-23.

Brody, Jennifer DeVere.  2003.  Queer Quotations.  Paper presented at the Tenth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Brody, Michal. 1996. Islands of Lesbos: Creating Lesbian Context in Public Contact. Paper presented at the Fourth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Brownworth, Victoria A. 1994. The Name Game Or: Why I'm a Lezzie-Queer. Deneuve July/August:12.

Brua, Chas.  2003.  A Debate in Print: Language for and against Inclusion of Sexual Orientation in a School District’s Anti-Harassment Policy.  Paper presented at the Tenth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Brua, Chas.  2003.  Searching for Echoes and Anomalous Voices.  Paper presented at the Tenth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Brua, Chas. 2004. Homophobic Bullying as a Convergence Point. Paper presented at the Eleventh Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, February

Bryant, Wayne. 1997. The Language of Reel Queers. Paper presented at the Fifth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Bucholtz, Mary and Kira Hall.  2002.  Selfless Desires?: Language and the Materiality of Sexual Identity.  Paper presented at the Ninth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, February.

Bucholtz, Mary.  2002.  Practicing Heterosexuals: Sex Education, Heterosexism, and the Limits of Communities of Practice.  Paper presented at the Ninth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, February.

Bullock, Barbara E. and Luke Eilderts.  2003.  Prononcer mâle ou prononcer mal: Linguistic Markers of Effeminacy in Early Modern French.  Paper presented at the Tenth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Barbara E. Bullock and Denis M. Provencher. 2002. The Linguistic Representation of Femininity and Masculinity in Jean Genet's Notre-Dame des Fleurs. French Cultural Studies. 12(1): 43-58.

Burchard, Melissa. 1998. Perversion, Harm and the Construction of Identity. Paper presented at the Sixth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Burkhart, Geoff. 1998. Diasporic Identities: Gay/Bisexual South Asian Men in North America. Paper presented at the Sixth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Busbee, Elizabeth. 1997. Coming-Out Labels in Lesbian Discourse. Paper presented at the Fifth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Busbee, Elizabeth. 1998. Hierarchy of Labelling in Coming-Out Discourse among Lesbians. Paper presented at the Sixth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Busbee, Elizabeth.  1999.  What Kind of a  Faggot are you, then?: Gender, Sexuality and Power in Conversation.  Paper presented at the Seventh Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Busbee, Elizabeth.  2000.  Unequal Footing; Goffman’s Models for Deference, Demeanor and Face in Dominant/Submissive Communication.  Paper presented at the Eighth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Busbee, Elizabeth.  2002.  Subversion at Dark Religion: Gender, Language and Agency in BDSM Performance.  Paper presented at the Ninth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, February.

Butler, Judith P. 1990. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity: New York: Routledge.

Butler, Judith P. 1991. Imitation and Gender Insubordination. In Diana Fuss (ed.), Inside/Out: Lesbian Theories, Gay Theories. New York: Routledge.

Butters, Ronald R. 1989. Foreword. South Atlantic Quarterly 88:1-5. [Special issue entitled "Displacing Homophobia"; Ronald R. Butters, John Clum, and Michael Moon (eds.)]

Butters, Ronald R. 1995. Did Cary Grant Know about "Going Gay" and When Did He Know It? On the development of the popular term gay. Paper presented at the Third Lavender Languages and Linguistics Conference, American University, November.

Butters, Ronald R. 1996. How Private is Your Toilet: Anatomy of a Harmful Speech Debate. Paper presented at the Fourth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Butters, Ronald R. 1997. Auntie(-man)/tanti in the Caribbean and North America. In Cynthia Bernstein, Thomas Nunnally, and Robin Sabino, (eds.), Language Variety in the South Revisited. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press. Pp. 161-165. [Revision of an invited paper read at the Conference on Language and Variation in the South, Auburn University, April 1993.]

Butters, Ronald R. 1998. Cary Grant and the Emergence of gay "homosexual". Dictionaries 19:188-204.

Butters, Ronald R. To appear. Signalling Gay Identity and Ethnicity -- Changing Linguistic and Semiotic Representations. In Catherine Evans Davies (ed.), English and Ethnicity: 26th Alabama Symposium of the Department of English. New York: Palgrave. [Invited paper presented at a conference on English and Ethnicity: 26th Alabama Symposium of the Department of English, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, November 2002.]

Cage, Ken G. 2003. Gayle - The Language of Kinks and Queens: A History and Dictionary of Gay Language in South Africa. Johannesburg: Jacana Media.  Author’s email address: k.g.cage@massey.ac.nz.

Cahill, Sean.  1999.  Language Struggles in Gay Rights Controversies: Anti-Gay Discourse and Queer Subjectivity in Contemporary US Politics.  Paper presented at the Seventh Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Callen, Michael. 1990. AIDS: The Linguistic Battlefield. In Christopher Ricks and Leonard Michaels (eds.), The State of the Language. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Cameron, Deborah. 1992. Naming of Parts: Gender, Culture, and Terms for the Penis among American College Students. American Speech 67:367-382.

Cameron, Deborah. 1997. Performing Gender Identity: Young Men's Talk and the Construction of Heterosexual Identity. In Ulrike Hanna Meinhof and Sally Johnson (eds.), Language and Masculinity. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

Cameron, Deborah and Don Kulick. 2003. Language and Sexuality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Campbell-Kibler, Kathryn, Robert J. Podesva, Sarah J. Roberts, and Andrew Wong, eds. Language and Sexuality: Contesting Meaning in Theory and Practice. Stanford, CA: CSLI Publications.

Cante, Richard. 1998. An Epidemic of Abbreviations: The AIDS Joke as Cultural For(u)m. Paper presented at the Sixth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Caron, David. 2003.  Mixed Signals: Reading Communities in a Paris Neighborhood.  Paper presented at the Tenth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Castelo, Hernan Rodriguez. 1979. Lexico Sexual Ecuatoriano y Latinoamericano. Quito: Libri Mundi. Pp. 321-347.

Castro, Sebastian. 1995. Das Schwule Lexikon. Frankfurt am Main: Eichborn.

Chakravorty, Bonnie.  2000.  Yours or Mine: Variations in Gay Men’s Use and Perceptions of the Term fag-hag.  Paper presented at the Eighth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Chamberland, Line.  1999.  Elsa Gidlow: Letters from Montreal.  Paper presented at the Seventh Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Champagne, John. 1993. Seven Speculations on Queers and Class. Journal of Homosexuality 26:159-175.

Champagne, John. 1997. Transnationally Queer. Paper presented at the Fifth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Chase, Sarah. 1995. Before We Can Carve the Turkey. Paper presented at the Third Lavender Languages and Linguistics Conference, American University, November.

Chauncey, George. 1994. Gay New York: Gender, Urban Culture, and the Making of the Gay Male World, 1890-1940. Basic Books. [People who are interested in the history of gay, fairy, queer, etc. would probably want to have a look at this. Chauncey is a historian, not a linguist, but he devotes a good bit of attention to this terminology, is fairly careful, and has gobs and gobs of citations, from the 1890's on (police records, personal letters and recollections, minutes of organizations, novels, etc.) See especially the introductory section on these terms pp. 14-23. According to him, gay was used (as a "code term", i.e. argot) starting in the 1920's and 1930's; he has written citations from several novels of the 1930's, plus of course Bringing up Baby in 1938. On the other hand, fairy seems to have been the common slang term for gay men, used by straight and gay alike, as early as 1900 or before, at least in NYC; see the many citations in his Chapter 1. Faggot, queer, and trade [sic] were not far behind. (David Dowty)]

Chen, Melinda Yuen-Ching. 1996. Conceptualization of Homosexuality: A Group-Based View. In Natasha Warner et al. (eds.), Gender and Belief Systems: Proceedings of the Fourth Berkeley Women and Language Conference. Berkeley: Berkeley Women and Language Group. Pp. 145-57.

Chenghsien, Li. 1997. Lavender Voice of Chinese Queer Dissents. Paper presented at the Fifth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Chesebro, James W. 1994. Reflections on Gay and Lesbian Rhetoric. In R. Jeffrey Ringer (ed.), Queer Words, Queer Images: Communication and Construction of Homosexuality. New York: NYU Press. Pp. 77-90.

Chesebro, James W. and Kenneth L. Klenk. 1981. Gay Masculinity in the Gay Disco. In James W. Chesebro (ed.), Gayspeak: Gay Male and Lesbian Communication. New York: Pilgrim Press. Pp. 87-103.

Chesebro, James W., ed. 1981. GaySpeak: Gay Male and Lesbian Communication. New York: Pilgrim Press. Contains 25 papers on lesbian and gay communication.

Chirrey, Deborah. 2003. 'I hereby come out': What Sort of Speech Act is Coming Out? Journal of Sociolinguistics. 7(1):24-37.

Clark, Keith.  2003.  Quer(r)ying the 'Prison-House' of Masculinity: Ernest Gaines' Narratives of Homosocial Desire.  Paper presented at the Tenth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Clatts, Michael and Kevin M. Mutchler. 1989. AIDS and the Dangerous Other: Metaphors of Sex and Deviance in the Representation of Disease. Medical Anthropology 10:105-14.

Coates, Jennifer. 1996. Women Talk. Oxford: B. Blackwell.

Coates, Jennifer and Mary Ellen Jordan. 1997. Que(e)rying Friendship: Discourses of Resistance and the Construction of Gendered Subjectivity. In Anna Livia and Kira Hall (eds.), Queerly Phrased: Language, Gender, and Sexuality. New York: Oxford University Press.

Coates, Jennifer.  2003.  Everyone was Convinced we were Closet Fags: The Role of Heterosexuality in the Construction of Hegemonic Masculinity.  Paper presented at the Tenth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Cofield, Alex. 1995. A Fem Speaks Out!: Controversies in Lesbian Discourse. Paper presented at the Third Lavender Languages and Linguistics Conference, American University, November.

Cohen, Tamarah. 1996. Does Gay Visibility Entail Lesbian Invisibility? Paper presented at the Fourth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Coleman, Eli and Walter O. Bockting. 1988. "Heterosexual" Prior to Sex Reassignment-- "Homosexual" Afterwards: A Case Study of a Female-to-Male Transsexual. Journal of Psychology and Human Sexuality. 1.2:69-82.

Collins, Samuel Gerald. 1995. Representations of Lesbians and Gays in Science Fiction. In William L. Leap (ed.), Beyond the Lavender Lexicon: Authenticity, Imagination and Appropriation in Lesbian and Gay Languages. New York: Gordon and Breach Publishers. Pp. 155-174.

Committee on Lesbian and Gay Concerns. 1991. Avoiding Heterosexual Bias in Language. American Psychologist 46:973-974.

Conner Randy. 1997. Les Molles et les Chausses: Mapping the Isle of Hermaphrodites in Pre-Modern France. In Anna Livia and Kira Hall (eds.), Queerly Phrased: Language, Gender, and Sexuality. New York: Oxford University Press.

Connor, Randy P. 1993. Blossom of Bone: Reclaiming the Connections Between Homoeroticism and the Sacred. San Francisco: Harper. [Much of the cultural evidence connecting gender variance (queers) in the many societies and religions examined here is language-based and offers a compromise to both social constructionists and so-called essentialists, but showing the merits of both in religious and anthropological styled studies. The book is cross-cultural and transhistorical in focus, and, while not ignoring European-dominant culture, places it within the context of shall we say global or archetypal gay-lesbian-bisexual studies. (David Hatfield Sparks, whose e-mail address is: dsparks@wahoo.sjsu.edu)]

Conrad, James Roger. 1991. The Orientalizing of Homosexuals: Language and Its Consequences for Identity and Community. Rutgers University, 5th Annual Lesbian and Gay Studies Conference, November.

Convey, Mark.  1999.  Queer Public Sphere: Eastern European Queer Identities on the Internet.  Paper presented at the Seventh Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Corey, Frederick. In press. Gay Men and Their Physicians: Discourse and Disenfranchisement. In E. Ray (ed.), Communication and the Disenfranchised. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Cory, Donald Webster and J.P. LeRoy. 1963. A Lexicon of Homosexual Slang. In The Homosexual and his Society. New York: Citadel Press. [see also Sagarin, Edward]

Cory, Donald Webster. 1951. The Homosexual in America. New York: Greenberg. [see also Sagarin, Edward]

Cory, Donald Webster. 1965. The Language of the Homosexual. Sexology 32.3:163-165. [see also Sagarin, Edward]

Courouve, Claude. 1985. Vocabulaire de l'Homosexualite' Masculine. Paris: Payot. 248 pp. A French counterpart to Homolexis?

Cowan, Amy. 1995. Transpositions: Writing on the Lesbian Body. Paper presented at the Third Lavender Languages and Linguistics Conference, American University, November.

Cowen, Amy. 1996. Cracking Written on the Body's Code: Lesbian Metaphor/Lesbian Text. Paper presented at the Fourth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Cox, Barth.  2000.  Asking to See the Soul: Video Documentary on Bears.  Paper presented at the Eighth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Cox, Leslie John and Richard J. Fay. 1994. Gayspeak, The Linguistic Fringe: Bona Polari, Camp, Queerspeak, and Beyond. In Stephen Whittle (ed.), The Margins of the City. Gay Men's Urban Lives. Hants, England: Arena. Pp. 103-127. [Publisher's address is: Arena, Ashgate Publishing Limited, Gower House, Croft Road, Aldershot, Hants GU11 3HR, England (Paul Baker)]

Craven, Christa. 1997. Hooked on Vagonics. Paper presented at the Fifth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Craven, Christa. 1998. Language and Identity in BI Women's Discourse. Paper presented at the Sixth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Craven, Christa.  1999.  The Self in Community: Constructions of Lesbian Community.  Paper presented at the Seventh Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Crist, Sean. 1997. Duration of Onset Consonants in Gay Male Stereotyped Speech. University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics 4:3:53-70.

Cromwell, Jason. 1995. Talking About Without Talking About: The Use of Protective Language among Transvestites and Transsexuals. In William L. Leap (ed.), Beyond the Lavender Lexicon: Authenticity, Imagination and Appropriation in Lesbian and Gay Languages. New York: Gordon and Breach Press. Pp. 267-295.

Cromwell, Jason. 1998. What is Trans-Talk? Who Talks the Talk?. Paper presented at the Sixth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Cummings, Martha Clark. 1994. Lesbian Identity and Negotiation in Discourse. In Mary Bucholtz, A. C. Liang, Laurel Sutton, and Caitlin Hines (eds.), Cultural Performances: Proceedings of the Third Berkeley Women and Language Conference. Berkeley, CA: Berkeley Women and Language Group. Pp. 144-158.

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D'Augelli, Tony. 1998. Queer Youth in High School: A National Picture. Paper presented at the Sixth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Davidson, Alan G. 1991. Looking for Love in the Age of AIDS: The Language of Gay Personals, 1978-1988. The Journal of Sex Research 28.1:125-137.

Davis, Erin.  2002.  Passing as one's True Self?: Exploring the Multiple Meanings of Transsexual Passing.  Paper presented at the Ninth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, February.

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Deby, Jeff. 1996a. And Who Are You? How Print Advertising Suggests What It Means To Be Gay. Paper presented at the Fourth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Deby, Jeff. 1996b. Coming Out as an Opportunity for Negotiating Identity. Paper presented at the 1996 GLS Conference, 11-13 October.

Deby, Jeff. 1997. In the "I" of the Beholder: Discursive Spectatorship and Identity Performance at Melrose Mondays. Paper presented at the Fifth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

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Delph-Janiurek, Tom.  2002.  “What? Wife? Sorry?”: Voices, Talk, Gender, Sexuality and Geography.  Paper presented at the Ninth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, February.

Delph-Janiurek, Tom.  2002.  Theo never speaks... he's a bit weird: Gender, Sexuality, and Local "Rules" in Conversation in the Workplace.  Paper presented at the Ninth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, February.

Delph-Janiurek, Tom. In prep. Language and the Production of Gendered/Sexualised Space/Place. Sheffield, UK: University of Sheffield dissertation. [Tom's e-mail address is: t.delph-janiurek@lamp.ac.uk]

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Donovan, J. 1992. Homosexual, Gay, and Lesbian: Defining the Words and Sampling the Populations. Gay and Lesbian Studies. Haworth Press. [Doesn't really discuss lesbian, but interesting experimental-type study. (Anonymous)]

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Dunn, Andrew.  2003.  Queer Identity, Language and Community among Men in Beijing PRC.  Paper presented at the Tenth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Dye, Leota E. and Bryan K. Horikami. 1996. The Commanding Narrative: An Analysis of Coming-Out Stories Using the Narrative Paradigm. Paper presented at the Fourth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Dynes, Wayne R. 1985. Homolexis: A Historical and Cultural Lexicon of Homosexuality. Gai Saber monograph #4 (or #5?). New York: Scholarship Committee, Gay Academic Union. [To order, contact Gay Academic Untion, P.O. Box 480, Lenox Hill Station, New York, NY 10021.]

Dynes, Wayne R. 1987. Homosexuality: A Research Guide. New York: Garland. [All language-related studies are listed on pp. 355-371.]

Dynes, Wayne R. 1987. Portugayese. In Stephen O. Murray (ed.) Male Homosexuality in Central and South America. New York: Gai Saber Press. Pp. 183-191.

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Dynes, Wayne R. 1995. Portugayese. In Stephan O. Murray (ed.), Latin American Male Homosexualities. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. Pp. 256-263.

Echols, Jason B. 2004. Epistlemology of the Closet: The Lesbian Letter and the Textual Embodiment of the Lesbian. Paper presented at the Eleventh Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, February.

Eckert, Penelope. 2002. Demystifying Sexuality and Desire. In Kathryn Campbell-Kibler, Robert J. Podesva, Sarah J. Roberts, and Andrew Wong (eds.), Language and Sexuality: Contesting Meaning in Theory and Practice. Stanford, CA: CSLI Publications. Pp. 99-110.

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Einloth, Chuck. 1998. AIDS in the Workplace: Love, Compassion, Grief and Angst. Paper presented at the Sixth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Eisner, Caroline. 1995. Now That You Know: Homoerotics in Oscar Wilde's Picture of Dorian Grey. Paper presented at the Third Lavender Languages and Linguistics Conference, American University, November.

Epp, Garrett. 1998. Homoerotic Punning and Early English Theater. Paper presented at the Sixth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Essig, Laurie. 1995. Clothes Make the Man: Gender Transgression and Public Queerness in Moscow and St. Petersberg. Paper presented at the Third Lavender Languages and Linguistics Conference, American University, November.

Etz, Rebecca S. 1997. From Formal Wear to Formalities: The Growth of a Queer Family Tree. Paper presented at the Fifth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Etz, Rebecca.  2002.  Fashioning Identity: What's Hot and What's Not in Designer LGB Labels.  Paper presented at the Ninth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, February.

Etz, Rebecca. 2004. The Problem with no Name. Paper presented at the Eleventh Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, February.

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Fai, Dianne, Carlene Potter and Steven Zepp. 1989. Ms. [A preliminary sociolinguistic (variationist) study of lesbians and gay men in Ottawa/Hull conducted in 1989. The complete package, including the interview protocol and several multivariate analyses, amounts to probably around 1000 pages. Some of the material examines lesbian and/or gay men's speech w.r.t. linguistic structures associated to sex by other researchers, other sections examine features of Ottawa English in general, and several narratives are analyzed in Labovian terms. The study is the result of a methodologically-based course at the University of Ottawa. (Steven Zepp)]

Faiman-Silva, Sandra.  2002.  Encounters at the Borders: Gendered Space as Contested Space in Provincetown, MA.  Paper presented at the Ninth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, February.

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Fay, Brendan. 1998. From Silence to Speech. Paper presented at the Sixth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Fejes, Fred. 1997. Murder, Perversion, and the Making of a Moral Panic: The 1954 Media Campaign Against Homosexuals in Miami. Paper presented at the Fifth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Fejes, Fred.  2002.  From Invert to Pervert: The Construction of the Public Identity of the Homosexual, Miami, 1954-1977.  Paper presented at the Ninth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, February.

Fejes, Fred.  2003.  Miami 1977-2002: Changes in Lesbian/Gay Public Identity.  Paper presented at the Tenth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

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Fernandez-Alemany, Manuel.  1999.  Speaking the Unspeakable: How Discussions of Sexuality, Especially Homosexuality, are Kept out of Public Discourse in Latin America.  Paper presented at the Seventh Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Flannigan-Saint-Aubin, Arthur. 1993. "Black Gay Male" Discourse: Reading Race and Sexuality between the Lines. Journal of the History of Sexuality 3:3:468-90.

Fletcher, John.  1999.  I am Out, therefore I am: Some Queer Thoughts on the Speech Act of Coming Out.  Paper presented at the Seventh Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Foley, Quincy. 1998. A Queer Geography: A Mapping of the Daddy Fantasy. Paper presented at the Sixth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

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Franklin, Paul B., Adrien Saks and Amanda Udis-Kessler. 1995. Queering the Language? A Roundtable on Jargon in Queer Studies. Journal of Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Identity 1.1

Frenck, Susan. 1998. Strategies for Communicating "Gay Experience": Couples in Conversation. Paper presented at the Sixth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Freyd, Jennifer J. 1997. Can I Call Myself a Queerist? Unpublished University of Oregon ms.

Frye, Marilyn. Lesbian "Sex". In Jeffner Allen (ed.), Lesbian Philosophies and Cultures. Albany: SUNY Press. Pp. 46-54.

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Galbraith, Carol and Amy Stackhouse. 1995. Play Power and Power Plays: Textual Politics in the Poetics of Emily Dickinson. Paper presented at the Third Lavender Languages and Linguistics Conference, American University, November.

Galbraith, Carol J. 1996. Reciprocal Princes: The Sapphic Linguistics of Katherine Philips. Paper presented at the Fourth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Garrett, Mary M. 1993. Wit, Power, and Oppositional Groups: A Case Study of "Pure Talk". Quarterly Journal of Speech 79:303-18.

Gaudio, Rudi. 1994. Sounding Gay: Pitch Properties in the Speech of Gay and Straight Men. American Speech 69.1:30-57.

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Gaudio, Rudolf P. 1996. Funny Muslims: Humor, Faith, and Gender Liminality in Hausa. In Natasha Warner et al. (eds.), Gender and Belief Systems: Proceedings of the Fourth Berkeley Women and Language Conference. Berkeley: Berkeley Women and Language Group. Pp. 261-7.

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Gaudio, Rudy. 1997b. White Men Sex: Discourse, Race and (Homo)sexuality in Northern Nigeria. Paper presented at the Fifth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Gaudio, Rudy. 1998. "Parliament is in Session": Spaces of Gay Male Interaction in Northern Nigeria. Paper presented at the Sixth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Gaudio, Rudy.  1999.  Homos like us: Anglo-Gay Influence (& its Limits) in a Nigerian Hausa Subculture.  Paper presented at the Seventh Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

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Grimard, Marcel and Normand Labrie.  1999.  Silence, Taboos, and Hegemony, or how French Speaking Gays and Lesbians Produce Discourse on Identity.  Paper presented at the Seventh Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Grimard, Marcel, Brigitte Roberg, Normand Labrie and Douglas Gosse.  2000.  Sexual Narratives in the Discourse of French-Canadian Gay Men Living in Toronto.  Paper presented at the Eighth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Grimard, Marcel.  2002.  Conceptualizing a Discursive Space for the Gay and Lesbian French-Speaking Minority in Canada.  Paper presented at the Ninth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, February.

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Hall, Kira. 1995a. Cross-expressing Meets Queer Theory. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Anthropological Association, Washington DC. [This paper discusses the appropriation of a "two-cultures" model of language and gender by male-to-female transsexuals in the USA, as well as the adoption of feminine verb morphology by Hindi-speaking hijras in India. (Kira Hall)]

Hall, Kira. 1995b. If It Looks Like a Duck and Quacks Like a Duck, Then What in the Hell Is It? Paper presented at the Third Lavender Languages and Linguistics Conference, American University, November 1995. [A study of the reception of Tannen's "two-cultures" model of language and gender by participants on a butch-femme electronic list. (Kira Hall)]

Hall, Kira and Mary Bucholtz, eds. 1995. Gender Articulated: Language and the Socially Constructed Self. New York: Routledge. 448 pp.

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Hall, Kira. 1996. Lexical Subversion in the Hijra Community. In Natasha Warner et al. (eds.), Gender and Belief Systems: Proceedings of the Fourth Berkeley Women and Language Conference. Berkeley: Berkeley Women and Language Group. Pp. 279-91.

Hall, Kira. 1997. "Go Suck Your Husband's Sugarcane!": Hijras and the Use of Sexual Insult. In Anna Livia and Kira Hall (eds.), Queerly Phrased: Language, Gender, and Sexuality. New York: Oxford University Press. Pp. 430-460.

Hall, Kira.  1999.  Lambdas, Ranis and Beards, Oh My!: Gay English in Queer India.  Paper presented at the Seventh Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Hall, Kira.  2002.  Language Choice and Sexual Identity in New Delhi.  Paper presented at the Ninth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, February.

Hall, Kira. Forthcoming. Cyberfeminism. In Susan Herring (ed.), Computer-Mediated Communication. Amsterdam: Benjamins. [An extended version of Hall's 1994 article "Bodyless Pragmatics" (see above), a study of gendered discourse strategies on a lesbian separatist electronic list. (Kira Hall)]

Hamilton, Jennifer. 2004. “Where are all the lesbians?”: Educating Difference through Mainstream Television. Paper presented at the Eleventh Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, February.

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Harris, Daniel 1997b. Some Notes on "Dirty Talk". Paper presented at the Fifth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

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Harvey, Keith. 1997. "Everybody loves a lover": Gay men, Straight Men, and a Problem of Lexical Choice. In Keith Harvey and Celia Shalom (eds.), Language and Desire: Encoding Sex, Romance and Intimacy. New York: Routledge.

Harvey, Keith. 1998. "You're swishing so much you're going to make a hurricane": The Pragmatics of the Put-Down in Verbal Camp. Paper presented at the Sixth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Harvey, Keith. 1998. Translating Camp Talk: Gay Identities and Cultural Transfer. The Translator: Studies in Intercultural Communication 4.2.

Harvey, Keith.  2003.  Intercultural Movements: ‘American Gay’ in French Translation.  Paper presented at the Tenth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Hawkins, Joe.  1999. Japan, the Popular Press and Globalizing Homophobia.  Paper presented at the Seventh Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Hawkins, Joseph.  2000.  Japanese gei Language: A Modern Polyglot Mapped through Community Publications.  Paper presented at the Eighth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Hayes, Jarrod.  2002.  La creolite's Queer Mangrove.  Paper presented at the Ninth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, February.

Hayes, Jarrod.  2003.  Eatin' Tail, Suckin' Head: Talking about Food in French America.  Paper presented at the Tenth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

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Heisterkamp, Brian. 1998. Disclosure and Conflict in Gay and Lesbian Couples: An Analysis of Everyday Conversation. Paper presented at the Sixth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

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Heywood, John. 1997. Representation of Self and Other in Straight to Hell: The Role of the Homosexual in the Sexual Ecology of Heterosexuality. Paper presented at the Fifth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

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Higgins, Ross. 1997. Fags Joking. Paper presented at the Fifth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Higgins, Ross. 1998. Fags Joking. Paper presented at the Sixth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Higgins, Ross.  2002.  Reading AIDS in the Gay Press and the Failure of Safe Sex.  Paper presented at the Ninth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, February.

Higgins, Ross.  2003.  Why No "Y": Gay/Gai Politics in French.  Paper presented at the Tenth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

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Moriel, Liora. 1997. The Language of Gender in the (Com)promised Land. Paper presented at the Fifth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Moriel, Liora. 1998a. "Erasure" and "Taboo": A Queer Reading of Bonnie and Clyde. Paper presented at the Sixth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

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Morris, Bonnie.  2000.  A Lexicon of Festivalese: The Slang of Lesbian Music Festivals.  Paper presented at the Eighth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

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Morrish, Liz.  2000.  Communities of Practice: Implications for Lavender Linguists.  Paper presented at the Eighth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Morrish, Liz.  2002.  “That's so typical of Peter - as soon as there's a cock-up he tries to sit on it": British Broadsheet Press versus Peter Mandelson 1997-2001”.  Paper presented at the Ninth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, February.

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Peterson, David.  2000.  Havelock Ellis’ (and John Addington Symonds’) Sexual Inversion: A Case Study in the Complexities of Reading 19th Century Sexological Texts.  Paper presented at the Eighth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Peterson, David.  2003.  My Heart is Broken and Lonesome: Whitman's Letters to Doyle and Stoppard as Missive of Queer Desire.  Paper presented at the Tenth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Peterson, David. 2004. ‘Hungers and impulses commonly seen in wild dogs’: Homophobic (?) Discourse in Leslie Marmon Silko’s Almanac of the Dead. Paper presented at the Eleventh Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, February

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Provencher, Denis M. 2000.  A Kiss is not Just a Kiss: Heteronormative Narrative Strategies in Will and Grace.  Paper presented at the Eighth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Provencher, Denis M. 2002. Vague English Creole: (Gay English) Cooperative Discourse in the French Gay Press.  Contemporary French Civilization. 26(1): 86-110. [Also presented at the Seventh Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September, 1999.]

Provencher, Denis M. 2002. The Next Gene(t)ration: 'Authenticity' and (Homo) Sexual Citizenship in Contemporary French Gay Culture. Contemporary French Civilization 26(2): 335-346.

Provencher, Denis M.  2002.  “Faire son coming-out” or “sortir du placard”?  The Search for French Authenticity in the Coming-Out Process.  Paper presented at the Ninth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, February.

Provencher, Denis M.  2003.  The Globalization of the American Closet? In Search of Authenticity in the French "Coming-Out" Experience.  Paper presented at the Tenth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Provencher, Denis M. 2003. Queer Studies in France. Contemporary French Civilization. 27(2): 406-416.

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Provencher, Denis M. 2004. Gay Paris: Language, Space and Belonging in the French City. Paper presented at the Eleventh Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, February.

Provencher, Denis M. 2004. Vague English Creole: (Gay English) Cooperative Discourse in the French Gay Press. In William Leap and Thomas Boellstorff (eds.), Speaking in Queer Tongues: Globalization and Gay Language. Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press.

Provencher, Denis M. To appear. Sealed with a Kiss: Heteronormative Narrative Strategies in NBC's "Will & Grace". In Mary Dalton and Laura Linder (eds.) America Viewed and Skewed: Television Situation Comedies. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.

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Rogers, Henry and Ron Smyth. To appear. Phonetics, Gender, and Sexual Orientation. Proceedings of the 2002 Conference of the Canadian Linguistic Association.

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Schaffner, Steven.  2003.  Frat Boys Take it in the Ass!: A Graphic and Typographic Analysis of Homophobic Restroom Graffiti.  Paper presented at the Tenth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Scheman, Naomi. 1997. Queering the Center by Centering the Queer: Reflections on Transsexuals and Secular Jews. In Diane Tietjens Meyers (ed.), Feminists Rethink the Self. Boulder: Westview Press. Pp. 124-162.

Schweers, Bill. 1998. Gay and Lesbian Youth: Issues and Concerns. Paper presented at the Sixth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Sedgwick, Eve Kosofsky. 1990. The Epistemology of the Closet. Berkeley, Los Angeles: University of California Press. [Contains the best conceptual analysis of the term "closet" I have seen so far. (Luise Pusch)]

Sember, Robert. 1996. The Self Surfaces: Vision and Infection. Paper presented at the Fourth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Seymour, Craig. 1997. Academia and the Black Gay "Voice". Paper presented at the Fifth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Shapiro, Michael. 1990. Gays and Lesbians. American Speech 65:191-192.

Shapiro, Stephen. 1995. Lightening Strikes: New Directions for a Lesbian and Gay Historiography of the Late Enlightenment. Paper presented at the Third Lavender Languages and Linguistics Conference, American University, November.

Sherry, Michael S. 1993. The Language of War in AIDS Discourse. In Timothy F. Murphy and Suzanne Poirier (eds.), Writing AIDS: Gay Literature, Language, and Analysis. New York: Columbia University Press. Pp. 39-53.

Siegel, Paul. 1994. On the Owning of Words: Reflections on "San Francisco Arts and Athletics vs. United States Olympic Committee". In R. Jeffrey Ringer (ed.), Queer Words, Queer Images: Communication and Construction of Homosexuality. New York: NYU Press. Pp. 30-44.

Silberman, Seth Clark.  2003.  Harlem, Queerly: Reading Black Queer Vernacular in the 'Streetgeist and Folklore' of Eric Walrond's 'The Adventures of Kit Skyhead and Mistah Beauty' and Claude McKay's Home to Harlem.  Paper presented at the Tenth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Silverstein, Adina. 1997. Sexual Minorities in the Lesbian Community: Bisexual Identity and Queer Discourse. Paper presented at the Fifth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Simes, Gary. 1990. Slang Terms for Homosexuals in English. In Wayne Dynes (ed.), Encyclopedia of Homosexuality. New York: Garland. Pp. 1200-1204.

Simes, Gary. 1992. The Language of Homosexuality in Australia. In Robert Aldrich and Garry Wotherspoon (eds.), Gay Perspectives: Essays in Australian Gay Culture. Sydney: Department of Economic History, University of Sydney. Pp. 31-58.

Simes, Gary. 1993. A Dictionary of Australian Underworld Lang. Melbourne: Oxford University Press. [The introduction is important for the methodology of slang research. (Anonymous) Simes reports (p.c.) that he is currently working on an historical dictionary of the language of sex and sexuality in modern (i.e. post-1800) English, which will include gay and lesbian language.]

Simes, Gary. 1996. "Gay's the Word"; A History of Gay in Dictionary Form. In Garry Wotherspoon (ed.), Gay and Lesbian Persepectives III; Essays in Australian Culture Sydney: University of Sydney Press. Pp. 303-47. [A long article on the word gay, which covers not only that word but also its derivatives and phrases containing the word. (Gary Simes)]

Singer, Amy and Julio Alves. 1997. Narratives and Rites of Passage: Lesbian Childbirth Stories and Children's Narratives. Paper presented at the Fifth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Sivori, Horacio.  1999.  Que es un vedadero chongo: Gay authority in Language Practice.  Paper presented at the Seventh Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Skinner, Jody. 1997. Warme Brueder, Kesse Vaeter: Lexikon mit Ausdruecken fuer Lesben, Schwule und Homosexualitaet. Essen: Verlag Die Blaue Eule. (ISBN: 3-89206-815-1)

Skinner, Jody. 1999. Bezeichnungen fuer das Homosexuelle im Deutschen. Band I: Eine lexikologische Analyse und eine lexikographische Aufgabe. Essen: Verlag Die Blaue Eule. (ISBN: 3-89206-902-6). Band II: Ein Woerterbuch. Essen: Verlag Die Blaue Eule. (ISBN: 3-89206-903-4). [The first linguistic analysis of German words and phrases for LGBT language (Volume 1) and the first dictionary of such words and phrases (Volume 2).]

Slusarczyk, Richard. 1996. Accidental Marking: Viatical Advertising and Gay/Lesbian Teens. Paper presented at the Fourth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Smedman, Lorna. 1995. Sentences in Drag: Reading Gertrude Stein's How to Write Queerly. Paper presented at the Third Lavender Languages and Linguistics Conference, American University, November 1995.

Smith, George W. 1988. Policing the Gay Community: An Inquiry into Textually-Mediated Social Relations. International Journal of the Sociology of Law 16.2:163-183.

Smith, Ian. 1998. Mistranslations: Race and "The Streit Law of History". Paper presented at the Sixth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Smith, K. Aaron. 2004. Teaching LGBTQ Linguistics. Paper presented at the Eleventh Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, February.

Smyth, Ron and Henry Rogers. 2000. Relationships among Phonetic Factors used in Making Gay-Straight Judgements. Poster presented at NWAV, East Lansing, MI.

Smyth, Ron and Henry Rogers. 2004. Pitch and Intonational Variability in Gay-Sounding Male Speech. Paper presented at the Eleventh Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, February.

Smyth, Ron, Greg Jacobs, and Henry Rogers. 2003. Male Voices and Perceived Sexual Orientation: An Experimental and Theoretical Approach. Language in Society 32.329-350.

Smyth, Ron, Henry Rogers, and Greg Jacobs. 2001. Vowel Reduction in Gay- and Straight-Sounding Male Speech. Presented at NWAV, Raleigh, SC.

Solomon, Harris.  2000.  White Lies: Hiding and Misrepresentation in Hebrew HIV/AIDS Educational Materials.  Paper presented at the Eighth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Sonenschein, David. 1969. The Homosexual's Language. The Journal of Sex Research 5:281-91.

Spadafora, Lisa. 1998. Realms of the Spirit, Realms of Desire: Visionary Language in Lesbian Texts. Paper presented at the Sixth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Spears, Richard A. 1981. Slang and Euphemism: A Dictionary of Oaths, Curses, Insults, Sexual Slang, and Metaphor, Racial Slurs, Drug Talk, Homosexual Lingo and Related Matters. New York: Jonathan David Publishers, Inc.

Spears, Richard A. 1985. On the Etymology of Dike. American Speech 60:318-327.

Stanley, Alessandra. 1991. Militants Back Queer, Shoving Gay the Way of Negro. New York Times, 6 April 1991. Pp. 23-24.

Stanley, Julia Penelope and Susan Robbins 1976. Sexist Slang and the Gay Community: Are You One Too? Modern Language Association, New York, December. [Reprinted as Michigan Occasional Paper No. XIV]

Stanley, Julia Penelope. 1970. Homosexual Slang. American Speech 45 1-2 (Spring-Summer 1970):45-59.

Stanley, Julia Penelope. 1974. What's in a Name: The Politics of Naming. Northeastern Illinois University, Chicago, April.

Stanley, Julia Penelope. 1974. When We Say "Out of the Closets!" College English November:385-391.

Stanley, Julia Penelope and Susan Robbins. 1977. Lesbian Humor. Women: A Journal of Liberation 5:26-29.

Stanley, Julia Penelope and Susan Robbins 1979. Sexist Slang and the Gay Community: Are you one, too? Michigan Occasional Paper No. XIV.

Stanley, Julia Penelope. 1980. Sexist Slang and the Gay Community. Occasional Papers in Women's Studies. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan.

Stewart, Christopher. 1997. Living in Connection (or, Back to the Bodies). Paper presented at the Fifth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Stewart, Christopher. 1998. Sodomic Anxiety and the Queen of the Dead. Paper presented at the Sixth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Stewart, Christopher.  2002.  Talking Sanskrit, Talking Sex: Isherwood's Vedanta.  Paper presented at the Ninth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, February.

Stewart, William. 1995. Cassell's Queer Companion: A Dictionary of Lesbian and Gay Life and Culture. New York and London: Cassell.

Stockberger, Ingrid.  2003.  Emerging Femininities in an Alternative Women’s Magazine.  Paper presented at the Tenth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Stockberger, Ingrid.  2003.  Reading Lavender Themes in BUST Magazine.  Paper presented at the Tenth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Stone, Charles. 1981. The Semantics of Gay. Advocate 325:20-22.

Strait and Associates. 1964. The Lavender Lexicon: Dictionary of Gay Words and Phrases. San Francisco: Strait and Associates.

Strait, G. 1961. The Lavender Lexicon. San Francisco: Strait.

Streitmatter, Roger. 1995. Unspeakable: The Rise of the Gay and Lesbian Press in America. Paper presented at Third Lavender Languages and Linguistics Conference, American University, November.

Streitmatter, Roger.  2000.  The White House “10”.  Paper presented at the Eighth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Streitmatter, Roger.  2003.  How you Media can Help Combat Homophobia among American Teenagers.  Paper presented at the Tenth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Strong, Tom. 1998. Queer Interpellation and Problems of Performativity, or, "You Go, Girl!". Paper presented at the Sixth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Sullivan, Sara and Janis Hanson. 1997. More than Words: Grappling with LGBT Issues in the ESL Classroom. Paper presented at the Fifth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Sullivan, Sara.  2003.  The Language of Intersex: Pathology and Personhood.  Paper presented at the Tenth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Sullivan-Blum, Constance R. 1998. "What's Next - Blacks?" Race, Gender, Sexuality and the Christian Debate over the Inclusion of Homosexuals in the Church. Paper presented at the Sixth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Sullivan-Blum, Constance R.  2002.  “I am a Catholic Baptist Buddhist Pagan”: Multiple Discourses and Semiotics in LGBT Spirituality.  Paper presented at the Ninth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, February.

Suresha, Ron.  2000.  Grammbear and Urso-Masculinity: Neologisms and Linguistic Innovations in Bear-Specific Discourse.  Paper presented at the Eighth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Surkan, Kimberly.  2002.  To be or not to be Butch: The Queering Effect of Female Masculinity in Film.  Paper presented at the Ninth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, February.

Sweet, Michael. 1997. Talking About Feyglakh: A Queer Male Representation in Jewish American Speech. In Anna Livia and Kira Hall (eds.), Queerly Phrased: Language, Gender, and Sexuality. New York: Oxford University Press. Pp. 183-99.

Szymanski, Antoinette M. 1995. Taking the "Other" Out of Another: On Theorizing Lesbian Desire and the Digressive Limits of Queer Theory. Paper presented at the Third Lavender Languages and Linguistics Conference, American University, November.

Tannen, Deborah. 1996. Gay Men's English -- A Look Back. Paper presented at the Fourth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Tattelman, Ira. 1995. Speaking to the Gay Bathhouse: Communicating in Sexually Charged Space. Paper presented at the Third Lavender Languages and Linguistics Conference, American University, November 1995.

Tattelman, Ira. 1996. How to Make a Queer Monument. Paper presented at the Fourth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Tattelman, Ira. 1997. Space is Queer You Find It. Paper presented at the Fifth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Tattelman, Ira. 1998. Dropping the Soap within the Prison Setting. Paper presented at the Sixth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Tattelman, Ira.  2002.  The Hot Tub: Negotiating Sex at Suburban Parties.  Paper presented at the Ninth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, February.

Taub, Diane and Robert G. Leger. 1984. Argot and the Creation of Social Types in a Young Gay Community. Human Relations 37:181-189.

Taub, Sarah and Loraine Hutchins.  2000.  Sex and Spirit in the Western Cognitive Unconscious.  Paper presented at the Eighth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Taylor, Ben. 1996. Gay Men, Femininity, and /t/ in New Zealand English. In Janet Holmes (ed.), Wellington Working Papers in Linguistics 8:70-92.

Taylor, Darrell. 1997. My Queer Body: Performance of Desire. Paper presented at the Fifth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Thiverge, Yvon. 1975. Linguistic Oppression and Liberation. The Body Politic 19:25.

Thompson, Damien.  2000.  Negotiating Gay Presence in an Urban African American Community Undergoing Gentrification.  Paper presented at the Eighth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Thurlow, Crispin.  2003.  Sleights of Tongue: An Explicit Account of Homophobic Pejoratives and the ‘Invisible’ Abuse of LGBT High-Schoolers.  Paper presented at the Tenth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Tobler, Aaron.  2003.  Unnecessary Language: Framing Homophobic Messages in Newspaper Reports.  Paper presented at the Tenth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Tobler, Aaron. 2004. The Power of Place in Homophobic Discourse. Paper presented at the Eleventh Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, February

Tougaw, Jason.  2000.  Exposing the Invert: Oscar Wilde, Teleny, and the Sexologists.  Paper presented at the Eighth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Treichler, Paula. 1988. AIDS, Gender, and Biomedical Discourse: Current Contests for Meaning. In E. Fee and D.M. Fox (eds.), AIDS: The Burden of History. Berkeley CA: University of California Press. Pp. 190-266.

Treichler, Paula. 1988. AIDS, Homophobia, and Biomedical Discourse: An Epidemic of Signification. In Douglas Crimp (ed.), AIDS: Culture Analysis, Cultural Activism. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Pp. 31-37.

Treichler, Paula. 1992. AIDS, HIV, and the Cultural Construction of Meaning. In Gilbert Herdt and Shirley Lindenbaum (eds.), The Time of AIDS: Social Analysis, Theory, and Method. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. [Chapter 4]

Trepanier, Tania. 1997. Sexing and Racing the Voice: Valuing Narratives of Hybridity and Multiplicity. Paper presented at the Fifth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Tsang, Daniel. 1994. Notes on Queer 'n Asian Virtual Sex. Amerasia Journal 20.1:117-129.

Tucker, Scott. 1981. The Power of Naming. Christopher Street 58:60-63.

Tyler, Parker. 1993. Screening the Sexes: Homosexuality in the Movies 1972. New York: Da Capo. [Glossary of terms: xxv]

Ullman, Char.  1999.  He’s Gay for Sure, but...  Queer Collaborations and the Pedagogical Implications of One Teacher’s Coming Out in Class.  Paper presented at the Seventh Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Ullman, Char. 1998. "He's a guy for sure, but there are some things that are different": Performativity and the Pedagogical Implications of One's Teacher's Coming Out in Class. Paper presented at the Sixth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Valentine, David. 1998. "You Know What I Mean": Context and Gendered Language Use in the Realm Between Gay and Transgender. Paper presented at the Sixth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Valentine, James. 1997. Pots and Pans: Identification of Queer Japanese in Terms of Discrimination. In Anna Livia and Kira Hall (eds.), Queerly Phrased: Language, Gender, and Sexuality. New York: Oxford University Press.

van Helden, Caspar.  1999.  Boy Power:  Language Identity and Gay Youth Media.  Paper presented at the Seventh Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

van Helden, Caspar.  1999.  Language and the Dialectical Evolution of Gay Youth Culture.  Paper presented at the Seventh Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Viola, Edward. 1997. Transgender: How does this Biological and Sociological Phenomenon Find its Place in Modern Society? Paper presented at the Fifth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Wagner, Sarah. 2004. Gender, Power and Language Use in Seven Lesbian Families. Paper presented at the Eleventh Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, February.

Walters, Suzanna. 1996. From Here to Queer: Radical Feminism, Postmodernism and the Lesbian Menace (Or, Why Can't a Woman Be More Like a Fag?). Paper presented at the Fourth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September. Also in Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society. Volume 21, No. 4, pp. 830-69.

Ward, Gregory. 1997. Teaching LGBT Language from a Linguistic Perspective. Paper presented at the Fifth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Ward, Gregory. 1998. Studies on Gay & Lesbian Language: A Partial Bibliography. Located on the internet at: http://www.ling.nwu.edu/~ward/gaybib.html.

Warner, Michael, ed. 1993. Fear of a Queer Planet: Queer Politics and Social Theory. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Watney, Simon. 1994. Queer Epistemology: Activism, "Outing", and the Politics of Sexual Identities. Critical Quarterly 36.1:13-27.

Watt, Diane. 1997. Clippyng and Kyssyng in the Early Sixteenth Century: What Lesbians Do in Romances. In Anna Livia and Kira Hall (eds.), Queerly Phrased: Language, Gender, and Sexuality. New York: Oxford University Press.

Wayne, Linda. 1995. S/M, Catholicism and Lesbian Erotics: Challenging the Search for Language. Paper presented at the Third Lavender Languages and Linguistics Conference, American University, November.

Webbink, Patricia. 1981. Nonverbal Behavior and Lesbian/Gay Orientation. In Clara Mayo and Nancy Henley (eds.), Gender and Non-Verbal Behavior. New York: Springer. Pp. 253-259.

Weinberg, Jessica and Robert L. Whitman.  1999.  Getting a Grip: Learning Masculinity in the Movies.  Paper presented at the Seventh Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Weinrich, James D. 1993. The Language of Gay Men's Sexual Behavior: An Addendum. The Journal of Sex Research 30:97-8.

Weiss, Paul J. and Robert Hahn. 1999. Lavender Languages, Pink Triangles and a Rainbow Flag: Male Sexual Orientation and English Color Term Usage. Paper presented at the Second Annual High Desert Student Conference in Linguistics, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, March.

Wells, Brett David.  2003.  Semantic Universals of Homosexualities.  Paper presented at the Tenth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Wells, Joel W. and William B. Kline. 1987. Self-Disclosure of Homosexual Orientation. Journal of Social Psychology 127:191-97.

Wells, Joel W. 1989. Sexual Language Usage in Different Interpersonal Contexts: A Comparison of Gender and Sexual Orientation. Archives of Sexual Behavior 18.2:127-143.

Wells, Joel W. 1990. The Sexual Vocabularies of Heterosexual and Homosexual Males and Females for Communicating Erotically with a Sexual Partner. Archives of Sexual Behavior 19.2:139-147.

Westwood, Gordon. 1960. A Minority: A Report on the Life of the Male Homosexual in Great Britain. London: Longmans, Green and Co. Ltd.

White, C. Todd. 1998. "Dear Pedro": An Epistolary Battle over Gender Conformity. Paper presented at the Sixth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

White, Edmund. 1980. The Political Vocabulary of Homosexuality. In Leonard Michaels and Christopher Ricks (eds.), The State of the Language. Berkeley: University of California Press.

White, Todd. 1997. On the Pragmatics of a Transgendered Style of Speaking (from a Transsexual Perspective). Paper presented at the Fifth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

White, Todd.  2003.  Agents and Agencies: Transsexuals on Parole.  Paper presented at the Tenth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Whittle, Stephen. 1998. Sex, Sex, Sex, and Sex. Paper presented at the Sixth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Wilchins, Riki Anne. 1995. Bodies That Matter, Bodies That Don't: The Transsexual Body in a Post-Feminist World. Paper presented at the Third Lavender Languages and Linguistics Conference, American University, November.

Wilchins, Riki Anne. 1996. The Erotic Invention of Your Genitals and Other Linguistic Illusions. Paper presented at the Fourth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Wilkerson, Abby. 1998. Medicalizing the Monstrous, Monstering the Medical. Paper presented at the Sixth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Willhite, Erika.  2000.  Differences between Heterosexual and Homosexual Representations in Advertising.  Paper presented at the Eighth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Williams, Callan. 1995. Can You Lie about Your Gender? Paper presented at the Third Lavender Languages and Linguistics Conference, American University, November.

Williams, W.L. 1993. Being Gay and Doing Research on Homosexuality in Non-Western Cultures. The Journal of Sex Research 30.2.115-120. [Not specifically on language research, but has interesting comments on (intimate) participant observation! (Anonymous)]

Williamson, Dan. 1998. Resistance, Self-Fashioning, and Gay Identity. Paper presented at the Sixth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Winder, Roger V. Placidus. 1992. The Influence of Sexual Orientation on the Description of People. Honours Academic Exercise, Department of English, National University of Singapore.

Wittig, Monique and Sande Zeig. 1979. Lesbian Peoples: Material for a Dictionary. New York: Avon.

Wittmer, Jill L. 1991. Tongue Techniques: An Investigation of Lesbian Language. Rutgers University, 5th Annual Lesbian and Gay Studies Conference, November.

Wolfe, Susan J. 1988. The rhetoric of heterosexism. In Alexandra D. Todd and Sue Fisher (eds.), Gender and Discourse: The Power of Talk. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Pp. 199-224.

Wolff, Kristina. 1995. [Something on language in newspapers covering gay rights campaigns.] Paper presented at the Third Lavender Languages and Linguistics Conference, American University, November.

Wong, Andrew and Qing Zhang. 2000. The Linguistic Construction of the Tongzhi Community. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 10.2: 248-278.

Wood, Kathleen M. 1994. Life Stories as Artifacts of a Culture: Lesbian Coming-Out Stories. In Mary Bucholtz, A. C. Liang, Laurel Sutton, and Caitlin Hines (eds.), Cultural Performances: Proceedings of the Third Berkeley Women and Language Conference. Berkeley, CA: Berkeley Women and Language Group. Pp. 777-786.

Wood, Kathleen M. 1997. Narrative Iconicity in Electronic-Mail Lesbian Coming-Out Stories. In Anna Livia and Kira Hall (eds.), Queerly Phrased: Language, Gender, and Sexuality. New York: Oxford University Press. Pp. 257-273.

Wright, Josh.  1999.  Queer Gossip.  Paper presented at the Seventh Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Wright, Les.  2000.  From Anthropology to Stars: The Transformation of the Quasi Social Bear Codes into the Moral Measure of Bearishness.  Paper presented at the Eighth Conference on Lavender Languages and Linguistics, American University, September.

Wu, Samuel Wei Chiang. 2000. 'Queen's' English: An Analysis of Gay Discourse. Honours Academic Exercise, Department of English, National University of Singapore.

Yorke, Liz. 1995. Becoming a Lesbian: Adrienne Rich and Compulsory Heterosexuality. Paper presented at the Third Lavender Languages and Linguistics Conference, American University, November.

Young, Hugh. 1996. Hugh Young's Lexicon of Polari. Located on the internet at: http://www2.prestel.co.uk/cello/Polari.htm.

Young, Stacey. 1992. Breaking Silence about the "B-word": Bisexual Identity and Lesbian-Feminist Discourse. In Beth Reba Weise (ed.), Closer to Home: Bisexuality and Feminism. Seattle: Seal Press. Pp. 75-87.

Zeve, Barry. 1993. The Queen's English: Metaphor in Gay Speech. English Today 35.9.3:3-9. [This article deals mainly with two areas of linguistic usage in the gay community: the term (metaphor) closet and what the author calls "names" (what others might term "labels"), the latter including fag, dyke, queer, etc. Besides including references to the standard literature on metaphor, the author also has a discussion of a few gay usages and appends a short "gay glossary". (Ron Southerland)]

Zwicky, Arnold M. 1997. Two Lavender Issues for Linguists. In Anna Livia and Kira Hall (eds.), Queerly Phrased: Language, Gender, and Sexuality. New York: Oxford University Press. Pp. 25-45.

Links:

Gregory Ward
Department of Linguistics
Northwestern University

Comments? Additions? Corrections? Send me e-mail: gw@nwu.edu