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June 22, 2004



MOZART Overture from Les Petits Riens
MOZART Concerto in C major, K. 299, for flute, harp, and

Rondeau: Allegro
MOZART Sinfonia concertante in E-flat major, K. 297b, for winds
and orchestra

Andantino con variazioni - Andante
MOZART Symphony No. 31 in D major, K. 297 ("Paris")
Allegro assai

This program runs approximately 1 hour, 50 minutes.

Lexus is the exclusive automotive sponsor of The Philadelphia Orchestra.

The Steinway Piano is the official piano of The Philadelphia Orchestra and The Kimmel Center for the Performing Arts.

Peter Oundjian was recently named music director of the Toronto Symphony, beginning in the 2004-2005 season. He is currently artistic director of the Caramoor International Music Festival in Katonah, New York, and principal guest conductor of the Colorado Symphony. Previously, he was music director of the Nieuw Sinfonietta in Amsterdam from 1998-2003 and the first violinist of the Tokyo String Quartet for 16 years. Mr. Oundjian's 2003-2004 season included return visits to the Houston, Phoenix, and Saint Louis symphonies; the Saint Paul Chamber Orchestra; and the Nieuw Sinfonietta; as well as regular appearances with the Colorado and Toronto symphonies. Additional engagements included debuts in Milwaukee, Berlin, and Toulouse, among others. Along with concerts at the Caramoor Festival, Mr. Oundjian will lead the Chicago Symphony at the Ravinia Festival for the third summer in a row, and return to the Aspen and Grand Teton music festivals.

Mr. Oundjian's recent engagements include debuts with the Academy of St. Martin in the Fields, the Zurich Tonhalle Orchestra, and the Boston, Chicago, and San Francisco symphonies; and return engagements with the Detroit Symphony, the Minnesota Orchestra, the Los Angeles Philharmonic, the San Diego Symphony, the Cincinnati Symphony, the Utah Symphony, and the Vancouver Symphony.

Born in Canada, Mr. Oundjian was educated in England, where he studied the violin with Manoug Parikian. During this time, Mr. Oundjian was chosen to participate in three recording sessions with Benjamin Britten, which sparked his enthusiasm for conducting. Subsequently, he attended the Royal College of Music in London, where he completed his studies in 18 months and was awarded the gold medal for most distinguished student and the Stoutzker Prize for excellence in violin playing.

Mr. Oundjian completed his violin training at the Juilliard School, where he studied with Ivan Galamian, Itzhak Perlman, and Dorothy DeLay. While at Juilliard, he had the opportunity to conduct for Herbert von Karajan during an historic three-day series of master classes. In 1980 Mr. Oundjian received first prize at the International Violin Competition in Vina Del Mar, Chile. His recordings include a disc of music by Beethoven with the Nieuw Sinfonietta on the BIS label, in addition to numerous recordings with the Tokyo String Quartet. Mr. Oundjian made his Philadelphia Orchestra debut at the 2002 Absolutely Mozart Festival and his subscription debut in March 2003. He is currently a faculty member of the Yale School of Music and lives with his family in Connecticut.

Principal Flute Jeffrey Khaner joined The Philadelphia Orchestra in 1990. Previously, he was principal flute of the Cleveland Orchestra from 1982-1990. A native of Montreal, he began his studies there and later received his bachelor's degree from the Juilliard School. He has performed concertos ranging from Bach and Mozart, to Neilsen, Ibert, and Corigliano, among others. Mr. Khaner made his Philadelphia Orchestra solo debut at the Mann Center in July 1991 and his debut at Carnegie Hall's Weill Recital Hall in 2000.

Mr. Khaner's debut solo recording, American Flute Music, on the Avie label pairs works by Copland and Piston with 20th-century rarities by Eldin Burton and Beryl Rubinstein, and the world premiere recording of Jennifer Higdon's Autumn Reflection. This was the first in a series of Mr. Khaner's recordings for Avie; British Flute Music was released in 2002, and French Flute Music this past summer.

Mr. Khaner has been a faculty member of the Curtis Institute of Music since 1985. He sponsors an annual composition competition for students at Curtis, which has resulted in several new commissions. Mr. Khaner is a Yamaha performing artist and clinician.

Elizabeth Hainen, principal harp of The Philadelphia Orchestra, has performed with symphony orchestras and in recital throughout the United States, Europe, and the Far East. She joined The Philadelphia Orchestra in 1994 after serving as principal harp for the Kennedy Center Opera House and the Atlanta Symphony. Born in Toledo, Ohio, she began harp studies at the age of ten and continued with Susann McDonald at the Indiana University School of Music, where she was awarded a performance certificate and two degrees in performance. Ms. Hainen has been the recipient of numerous awards, including winner of the American String Teachers Association and the Chicago Symphony Civic Orchestra competitions, and silver medalist at the First USA International Harp Competition, where she was awarded the Orrego-Salas Prize. Her debut solo recording of 19th-century Romantic works was recently released on the Naxos label.

An advocate of the expansion of her instrument's repertoire, Ms. Hainen has given several world premiere performances and recordings including works by Pulitzer Prize-winner Bernard Rands, and she has commissioned a solo work for harp by Lowell Liebermann, which will be premiered this week at the American Harp Society's National Convention. She made her Philadelphia Orchestra solo debut on Valentine's Day 1996.

Peter Smith joined The Philadelphia Orchestra in 1991 as associate principal oboe. A graduate of the Curtis Institute of Music, he studied with Philadelphia Orchestra Principal Oboe Richard Woodhams. Mr. Smith has also studied with Louis Rosenblatt, Marc Lifschey, John Mack, and Lawrence Thorstenberg. In July 1994, Mr. Smith was featured in The Philadelphia Orchestra's performance of Martinu's Symphonia concertante for violin, oboe, cello, bassoon, and orchestra, under the baton of Ion Marin at the Mann Center.

Mr. Smith has appeared as soloist with the Newark (Delaware) Symphony, the Colorado Festival Orchestra, the Curtis Symphony, the Camerata Classica, and the Concerto Soloists Chamber Orchestra. He has spent his summers participating in such festivals as the Colorado Music Festival, where he was principal oboe in 1991. He is currently on the faculty of Temple University.

Ricardo Morales, principal clarinet, joined The Philadelphia Orchestra in 2003 from the Metropolitan Opera Orchestra, where he was appointed principal clarinet in 1993 at the age of 21. A native of San Juan, Puerto Rico, he began his studies at the Escuela Libre de Musica, along with his five siblings, all of whom are distinguished musicians. He continued his studies at Indiana University, where he received his artist diploma, and the Cincinnati College Conservatory. Mr. Morales was also principal clarinet of the Florida Symphony, and he has appeared as soloist with the Chicago, Cincinnati, Indianapolis, North Carolina, Puerto Rico, Florida, and Columbus symphonies, among others. He has soloed with the Metropolitan Opera Orchestra under the baton of James Levine in Carnegie Hall and on two European tours. Mr. Morales has performed at the Kennedy Center, on the Metropolitan Museum of Art Concert Series, with the Chamber Music Society of Lincoln Center, and on NBC's Today.

Mr. Morales has been an active recitalist and has given master classes at many universities, music festivals, and woodwind conferences. He currently serves on the faculties of Juilliard, the Manhattan School of Music, Mannes College, and the Verbier Academy in Switzerland.

Nolan Miller became principal horn of The Philadelphia Orchestra at the start of the 1978 - 1979 season, when he replaced the retiring Mason Jones. Mr. Miller joined the Orchestra in 1965 as co-principal horn upon graduation from the Curtis Institute of Music.

A native of Hamburg, Pennsylvania, Mr. Miller began to study the piano at the age of five. While still in elementary school he gave concerts and demonstrations in musical dictation, solfeggio, and piano at teachers' conventions in Harrisburg and Reading. He began French horn in the ninth grade and later entered Lebanon Valley College on scholarship, where he studied horn with James Thurmond, a former member of The Philadelphia Orchestra. After receiving a bachelor's degree in music education from that school, Mr. Miller continued his studies at the Curtis Institute with Mason Jones. As a member of the Curtis Horn Quartet, he was an Orchestra Senior Student Audition winner and performed as soloist with the Philadelphians at a Student Concert in 1964.

Mr. Miller is a member of the Philadelphia Chamber Ensemble.

Daniel Matsukawa, principal bassoon, came to The Philadelphia Orchestra in 1999 from the National Symphony, where he was principal bassoon for three seasons. He was also principal bassoon of the Virginia, Saint Louis, and Memphis symphonies. Born in Argentina to Japanese parents, he moved with his family to New York City at age three and began bassoon lessons at age 13. The following year, he won his first competition and performed Mozart's Bassoon Concerto with a professional orchestra in New York. He was a scholarship student of the pre-college division of both the Juilliard and Manhattan schools of music, where he studied with Harold Goltzer and Alan Futterman. He went on to study at Juilliard before attending the Curtis Institute, where he was a pupil of Bernard Garfield.

Mr. Matsukawa has been a recipient of numerous awards and prizes, including a solo concerto debut in Carnegie Hall at the age of 19. Since then, he has appeared as soloist with the National, Viriginia, and Curtis symphonies; the New York String Orchestra; and the Auckland (New Zealand) Philharmonic, among others. Mr. Matsukawa is an active chamber musician and has performed and toured with the Marlboro Festival. He has also performed at the Tanglewood, Aspen, Blossom, and Pacific music festivals.

The Music


"My Dear Son: I have read your letter of the 4th with amazement and horror." So Leopold Mozart began a candid letter in February 1778. At the end of the previous summer the 21-year-old Mozart had quit the job he despised in Salzburg and set off with his mother to seek fame and fortune abroad. Leopold watched from a distance as his son tried to gain a foothold in Munich, Augsburg, and Mannheim. After more than four months Leopold was fed up. He ordered his son to proceed without delay to France: "Win fame and make money in Paris."

Mozart obeyed. He had been to the French capital as a child and returned with high hopes that were eventually thwarted. His six-month stay in Paris produced a limited amount of music, some of which we hear today. Mozart related his activities in long letters to his father, to whom he eventually had to break devastating news: His wife, Mozart's mother, died on July 3. Only the brilliance of Mozart's music belies the troubles of his Parisian sojourn.




Mozart and his mother arrived in Paris on March 23, 1778, six months after they had left Salzburg in pursuit of money and glory. Mozart quickly reestablished ties with Baron Friedrich von Grimm, who had taken an interest in the young composer when he had last been in Paris 12 years earlier. He sought out other powerful figures as well and began to write some of the music we hear today, scoring his first real success with the "Paris" Symphony at a concert on June 18. About this time his mother was taken ill and died on July 3. Mozart wrote to his father that day telling of her illness, but withholding the tragic end. At the same time he sent a letter to Abbé Bullinger, a family friend in Salzburg, that told the full story: "Mourn with me, my friend! This has been the saddest day of my life." He asked him to break the news: "Do what you think best - use every means to comfort them. … Watch over my dear father and my dear sister for me."

Six days later Mozart wrote to his father again, aware that by then he knew everything. After relating the personal events in Paris, Mozart slowly began to relate his musical activities and plans. He mentions the commission from his friend, the celebrated dance master Jean Georges Noverre, who "only needed half a ballet and for this I composed the music. Six pieces in it are composed by others and are made up entirely of wretched old French airs, while the overture and contredanses, about twelve pieces in all, have been contributed by me." The ballet was first presented on June 11 at the Paris Opéra at the end of a performance of Niccolò Piccinni's opera Le finte gemelle. There is no evidence that it was ever performed again in Mozart's lifetime.

Mozart wrote little formal ballet music, although dance appears within his operas, such as a miniature suite in Idomeneo and the fandango in The Marriage of Figaro. His greatest tour-de-force is in the first act finale of Don Giovanni in which three different orchestras simultaneously play three different types of dances in contrasting meters. (This is Mozart's brilliant way of commenting upon the distinct social status of the peasant, middle-class, and aristocratic characters.) Taking a larger view, as Wye Allanbrook has done, much of Mozart's music is connected in some way with the gestures of dance and movement and is able to "move an audience through representations of its own humanity." A deft combination of celebratory majesty, dance, and delicacy distinguish the Overture from Les Petits Riens.

- Christopher H. Gibbs

The first and only Philadelphia Orchestra performance of Mozart's music from Les Petits Riens was on a Youth Concert in February 1937, with the Mary Binney Montgomery Dancers and Eugene Ormandy on the podium. Excerpts from the ballet were also performed on a Children's Concert in January 1956, with members of the Ballet Guild and Samuel Antek conducting.

The Overture runs approximately three minutes in performance.



Despite his father's high hopes for his son Wolfgang's musical achievement in the French capital, the composer garnered few performances on his trip. Not even Baron von Grimm, who 15 years earlier had welcomed the seven-year-old prodigy into some of the city's most influential court circles, was able to help much. The death of Mozart's beloved mother, Maria Anna, in early July was one of the darkest chapters of the composer's life. Nevertheless he did receive a handful of commissions, including some from the Concert Spirituel, the renowned performing series for which he probably wrote the Sinfonia concertante we hear next on this concert. Still, the reception of Mozart's music by the Parisians of 1778 was, on the whole, polite but not overwhelming.

Baron von Grimm did at least introduce the Mozarts to the city's prominent noble families that spring. One of these was the household of Adrien-Louis Bonnières, the Count of Guines, a diplomat who was also a music lover and talented flutist. Mozart wrote to his father of having met a Count who was an "unforgettable flutist," and his daughter, who was a "magnificent harpist." The composer doubtless had performed in the Count's home, and before long he was giving composition lessons to his daughter as well.

In April he wrote the Concerto in C major, K. 299, for father and daughter, apparently on commission; yet four months later the Count had still not paid for the piece, as made clear in Mozart's letter to his father of July 31: "The Duc de Guines tried to pay me for only one lesson when I'd taught two, this plus the fact that he has had my Concerto for Flute and Harp for four months and still hasn't paid me!" Poor Mozart apparently never received the commission fee. Little is known of the work's early performance history, though it seems probable that father and daughter played it first.

It is a work of delicious and unfettered charm. Light and uncomplicated, it balances the soloists in perfect equilibrium with the delicate orchestral scoring, never losing sight of the fact that this is a "double concerto" - i.e., a work for soloists, and not a symphonie concertante or ensemble concerto. (Nevertheless the last movement, in which oboes and horns assert themselves in a solo capacity, contains some elements of the concertante.) The opening Allegro is a highly sophisticated first-movement concerto structure, with striking contrasts of theme and texture. The Andantino, an operatic and lyrical duet for the soloists, with minimal accompaniment, gives way to a sparkling Rondeau containing the dash and vigor that looks ahead to Mozart's later concertos.

- Paul J. Horsley

André Maquarre was the flutist and Carlos Salzedo the harpist in The Philadelphia Orchestra's first performances of the Flute and Harp Concerto, in April 1919; Leopold Stokowski was on the podium. Most recently, Jeffrey Khaner and Elizabeth Hainen were soloists in performances in January 1998 under Wolfgang Sawallisch's baton.

The Concerto runs approximately 30 minutes in performance.



One thing is known for certain: During his 1778 visit to Paris, Mozart composed a Sinfonia concertante for flute, oboe, horn, bassoon, and orchestra, which the director of the Concert Spirituel, Joseph Le Gros, promised he would place upon his concert series. In April Mozart wrote to his father, back home in Salzburg, about his plans and how fine the horn player was. The next month Mozart informed him that it was finished: "I had to write the sinfonia in a great hurry and I worked very hard at it. The four performers were and are still in love with it." But it was not yet performed: "I think something is going on behind the scenes and doubtless here too I have enemies."

The Sinfonia concertante was apparently not performed at all in Paris, although Mozart was sure it would have "made a great hit." On the way back home in October, he wrote to his father that since Le Gros had purchased the music, he kept the score to the Sinfonia (together with two new symphonies): "He thinks that he alone has them, but he is wrong, for they are still fresh in my mind and, as soon as I get home, I shall write them down again." Mozart, of course, had a mind that could do this, but there is no evidence that he did in this case. The original manuscript of the Sinfonia does not survive and the work disappeared.

The first edition of Ludwig Ritter von Köchel's catalogue of Mozart's compositions (whence we get the K. numbers used to identify the composer's works) declared it lost. When the great Mozart scholar and biographer Otto Jahn died in Göttingen in 1869, a manuscript copy was found among his papers bearing the following inscription: "Concertante für Oboe, Clarinette, Horn u. Fagotte mit Orchesterbegleitung." Some immediately assumed it to be a copy of the lost Mozart work, with the flute part recast for clarinet by an early 19th-century arranger. (Clarinets were not a part of Mozart's orchestra until the 1780s.) The piece was ultimately published in the first complete edition of Mozart's works, and was a particularly welcome addition to the Mozart canon - it helped fill out the relatively small Classical repertory for wind instruments with orchestra. Leading Mozart scholars admired the work, most importantly Alfred Einstein (cousin of the scientist).

Yet something was not quite right. Some scholars noted that this piece had bizarre, distinctly un-Mozartean traits. And why had the scoring of the solo parts been changed from flute, oboe, horn, and bassoon, to oboe, clarinet, horn, and bassoon? Various arguments were hatched to explain how the work became lost, and how and why it was reconstituted into its present form. By the 1960s, few believed that the work from Jahn's collection represented a work exactly as it came to us from Mozart's pen. The most intriguing of the recent arguments suggests that only the solo parts survived from Mozart's original, and that some 19th-century arranger "filled out" the work with orchestral passages of his or her own invention - changing the flute part into a clarinet part in the process. Alas, some believe that the present work is not by Mozart at all.

In a fascinating essay published in the Journal of Musicology in 1987, John Spitzer surveyed a broad range of published opinions about the piece, from those of provincial critics reviewing local performances to those of leading Mozart scholars. He showed that views on the quality of the work often depended on whether one thought it was by Mozart or not and concluded, "There is no question that much of what critics write about the Sinfonia concertante is shaped by what other critics have written. Program note writers crib extensively from musicologists and from notes by other writers. Concert reviewers crib from program note writers. Record reviewers crib from liner notes. Almost everyone cribs from Einstein." Spitzer notes that Einstein's phrase "planned entirely for brilliance, breadth and expansiveness" was used by many commentators and the words even became attributed to Mozart himself.

It is a fascinating predicament. If few contemporary experts believe what we hear tonight is a piece as Mozart would have written it, its essence is so good that it seems hard to contemplate the work being a 19th-century fraud. After more than a century of scholarly exegesis the work now bears the unbelievable designation of "KV3 297b (= Anh. 9) / KV6 (1964) Anh. C: 14.01." It is an excellent piece of music, regardless of who composed it and offers all four wind soloists ample opportunity for solo and concertante playing. The piece sounds enough like Mozart that it still belongs comfortably within the "doubtful" (rather than the "spurious") category of the most recent edition of Köchel's catalogue.

- Christopher H. Gibbs/Paul J. Horsley

The first Philadelphia Orchestra performances of Mozart's K. 297b Sinfonia concertante were in October 1927, with Orchestra members Marcel Tabuteau, Daniel Bonade, Anton Horner, and Walter Guetter as soloists; Fritz Reiner was the conductor. Most recently, the work was performed at the Saratoga Performing Arts Center in August 1998, with Orchestra members Richard Woodhams, Donald Montanaro, Nolan Miller, and Bernard Garfield as soloists and Charles Dutoit on the podium.

Sinfonia concertante was recorded by the Orchestra twice; in 1940 for RCA, with Mr. Tabuteau, Bernard Portnoy, Mason Jones, Sol Schoenbach, and Leopold Stokowski; and in 1957 for CBS, with John de Lancie, Anthony Gigliotti, Mr. Jones, Mr. Garfield, and Eugene Ormandy (currently available on Sony Classical's Essential Classics, #SBK 67177).

The work runs approximately 30 minutes in performance.



Mozart was keenly aware throughout his career of his audiences' expectations and desires. He was equally sensitive to the performers who would be presenting the music. As musicologist Neal Zaslaw has noted, Mozart had an obsession for "providing the right music for each circumstance in which he found himself." While this is perhaps most thoroughly documented in his letters regarding the genesis of some of his operas, the "Paris" Symphony we hear tonight is a rare orchestral work about which Mozart gave a considerable amount of commentary. He had to: His anxious father was back at home in Salzburg and expected detailed reports of how his son was fairing in the French capital.

But eager as Mozart was to please his audiences, he did not want to compromise his music and he was fully aware, sometimes arrogantly, of his superior genius. He informed his father about the difficulties of accommodating local tastes: "I care very little for who will not like it? I can answer for its pleasing a few intelligent French people who may be there - and as for the stupid ones, I shall not consider it a great misfortune if they are not pleased. I still hope, however, that even asses will find something in it to admire."

Mozart provided a more extended account of the "Paris" Symphony after its first performance in an extraordinary letter of July 3, 1778. This was the day his mother died, but Mozart did not immediately inform his father of the terrible news, opting instead to have a family friend in Salzburg do it personally. After relating the seriousness of his mother's illness, Mozart reports at length on musical matters, especially the very successful premiere of his new symphony on June 18:

I was very nervous at the rehearsal, for never in my life have I heard a worse performance. You have no idea how they twice scrapped and scrambled through it. I was really in a terrible way and would gladly have rehearsed it again, but as there was so much else to rehearse, there was no time left. So I had to go to bed with an aching heart and in a discontented and angry frame of mind. I decided the next morning not to go to the concert at all; but in the evening the weather being fine, I at last made up my mind to go, determined that if my symphony went as badly as it did at the rehearsal, I would certainly make my way into the orchestra, snatch the fiddle out of the hands of Lahoussaye, the first violinist, and conduct myself.

Fortunately a phenomenon familiar to musicians - after mediocre rehearsals the miracle factor of the actual performance - brought everything together to "great applause." Today we may romanticize what it must have been like to hear concerts in Mozart's time, but as this letter shows, such events were usually underrehearsed. Also surprising is a contemporary report that indicates more musicians performing than we might expect at this early stage in the development of the symphony: 22 violins, 5 violas, 8 cellos, 5 basses, 6 musicians playing flute, oboe, and clarinet (supposedly two to a part), 4 bassoons, 6 musicians playing horn and trumpet, and drums. This was the first symphony in which Mozart used clarinets. He had been very impressed with how much they could add to the orchestral sound when he heard them in Mannheim on his way to Paris.

Mozart's letter is unusually specific about the nature of the music and further shows how he calculated to please:

In the middle of the first Allegro there was a passage which I felt sure must please. The audience was quite carried away - and there was a tremendous burst of applause. But as I knew, when I wrote it, what effect it would surely produce, I had introduced the passage again at the close - when there were shouts of "Da capo." The Andante also found favor, but particularly the last Allegro, because, having observed that all last as well as first Allegros begin here with all instruments playing together and generally unisono, I began mine with two violins only, softly for the first eight measures, followed instantly by a forte; the audience, as I expected, said "hush" at the soft beginning, and when they heard the forte, began at once to clap their hands.

This account not only indicates how carefully Mozart gauged his audiences, but also how spontaneously they responded. We are used today to a church-like silence in the concert hall, where it is considered gauche to clap between movements, let alone during them. But as accounts by Mozart, Beethoven, and others make clear, audiences routinely showed their delight during the music and were particularly demonstrative at the conclusion of certain movements in the hopes of having them played again.

In fact, it was just such immediate feedback that led to Mozart writing a new second movement for the Symphony. He relates in a letter that for a second performance on August 15 the director of the Concert Spirituel requested a new movement as he felt the previous one was too difficult ("too many modulations and too long."): "He derives this opinion from the fact that the audience forgot to clap … as loudly and to shout as much as they did at the end of the first and the last movements." Mozart stated that the movement was a favorite of his and of "connoisseurs," but that to satisfy Le Gros he had composed a new Andante. Both of these versions survive, although scholars are not in complete agreement about which was the "original." More likely is the one in 6/8 meter we hear tonight, rather than the one in 3/4 meter that appeared in the first Parisian publication of the 1780s.

- Christopher H. Gibbs

Mozart's Symphony No. 31 was first performed by The Philadelphia Orchestra in December 1960; Eugene Ormandy was the conductor. Most recently the piece was performed in November/December 1991, with James DePreist on the podium.

The "Paris" Symphony was recorded by the Orchestra in 1962 for CBS with Eugene Ormandy.

The Symphony runs approximately 15 minutes in performance.

Program notes © 2004. All rights reserved. Program notes may not be reprinted without written permission from The Philadelphia Orchestra Association.

Cadenza: A passage or section in a style of brilliant improvisation, usually inserted near the end of a movement or composition

Chord: The simultaneous sounding of three or more tones

Coda: A concluding section or passage added in order to confirm the impression of finality

Concertante: A work featuring one or more solo instruments

Counterpoint: A term that describes the combination of simultaneously sounding musical lines

Da capo: Repeated from the beginning

K.: Abbreviation for Köchel, the chronological list of all the works of Mozart made by Ludwig von Köchel

Minuet: A dance in triple time commonly used up to the beginning of the 19th century as the lightest movement of a symphony

Op.: Abbreviation for opus, a term used to indicate the chronological position of a composition within a composer's output. Opus numbers are not always reliable because they are often applied in the order of publication rather than composition.

Rondo: A form frequently used in symphonies and concertos for the final movement. It consists of a main section that alternates with a variety of contrasting sections (A-B-A-C-A etc.).

Scherzo: Literally "a joke." Usually the third movement of symphonies and quartets that was introduced by Beethoven to replace the minuet. The scherzo is followed by a gentler section called a trio, after which the scherzo is repeated. Its characteristics are a rapid tempo in triple time, vigorous rhythm, and humorous contrasts.

Sonata form: The form in which the first movements (and sometimes others) of symphonies are usually cast. The sections are exposition, development, and recapitulation, the last sometimes followed by a coda. The exposition is the introduction of the musical ideas, which are then "developed." In the recapitulation, the exposition is repeated with modifications.

Adagio: Leisurely, slow
Allegro: Bright, fast
Andante: Walking speed
Andantino: Slightly quicker than andante

: Much

Forte (f): Loud







Copyright 2004 The Philadelphia Orchestra