Sanguo Zhi Biography - Xiahou Yuan (Miaocai)
SGZ Book 9 Book of Wei 9

Translated by Sun Bofu

Xiahou Yuan, styled Miaocai, was [Xiahou] Dun’s younger brother. When the Grand Ancestor resided at home, there was a governmental affair. [Xiahou] Yuan was accused of blame. The Grand Ancestor rescued him by presenting an excuse. When the Grand Ancestor was recruiting soldiers he used Yuan as a major. He rode as Controller Commandant to follow Cao Cao. When they went to Chen Liu he became the Grand Administer of Yinchuan. He took part in battle with Yuan Shao at Guan Du as Colonel Who Controls the army. [Yuan] Shao was defeated. He sends a messenger to supervise the provisions of YanZhou, YuZhou, and XuZhou. When the food for the army ran low, [Xiahou] Yuan passes on food one after the other and the army was inspired. Chang Xi rebelled and he was dispatched to stop him and defeat him. He did not prevail. Again Yuan was dispatched to prohibit the rebellion. He forthwith struck him. 10 villages surrenders and [Chang] Xi comes out to surrender. [Xiahou] Yuan returns and is appointed/pays respect to Colonel Who Sets Examples for the Army. In jinan and luan Yellow Turbans under Xu He and Sima Ju. They killed the local Zhang (T1) [Xiahou] Yuan used Taishan, Qi, and Pingyuan soldiers to attack. He greatly defeated them and beheaded [Xu] He. He pacified many regions and he received his provisions in the valley to provide his army. In the 12th year [208], the Grand Ancestor attacked Sun Quan and returned. [Cao Cao] made use of [Xiahou] Yuan to supervise all the armies to attack Lu Jiang rebel Lei Xu. Xu was defeated. Again [Xiahou] Yuan attacked west to protect the army. He supervised Xu Huang to strike Taishan bandits and captured 20 villages. He beheaded the bandit leader Shang Yao and slaughtered his city. He followed to attack Han Sui and battled in Weinan. Again he supervised Zhu Ling to pacify Yumi Di (T2). He took part to gather with the Grand Ancestor in Anding. Yang Qiu surrendered.

In the 17th year [212], the Grand Ancestor returned to Ye. He used [Xiahou] Yuan to act as General-in-chief Who Protects the Army and supervise Zhu Lin and Lu Zhao to station soldiers at Chang An. He attacked and defeated Nanshan bandit Liu Xiong and many came to surrender. Later he encircled then overtook Liang Xing at Hu. He beheaded [Liang] Xing and was conferred as Marquis of Bocheng Pavilion. Ma Chao surrounded the Inspector of LiangZhou Wei Kang at Ji. [Xiahou] Yuan went to rescue [Wei] Kang but did not arrive in time, hence [Wei] Kang was defeated. When [Xiahou Yuan] was still 200 li (T3) away from Ji, [Ma] Chao came out to fight in battle. [Xiahou Yuan] could not prevail. The Di rebelled and so [Xiahou] Yuan lead his army to return. In the 19th year [214], Zhao Qu and Yin Feng scheme to punish [Ma] Chao (T4). Jiang Xi recruited soldiers from Lu City to respond to them. [Zhao] Qu ticked [Ma] Chao by persuading him to go out. He attacked [Jiang] Xu but [Zhao Qu] killed [Ma] Chao’s wife [and family]. [Ma] Chao flees to Han Zhong and returns to surround Qishan. [Jiang] Xu became worried and looked for assistance. Many officers wanted to wait for orders from Cao Cao. [Xiahou] Yuan said, “The Duke is in Ye. It is four thousand li there and back. Jiang Xu and his forces will be destroyed before any report can reach him. There is no way to bring help when it is needed." He forthwith sent out Zhang He to lead the march forward with 5,000 men and horses. Xiahou Yuan himself supervised provision and the rear. [Zhang] He arrived at the Wei river and [Ma] Chao used several thousand the Di and Qiang tribesman to oppose him. They did not fight and [Ma] Chao fled. [Zhang] He advanced to collect his equipment. [Xiahou] Yuan arrived and many districts surrendered. Han Sui was located in Xianqin and [Xiahou] Yuan wanted to attack him. [Han] Sui fled. [Xiahou] Yuan collected [Han] Sui’s army provisions and he pursued to Yuelang City. He was 20 li behind [Han] Sui. Many generals wanted to attack him [Han Sui] but someone suggested that they attack the Di barbarians. [Xiahou] Yuan considered [Han] Sui’s soldiers to be well trained and Xingguo walls strong and that to attack would not be easy either way. He thought that the best plan would be to attack Changli. At Changli many Qiang were located in [Han] Sui’s army. It was certain that he would go to rescue his family. It appeared as though the Qiang were left alone to guard Zegu. The soldiers of Changli come to fight in the plains. Its was possible to take [Han Sui] captive. [Xiahou] Yuan thereupon left a general to guard military supplies and he himself march the soldiers and cavalry to Changli. They attack and burn the Qiang stationed there. He beheads and captured great numbers. Many Qiang were in [Han] Sui’s army and they returned to Zhongla. [Han] Sui made to rescue Changli and takes part to oppose [Xiahou] Yuan’s army. Many officers saw [Han] Sui’s numbers and loathed him. They suggested that a moat and stockade be built around the city and only then take part in battle. [Xiahou] Yuan said, “We have marched and counter-marched a thousand li. If we now start building and digging, our soldiers will be exhausted and useless. Though the bandits come in great numbers, they can easily be deal with." He thereupon beat the drums and [Han] Sui’s army was greatly defeated and took his banner. He returned to Lueyang and advanced to surround Xingguo. The King of the Di, Qianwan, fled to Ma Chao. Many Di men surrendered. [Xiahou Yuan] shifted to attack the Chuge in Gaoping and in all cases they were scattered. He received his provisions in the valley by oxen and horse. Thereupon [Xiahou] Yuan was given Jie (T)

Earlier, Song Jian of the Fuhan used the disorder in LiangZHou to name himself King of the Sources of the River Who Will Pacify Han. The Grand Ancestor sent a messenger to tell [Xiahou] Yuan to supervise all generals to punish [Song] Jian. He arrived there and surrounded the Fuhan. Within a moon he prevail. [Song] Jian was beheaded and [Xiahou Yuan] installed a leader for the Fuhan. [Xiahou] Yuan leaves and dispatched Zhang He to go to Pinghe Pass and then cross the He River to enter Xiaohuang. West of the He River many exhausted Qiang surrender so that Longyou was pacified. The Grand Ancestor gave an order saying, “Song Jian served to cause disorder for 30 years. [Xiahou] Yuan with one stroke exterminated him. Hubu pass is safe and we cannot be beat. Zhong Ni says, ‘I am inferior to you’.” In the 21st year [216], [Xiahou Yuan]’s fief increased 300 households over a previous 800 households [bringing the total to 11,000 households]. He returned to attack the Di and Qiang of WuDu. HE accepted the Di terms of 100,000 Hu. The Grand Ancestor attacked west at Zhang Lu. [Xiahou] Yuan used LiangZhou Marquis of zhujiang Wang Yi to gather with the Grand Ancestor in Xiuting. The Grand Ancestor led to see the Qiang and Hu tribes. He uses [Xiahou] Yuan to make them fear him. Hui Lu surrendered and then all of Han Zhong was pacified. [Xiahou] Yuan was used to act as General-in-Chief Who Protects the Capitol in addition to supervising Zhang He, Xu Huang, and the Pingba region. The Grand Ancestor returns to the Capitol. He leaves [Xiahou] Yuan to guard Han Zhong and appoints him as General-in-Chief Who Conquers the West. In the 23rd year [218], Liu Bei closed off Yangping. [Xiahou] Yuan led many generals to oppose him. They each guarded for consecutive years. In the 1st month of the 24th year [219], [Liu] Bei at night surrounded Lujue. [Xiahou] Yuan sent a messenger to Zhang He to protect Dongguo and he himself to protect Nanguo. [Liu] Bei’s army battled [Zhang] He but [Zhang] He’s army could not prevail. [Xiahou] Yuan divided his force in half to go and assist [Zhang] He. [Liu] Bei raided his army and [Xiahou] Yuan died in battle. He was given the posthumous title of Marquis of Min.

At first, although [Xiahou] Yuan frequently prevailed, the Grand Ancestor warned him saying, “The commander of an army should sometimes be timid and weak; you cannot rely merely upon your courage. The commander takes courage as the basis, but he must always act wisely and with forethought. If he thinks only of physical bravery, a common fellow can match him."

[Xiahou] Yuan was married to the Grand Ancestor’s younger sister. His eldest son, [Xiahou] Heng was friends with the Grand Ancestor’s younger brother the Marquis of Haiyang, [Cao] Nu. Because of this he was spoiled and pampered. [Xiahou] Heng inherited nobility and was conferred as the Marquis of Anning Pavilion. During the Huang Chu period rank was conferred on his son [Xiahou] Ba. During the Tai He period, [Xiahou] Ba’s 4 brothers were given nobility and in all cases conferred as minor Marquises. During the Zheng Shi period, he served to punish Shu and protect the army as General of the Left. He advanced to be conferred as Marquis of Bochang Pavilion. Cao Shuang gave him generosity. When he heard [Cao] Shuang had been punished he became suspicious and decided to go to Shu instead of death. He used [Xiahou] Yuan’s former merit to pardon [Xiahou] Ba’s son. He moved to Yuelang region. [Xiahou] Ba had a younger brother [Xiahou] Wei who was an official for the Inspector of YanZhou. [Xiahou] Wei’s younger brother [Xiahou] Hui, was the Grand Administer of Yuean. [Xiahou] Hui’s younger brother [Xiahou] He, was the Intendant of Henan. [Xiahou] Heng died and his son [Xiahou] Ji succeeded him. [Xiahou] Ji served as General of the Gentleman of the Household of the Energetic Tigers. [Xiahou] Ji died and his son [Xiahou] Bao succeeded him.



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