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tabla (tablah), a set of two small hand drums used in Indian music.

Tahsil, Tahsildar: see TEHSIL, TEHSILDAR.

Taj Khan, of Jalore, who joined the force of Maharana PRATAP SINGH I after the Battle of HALDIGHATI (1576); later defeated by the Mughals.

Takhat (Takht) Singh. There were several leading members of clans who had this name. They came from Badesar (Choondawat); Bansi (Saktawat); Bedla (Chauhan Rajput); Peethwas (Choondawat); Satola (Choondawat); and Thakur Takhat Singh (Saktawat), a veteran of many successful campaigns against the marauding MARATHAS; he managed to repulse all their attempts to take over the Sangawat domain of Bassi. For a story about his grandson, see ARJUN SINGH SANGAWAT.

Tal (Choondawat), 140 km. from Udaipur near Lasani; jagir of the descendants of Ram Singh, son of Man Singh; an offshoot of AMET.

Genealogy: Ram Singh; Pratap Singh; Jorawar Singh; Jai Singh; Nahar Singh; Urjan Singh; Bakhtawar Singh; Shivdan Singh; Mokham Singh.

Talahiti, a low-lying area; another name for Chittor's lower township.

Tali River, one of the three water courses that Maharana RAJ SINGH I dammed to create RAJSAMAND LAKE. The other two were the Gomati and Kelwa.

Taloli (Choondawat), jagir of the descendants of Sultan Singh to whom Maharana Amar Singh II (1698-1710) granted the estate; an offshoot of the Deogadh family.

Genealogy: Sultan Singh; Khuman Singh; Chaturbhuj; Fateh Singh; Budh Singh; Raghunath Singh; Arjun Singh; Bairisal.

talwar, (Hindi) a sword or scimitar, favourite weapon of Rajput warriors. They used a heavy sword to fight battles on a one-to-one basis, while a lighter sword was mainly used in group warfare. The force of body, arm movement and sword weight all counted for successful blows.

tamasha, (Hindi) a brief street performance of any form of entertainment, including with monkeys and bears.

Tambavati: see AHAR.

Tambavatinagari, an ancient city, which was later renamed Anandpur, and then AHAR.

Tana (Jhala), 62 km. from Udaipur; jagir of the descendants of Nath Singh, second son of Kirti Singh of BARI SADRI. Their title is 'Raj'. Nath Singh's fifth descendant, Devi Singh was a member of the MEHDRAJ SABHA (Civil Court) during the reign of Maharana Sajjan Singh (1874-1884). The present Raj Rana served Bhagwat Singh Mewar.

Genealogy: Nath Singh; Gulab Singh; Kishore Singh; Hamir Singh; Bhairav Singh; Devi Singh; Amar Singh; Ratan Singh; Girdhan Singh; and Hari Singh.

Tandava, in Hindu mythology, the dance that shook the world into creation when danced by SHIVA in his incarnation as Nataraja.

Tarachand, the brother of Maharana Pratap Singh I's Prime Minister, BHAMA SHAH. He was the Hakim (Governor) of Godwar in Mewar, later part of Marwar. In the ongoing battles against the Mughals after the Battle of HALDIGHATI (1576), the forces of Imperial commander, Shabaj Khan, encircled him. Tarachand fell from his horse, wounded during the battle.

Tarain (Taravadi), Battles of (1191 and 1192). In the turbulent times of the 12th century, when Islam was bent on taking over India, and Mohammad of Ghur (from Afghanistan) marched beyond the Punjab, Prithviraj III of Ajmer advanced to oppose the Muslim invaders with a large army. It included one hundred and fifty Rajput princes and their forces, including Rawal MATHAN SINGH of Mewar. Islam had been seeking the conversion of the world at the point of the sword. The whole of the Middle East, all of North Africa and part of Spain had fallen; the libraries of Alexandria and Damascus had been destroyed; the world was threatened. When the Muslim horde entered India, not to pillage but to conquer, the Rajput alliance met them in two battles (1191 and 1192) at Tarain (also known as Taravadi), near Thaneshwar, and about 16 km. northwest of Delhi. The Rajputs won the first conflict but, after a desperate fight in the second battle in 1192 (also called the First Battle of Panipat, 48 km. from Tarain), Prithviraj was captured and executed. The seriousness of this defeat for India cannot be exaggerated. The victory of Mohammad of Ghur was decisive, and laid the foundation of the Sultanate of Delhi and, for Hinduism, the period was critical. James TOD, in his ANNALS AND ANTIQUITIES OF RAJASTHAN:

Scenes of devastation, plunder and massacre commenced, which lasted through ages during which nearly all that was sacred in religion or celebrated in art was destroyed by these ruthless and barbarous invaders. The noble Rajput, with a spirit of constancy and enduring courage, seized every opportunity to turn upon his oppressor ... But all was of no avail; fresh supplies were pouring in, and dynasty succeeded dynasty ...

After this defeat, the role of the kings of Mewar became clear: They accepted this responsibility of defence in preference to the life of relative security of a slave. And so began centuries of war with the Muslims, lasting until the Mughal dynasty began to fall apart after the death of Emperor Aurangzeb (1707).

Tatariya dirhams (Gadhiya paisa), ancient coins. See AHAR.

tawaifs, dancers, entertainers and prostitutes by profession. Whoever paid them could enjoy their services. As such, they were not courtesans (who had more class, and were far more selective and much more expensive).

Taziya (Taziyah), Udaipur; a religious festival among the Shi'ah branch of Islam (those that acknowledge Ali as the fourth caliph, and his descendants, as the only legitimate successors of Mohammed the Prophet), that commemorates the murder of Hussain, a son of Ali, at Karbala, Iraq, in AD 680. Muslims celebrate Taziya in the first days of the first Muslim month (Muharram) culminating with the historic date of Hussain's death. The Taziya is commonly referred to as a Passion play. During the first nine days, religious notables recite, with great emotion, details from Hussain's life, while groups of men dance wildly in the streets inflicting wounds upon themselves with chains. On the tenth day, a symbolic coffin is carried in procession, followed by horses, bloodied men, and a steed representing Hussain's war-horse. The long performance, consisting of some forty to fifty scenes, is introduced by lamentations chanted by a male choir, answered by the mourning wail of a female choir. Sometimes the performance becomes so passionate and real that actual murder has been known to occur on stage.

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