June 22, 2004
PETER OUNDJIAN Conductor
JEFFREY KHANER Flute
ELIZABETH HAINEN Harp
PETER SMITH Oboe
RICARDO MORALES Clarinet
NOLAN MILLER Horn
DANIEL MATSUKAWA Bassoon
ABSOLUTELY MOZART: MOZART IN PARIS
||Overture from Les
||Concerto in C major,
K. 299, for flute, harp, and
concertante in E-flat major, K. 297b, for winds
Andantino con variazioni - Andante
||Symphony No. 31 in
D major, K. 297 ("Paris")
This program runs approximately 1 hour, 50 minutes.
Lexus is the exclusive automotive sponsor of The Philadelphia
The Steinway Piano is the official piano of The Philadelphia
Orchestra and The Kimmel Center for the Performing Arts.
Peter Oundjian was recently named music director
of the Toronto Symphony, beginning in the 2004-2005 season.
He is currently artistic director of the Caramoor International
Music Festival in Katonah, New York, and principal guest conductor
of the Colorado Symphony. Previously, he was music director
of the Nieuw Sinfonietta in Amsterdam from 1998-2003 and the
first violinist of the Tokyo String Quartet for 16 years.
Mr. Oundjian's 2003-2004 season included return visits to
the Houston, Phoenix, and Saint Louis symphonies; the Saint
Paul Chamber Orchestra; and the Nieuw Sinfonietta; as well
as regular appearances with the Colorado and Toronto symphonies.
Additional engagements included debuts in Milwaukee, Berlin,
and Toulouse, among others. Along with concerts at the Caramoor
Festival, Mr. Oundjian will lead the Chicago Symphony at the
Ravinia Festival for the third summer in a row, and return
to the Aspen and Grand Teton music festivals.
Mr. Oundjian's recent engagements include debuts with the
Academy of St. Martin in the Fields, the Zurich Tonhalle Orchestra,
and the Boston, Chicago, and San Francisco symphonies; and
return engagements with the Detroit Symphony, the Minnesota
Orchestra, the Los Angeles Philharmonic, the San Diego Symphony,
the Cincinnati Symphony, the Utah Symphony, and the Vancouver
Born in Canada, Mr. Oundjian was educated in England, where
he studied the violin with Manoug Parikian. During this time,
Mr. Oundjian was chosen to participate in three recording
sessions with Benjamin Britten, which sparked his enthusiasm
for conducting. Subsequently, he attended the Royal College
of Music in London, where he completed his studies in 18 months
and was awarded the gold medal for most distinguished student
and the Stoutzker Prize for excellence in violin playing.
Mr. Oundjian completed his violin training at the Juilliard
School, where he studied with Ivan Galamian, Itzhak Perlman,
and Dorothy DeLay. While at Juilliard, he had the opportunity
to conduct for Herbert von Karajan during an historic three-day
series of master classes. In 1980 Mr. Oundjian received first
prize at the International Violin Competition in Vina Del
Mar, Chile. His recordings include a disc of music by Beethoven
with the Nieuw Sinfonietta on the BIS label, in addition to
numerous recordings with the Tokyo String Quartet. Mr. Oundjian
made his Philadelphia Orchestra debut at the 2002 Absolutely
Mozart Festival and his subscription debut in March 2003.
He is currently a faculty member of the Yale School of Music
and lives with his family in Connecticut.
Principal Flute Jeffrey Khaner joined The Philadelphia
Orchestra in 1990. Previously, he was principal flute of the
Cleveland Orchestra from 1982-1990. A native of Montreal,
he began his studies there and later received his bachelor's
degree from the Juilliard School. He has performed concertos
ranging from Bach and Mozart, to Neilsen, Ibert, and Corigliano,
among others. Mr. Khaner made his Philadelphia Orchestra solo
debut at the Mann Center in July 1991 and his debut at Carnegie
Hall's Weill Recital Hall in 2000.
Mr. Khaner's debut solo recording, American Flute Music,
on the Avie label pairs works by Copland and Piston with 20th-century
rarities by Eldin Burton and Beryl Rubinstein, and the world
premiere recording of Jennifer Higdon's Autumn Reflection.
This was the first in a series of Mr. Khaner's recordings
for Avie; British Flute Music was released in 2002,
and French Flute Music this past summer.
Mr. Khaner has been a faculty member of the Curtis Institute
of Music since 1985. He sponsors an annual composition competition
for students at Curtis, which has resulted in several new
commissions. Mr. Khaner is a Yamaha performing artist and
Elizabeth Hainen, principal harp of The Philadelphia
Orchestra, has performed with symphony orchestras and in recital
throughout the United States, Europe, and the Far East. She
joined The Philadelphia Orchestra in 1994 after serving as
principal harp for the Kennedy Center Opera House and the
Atlanta Symphony. Born in Toledo, Ohio, she began harp studies
at the age of ten and continued with Susann McDonald at the
Indiana University School of Music, where she was awarded
a performance certificate and two degrees in performance.
Ms. Hainen has been the recipient of numerous awards, including
winner of the American String Teachers Association and the
Chicago Symphony Civic Orchestra competitions, and silver
medalist at the First USA International Harp Competition,
where she was awarded the Orrego-Salas Prize. Her debut solo
recording of 19th-century Romantic works was recently released
on the Naxos label.
An advocate of the expansion of her instrument's repertoire,
Ms. Hainen has given several world premiere performances and
recordings including works by Pulitzer Prize-winner Bernard
Rands, and she has commissioned a solo work for harp by Lowell
Liebermann, which will be premiered this week at the American
Harp Society's National Convention. She made her Philadelphia
Orchestra solo debut on Valentine's Day 1996.
Peter Smith joined The Philadelphia Orchestra in 1991
as associate principal oboe. A graduate of the Curtis Institute
of Music, he studied with Philadelphia Orchestra Principal
Oboe Richard Woodhams. Mr. Smith has also studied with Louis
Rosenblatt, Marc Lifschey, John Mack, and Lawrence Thorstenberg.
In July 1994, Mr. Smith was featured in The Philadelphia Orchestra's
performance of Martinu's Symphonia concertante for
violin, oboe, cello, bassoon, and orchestra, under the baton
of Ion Marin at the Mann Center.
Mr. Smith has appeared as soloist with the Newark (Delaware)
Symphony, the Colorado Festival Orchestra, the Curtis Symphony,
the Camerata Classica, and the Concerto Soloists Chamber Orchestra.
He has spent his summers participating in such festivals as
the Colorado Music Festival, where he was principal oboe in
1991. He is currently on the faculty of Temple University.
Ricardo Morales, principal clarinet, joined The Philadelphia
Orchestra in 2003 from the Metropolitan Opera Orchestra, where
he was appointed principal clarinet in 1993 at the age of
21. A native of San Juan, Puerto Rico, he began his studies
at the Escuela Libre de Musica, along with his five siblings,
all of whom are distinguished musicians. He continued his
studies at Indiana University, where he received his artist
diploma, and the Cincinnati College Conservatory. Mr. Morales
was also principal clarinet of the Florida Symphony, and he
has appeared as soloist with the Chicago, Cincinnati, Indianapolis,
North Carolina, Puerto Rico, Florida, and Columbus symphonies,
among others. He has soloed with the Metropolitan Opera Orchestra
under the baton of James Levine in Carnegie Hall and on two
European tours. Mr. Morales has performed at the Kennedy Center,
on the Metropolitan Museum of Art Concert Series, with the
Chamber Music Society of Lincoln Center, and on NBC's Today.
Mr. Morales has been an active recitalist and has given master
classes at many universities, music festivals, and woodwind
conferences. He currently serves on the faculties of Juilliard,
the Manhattan School of Music, Mannes College, and the Verbier
Academy in Switzerland.
Nolan Miller became principal horn of The Philadelphia
Orchestra at the start of the 1978 - 1979 season, when he
replaced the retiring Mason Jones. Mr. Miller joined the Orchestra
in 1965 as co-principal horn upon graduation from the Curtis
Institute of Music.
A native of Hamburg, Pennsylvania, Mr. Miller began to study
the piano at the age of five. While still in elementary school
he gave concerts and demonstrations in musical dictation,
solfeggio, and piano at teachers' conventions in Harrisburg
and Reading. He began French horn in the ninth grade and later
entered Lebanon Valley College on scholarship, where he studied
horn with James Thurmond, a former member of The Philadelphia
Orchestra. After receiving a bachelor's degree in music education
from that school, Mr. Miller continued his studies at the
Curtis Institute with Mason Jones. As a member of the Curtis
Horn Quartet, he was an Orchestra Senior Student Audition
winner and performed as soloist with the Philadelphians at
a Student Concert in 1964.
Mr. Miller is a member of the Philadelphia Chamber Ensemble.
Daniel Matsukawa, principal bassoon, came to The Philadelphia
Orchestra in 1999 from the National Symphony, where he was
principal bassoon for three seasons. He was also principal
bassoon of the Virginia, Saint Louis, and Memphis symphonies.
Born in Argentina to Japanese parents, he moved with his family
to New York City at age three and began bassoon lessons at
age 13. The following year, he won his first competition and
performed Mozart's Bassoon Concerto with a professional orchestra
in New York. He was a scholarship student of the pre-college
division of both the Juilliard and Manhattan schools of music,
where he studied with Harold Goltzer and Alan Futterman. He
went on to study at Juilliard before attending the Curtis
Institute, where he was a pupil of Bernard Garfield.
Mr. Matsukawa has been a recipient of numerous awards and
prizes, including a solo concerto debut in Carnegie Hall at
the age of 19. Since then, he has appeared as soloist with
the National, Viriginia, and Curtis symphonies; the New York
String Orchestra; and the Auckland (New Zealand) Philharmonic,
among others. Mr. Matsukawa is an active chamber musician
and has performed and toured with the Marlboro Festival. He
has also performed at the Tanglewood, Aspen, Blossom, and
Pacific music festivals.
FRAMING THE PROGRAM
"My Dear Son: I have read your letter of the 4th with
amazement and horror." So Leopold Mozart began a candid
letter in February 1778. At the end of the previous summer
the 21-year-old Mozart had quit the job he despised in Salzburg
and set off with his mother to seek fame and fortune abroad.
Leopold watched from a distance as his son tried to gain a
foothold in Munich, Augsburg, and Mannheim. After more than
four months Leopold was fed up. He ordered his son to proceed
without delay to France: "Win fame and make money
Mozart obeyed. He had been to the French capital as a child
and returned with high hopes that were eventually thwarted.
His six-month stay in Paris produced a limited amount of music,
some of which we hear today. Mozart related his activities
in long letters to his father, to whom he eventually had to
break devastating news: His wife, Mozart's mother, died on
July 3. Only the brilliance of Mozart's music belies the troubles
of his Parisian sojourn.
FROM LES PETITS RIENS
COMPOSED IN 1778
BORN IN SALZBURG, JANUARY 27, 1756
DIED IN VIENNA, DECEMBER 5, 1791
Mozart and his mother arrived in Paris on March 23, 1778,
six months after they had left Salzburg in pursuit of money
and glory. Mozart quickly reestablished ties with Baron Friedrich
von Grimm, who had taken an interest in the young composer
when he had last been in Paris 12 years earlier. He sought
out other powerful figures as well and began to write some
of the music we hear today, scoring his first real success
with the "Paris" Symphony at a concert on June 18.
About this time his mother was taken ill and died on July
3. Mozart wrote to his father that day telling of her illness,
but withholding the tragic end. At the same time he sent a
letter to Abbé Bullinger, a family friend in Salzburg,
that told the full story: "Mourn with me, my friend!
This has been the saddest day of my life." He asked him
to break the news: "Do what you think best - use every
means to comfort them.
Watch over my dear father and
my dear sister for me."
Six days later Mozart wrote to his father again, aware that
by then he knew everything. After relating the personal events
in Paris, Mozart slowly began to relate his musical activities
and plans. He mentions the commission from his friend, the
celebrated dance master Jean Georges Noverre, who "only
needed half a ballet and for this I composed the music. Six
pieces in it are composed by others and are made up entirely
of wretched old French airs, while the overture and contredanses,
about twelve pieces in all, have been contributed by me."
The ballet was first presented on June 11 at the Paris Opéra
at the end of a performance of Niccolò Piccinni's opera
Le finte gemelle. There is no evidence that it was ever
performed again in Mozart's lifetime.
Mozart wrote little formal ballet music, although dance appears
within his operas, such as a miniature suite in Idomeneo
and the fandango in The Marriage of Figaro. His greatest
tour-de-force is in the first act finale of Don Giovanni
in which three different orchestras simultaneously play three
different types of dances in contrasting meters. (This is
Mozart's brilliant way of commenting upon the distinct social
status of the peasant, middle-class, and aristocratic characters.)
Taking a larger view, as Wye Allanbrook has done, much of
Mozart's music is connected in some way with the gestures
of dance and movement and is able to "move an audience
through representations of its own humanity." A deft
combination of celebratory majesty, dance, and delicacy distinguish
the Overture from Les Petits Riens.
- Christopher H. Gibbs
The first and only Philadelphia Orchestra performance
of Mozart's music from Les Petits Riens was on a Youth
Concert in February 1937, with the Mary Binney Montgomery
Dancers and Eugene Ormandy on the podium. Excerpts from the
ballet were also performed on a Children's Concert in January
1956, with members of the Ballet Guild and Samuel Antek conducting.
The Overture runs approximately three minutes in performance.
IN C MAJOR, K. 299, FOR FLUTE, HARP, AND ORCHESTRA
COMPOSED IN 1778
Despite his father's high hopes for his son Wolfgang's musical
achievement in the French capital, the composer garnered few
performances on his trip. Not even Baron von Grimm, who 15
years earlier had welcomed the seven-year-old prodigy into
some of the city's most influential court circles, was able
to help much. The death of Mozart's beloved mother, Maria
Anna, in early July was one of the darkest chapters of the
composer's life. Nevertheless he did receive a handful of
commissions, including some from the Concert Spirituel, the
renowned performing series for which he probably wrote the
Sinfonia concertante we hear next on this concert.
Still, the reception of Mozart's music by the Parisians of
1778 was, on the whole, polite but not overwhelming.
Baron von Grimm did at least introduce the Mozarts to the
city's prominent noble families that spring. One of these
was the household of Adrien-Louis Bonnières, the Count
of Guines, a diplomat who was also a music lover and talented
flutist. Mozart wrote to his father of having met a Count
who was an "unforgettable flutist," and his daughter,
who was a "magnificent harpist." The composer doubtless
had performed in the Count's home, and before long he was
giving composition lessons to his daughter as well.
In April he wrote the Concerto in C major, K. 299, for father
and daughter, apparently on commission; yet four months later
the Count had still not paid for the piece, as made clear
in Mozart's letter to his father of July 31: "The Duc
de Guines tried to pay me for only one lesson when I'd taught
two, this plus the fact that he has had my Concerto for Flute
and Harp for four months and still hasn't paid me!" Poor
Mozart apparently never received the commission fee. Little
is known of the work's early performance history, though it
seems probable that father and daughter played it first.
It is a work of delicious and unfettered charm. Light and
uncomplicated, it balances the soloists in perfect equilibrium
with the delicate orchestral scoring, never losing sight of
the fact that this is a "double concerto" - i.e.,
a work for soloists, and not a symphonie concertante
or ensemble concerto. (Nevertheless the last movement, in
which oboes and horns assert themselves in a solo capacity,
contains some elements of the concertante.) The opening
Allegro is a highly sophisticated first-movement concerto
structure, with striking contrasts of theme and texture. The
Andantino, an operatic and lyrical duet for the soloists,
with minimal accompaniment, gives way to a sparkling Rondeau
containing the dash and vigor that looks ahead to Mozart's
- Paul J. Horsley
André Maquarre was the flutist and Carlos Salzedo
the harpist in The Philadelphia Orchestra's first performances
of the Flute and Harp Concerto, in April 1919; Leopold Stokowski
was on the podium. Most recently, Jeffrey Khaner and Elizabeth
Hainen were soloists in performances in January 1998 under
Wolfgang Sawallisch's baton.
The Concerto runs approximately 30 minutes in performance.
CONCERTANTE IN E-FLAT MAJOR, K. 297B, FOR WINDS AND ORCHESTRA
COMPOSED IN 1778
One thing is known for certain: During his 1778 visit to
Paris, Mozart composed a Sinfonia concertante for flute,
oboe, horn, bassoon, and orchestra, which the director of
the Concert Spirituel, Joseph Le Gros, promised he would place
upon his concert series. In April Mozart wrote to his father,
back home in Salzburg, about his plans and how fine the horn
player was. The next month Mozart informed him that it was
finished: "I had to write the sinfonia in a great hurry
and I worked very hard at it. The four performers were and
are still in love with it." But it was not yet performed:
"I think something is going on behind the scenes and
doubtless here too I have enemies."
The Sinfonia concertante was apparently not performed
at all in Paris, although Mozart was sure it would have "made
a great hit." On the way back home in October, he wrote
to his father that since Le Gros had purchased the music,
he kept the score to the Sinfonia (together with two
new symphonies): "He thinks that he alone has them, but
he is wrong, for they are still fresh in my mind and, as soon
as I get home, I shall write them down again." Mozart,
of course, had a mind that could do this, but there is no
evidence that he did in this case. The original manuscript
of the Sinfonia does not survive and the work disappeared.
A 19TH-CENTURY FRAUD?
The first edition of Ludwig Ritter von Köchel's catalogue
of Mozart's compositions (whence we get the K. numbers used
to identify the composer's works) declared it lost. When the
great Mozart scholar and biographer Otto Jahn died in Göttingen
in 1869, a manuscript copy was found among his papers bearing
the following inscription: "Concertante für Oboe,
Clarinette, Horn u. Fagotte mit Orchesterbegleitung."
Some immediately assumed it to be a copy of the lost Mozart
work, with the flute part recast for clarinet by an early
19th-century arranger. (Clarinets were not a part of Mozart's
orchestra until the 1780s.) The piece was ultimately published
in the first complete edition of Mozart's works, and was a
particularly welcome addition to the Mozart canon - it helped
fill out the relatively small Classical repertory for wind
instruments with orchestra. Leading Mozart scholars admired
the work, most importantly Alfred Einstein (cousin of the
Yet something was not quite right. Some scholars noted that
this piece had bizarre, distinctly un-Mozartean traits. And
why had the scoring of the solo parts been changed from flute,
oboe, horn, and bassoon, to oboe, clarinet, horn, and bassoon?
Various arguments were hatched to explain how the work became
lost, and how and why it was reconstituted into its present
form. By the 1960s, few believed that the work from Jahn's
collection represented a work exactly as it came to us from
Mozart's pen. The most intriguing of the recent arguments
suggests that only the solo parts survived from Mozart's original,
and that some 19th-century arranger "filled out"
the work with orchestral passages of his or her own invention
- changing the flute part into a clarinet part in the process.
Alas, some believe that the present work is not by Mozart
In a fascinating essay published in the Journal of Musicology
in 1987, John Spitzer surveyed a broad range of published
opinions about the piece, from those of provincial critics
reviewing local performances to those of leading Mozart scholars.
He showed that views on the quality of the work often depended
on whether one thought it was by Mozart or not and concluded,
"There is no question that much of what critics write
about the Sinfonia concertante is shaped by what other critics
have written. Program note writers crib extensively from musicologists
and from notes by other writers. Concert reviewers crib from
program note writers. Record reviewers crib from liner notes.
Almost everyone cribs from Einstein." Spitzer notes that
Einstein's phrase "planned entirely for brilliance, breadth
and expansiveness" was used by many commentators and
the words even became attributed to Mozart himself.
It is a fascinating predicament. If few contemporary experts
believe what we hear tonight is a piece as Mozart would have
written it, its essence is so good that it seems hard to contemplate
the work being a 19th-century fraud. After more than a century
of scholarly exegesis the work now bears the unbelievable
designation of "KV3 297b (= Anh. 9) / KV6 (1964) Anh.
C: 14.01." It is an excellent piece of music, regardless
of who composed it and offers all four wind soloists ample
opportunity for solo and concertante playing. The piece
sounds enough like Mozart that it still belongs comfortably
within the "doubtful" (rather than the "spurious")
category of the most recent edition of Köchel's catalogue.
- Christopher H. Gibbs/Paul J. Horsley
The first Philadelphia Orchestra performances of Mozart's
K. 297b Sinfonia concertante were in October 1927,
with Orchestra members Marcel Tabuteau, Daniel Bonade, Anton
Horner, and Walter Guetter as soloists; Fritz Reiner was the
conductor. Most recently, the work was performed at the Saratoga
Performing Arts Center in August 1998, with Orchestra members
Richard Woodhams, Donald Montanaro, Nolan Miller, and Bernard
Garfield as soloists and Charles Dutoit on the podium.
The Sinfonia concertante was recorded by the Orchestra
twice; in 1940 for RCA, with Mr. Tabuteau, Bernard Portnoy,
Mason Jones, Sol Schoenbach, and Leopold Stokowski; and in
1957 for CBS, with John de Lancie, Anthony Gigliotti, Mr.
Jones, Mr. Garfield, and Eugene Ormandy (currently available
on Sony Classical's Essential Classics, #SBK 67177).
The work runs approximately 30 minutes in performance.
NO. 31 IN D MAJOR, K. 297 ("PARIS")
COMPOSED IN 1778
Mozart was keenly aware throughout his career of his audiences'
expectations and desires. He was equally sensitive to the
performers who would be presenting the music. As musicologist
Neal Zaslaw has noted, Mozart had an obsession for "providing
the right music for each circumstance in which he found himself."
While this is perhaps most thoroughly documented in his letters
regarding the genesis of some of his operas, the "Paris"
Symphony we hear tonight is a rare orchestral work about which
Mozart gave a considerable amount of commentary. He had to:
His anxious father was back at home in Salzburg and expected
detailed reports of how his son was fairing in the French
But eager as Mozart was to please his audiences, he did not
want to compromise his music and he was fully aware, sometimes
arrogantly, of his superior genius. He informed his father
about the difficulties of accommodating local tastes: "I
care very little for who will not like it? I can answer for
its pleasing a few intelligent French people who may be there
- and as for the stupid ones, I shall not consider it a great
misfortune if they are not pleased. I still hope, however,
that even asses will find something in it to admire."
THE COMPOSER'S ACCOUNT OF THE PREMIERE
Mozart provided a more extended account of the "Paris"
Symphony after its first performance in an extraordinary letter
of July 3, 1778. This was the day his mother died, but Mozart
did not immediately inform his father of the terrible news,
opting instead to have a family friend in Salzburg do it personally.
After relating the seriousness of his mother's illness, Mozart
reports at length on musical matters, especially the very
successful premiere of his new symphony on June 18:
|I was very nervous at the rehearsal,
for never in my life have I heard a worse performance.
You have no idea how they twice scrapped and scrambled
through it. I was really in a terrible way and would gladly
have rehearsed it again, but as there was so much else
to rehearse, there was no time left. So I had to go to
bed with an aching heart and in a discontented and angry
frame of mind. I decided the next morning not to go to
the concert at all; but in the evening the weather being
fine, I at last made up my mind to go, determined that
if my symphony went as badly as it did at the rehearsal,
I would certainly make my way into the orchestra, snatch
the fiddle out of the hands of Lahoussaye, the first violinist,
and conduct myself.
Fortunately a phenomenon familiar to musicians - after mediocre
rehearsals the miracle factor of the actual performance -
brought everything together to "great applause."
Today we may romanticize what it must have been like to hear
concerts in Mozart's time, but as this letter shows, such
events were usually underrehearsed. Also surprising is a contemporary
report that indicates more musicians performing than we might
expect at this early stage in the development of the symphony:
22 violins, 5 violas, 8 cellos, 5 basses, 6 musicians playing
flute, oboe, and clarinet (supposedly two to a part), 4 bassoons,
6 musicians playing horn and trumpet, and drums. This was
the first symphony in which Mozart used clarinets. He had
been very impressed with how much they could add to the orchestral
sound when he heard them in Mannheim on his way to Paris.
Mozart's letter is unusually specific about the nature of
the music and further shows how he calculated to please:
|In the middle of the first Allegro
there was a passage which I felt sure must please. The
audience was quite carried away - and there was a tremendous
burst of applause. But as I knew, when I wrote it, what
effect it would surely produce, I had introduced the passage
again at the close - when there were shouts of "Da
capo." The Andante also found favor, but particularly
the last Allegro, because, having observed that all last
as well as first Allegros begin here with all instruments
playing together and generally unisono, I began mine with
two violins only, softly for the first eight measures,
followed instantly by a forte; the audience, as I expected,
said "hush" at the soft beginning, and when
they heard the forte, began at once to clap their hands.
This account not only indicates how carefully Mozart gauged
his audiences, but also how spontaneously they responded.
We are used today to a church-like silence in the concert
hall, where it is considered gauche to clap between movements,
let alone during them. But as accounts by Mozart, Beethoven,
and others make clear, audiences routinely showed their delight
during the music and were particularly demonstrative at the
conclusion of certain movements in the hopes of having them
In fact, it was just such immediate feedback that led to Mozart
writing a new second movement for the Symphony. He relates
in a letter that for a second performance on August 15 the
director of the Concert Spirituel requested a new movement
as he felt the previous one was too difficult ("too many
modulations and too long."): "He derives this opinion
from the fact that the audience forgot to clap
and to shout as much as they did at the end of the first and
the last movements." Mozart stated that the movement
was a favorite of his and of "connoisseurs," but
that to satisfy Le Gros he had composed a new Andante. Both
of these versions survive, although scholars are not in complete
agreement about which was the "original." More likely
is the one in 6/8 meter we hear tonight, rather than the one
in 3/4 meter that appeared in the first Parisian publication
of the 1780s.
- Christopher H. Gibbs
Mozart's Symphony No. 31 was first performed by The Philadelphia
Orchestra in December 1960; Eugene Ormandy was the conductor.
Most recently the piece was performed in November/December
1991, with James DePreist on the podium.
The "Paris" Symphony was recorded by the Orchestra
in 1962 for CBS with Eugene Ormandy.
The Symphony runs approximately 15 minutes in performance.
Program notes © 2004. All rights reserved. Program notes
may not be reprinted without written permission from The Philadelphia
Cadenza: A passage or section in a style of brilliant
improvisation, usually inserted near the end of a movement
Chord: The simultaneous sounding of three or more tones
Coda: A concluding section or passage added in order
to confirm the impression of finality
Concertante: A work featuring one or more solo instruments
Counterpoint: A term that describes the combination
of simultaneously sounding musical lines
Da capo: Repeated from the beginning
K.: Abbreviation for Köchel, the chronological
list of all the works of Mozart made by Ludwig von Köchel
Minuet: A dance in triple time commonly used up to
the beginning of the 19th century as the lightest movement
of a symphony
Op.: Abbreviation for opus, a term used to indicate
the chronological position of a composition within a composer's
output. Opus numbers are not always reliable because they
are often applied in the order of publication rather than
Rondo: A form frequently used in symphonies and concertos
for the final movement. It consists of a main section that
alternates with a variety of contrasting sections (A-B-A-C-A
Scherzo: Literally "a joke." Usually the
third movement of symphonies and quartets that was introduced
by Beethoven to replace the minuet. The scherzo is followed
by a gentler section called a trio, after which the scherzo
is repeated. Its characteristics are a rapid tempo in triple
time, vigorous rhythm, and humorous contrasts.
Sonata form: The form in which the first movements
(and sometimes others) of symphonies are usually cast. The
sections are exposition, development, and recapitulation,
the last sometimes followed by a coda. The exposition is the
introduction of the musical ideas, which are then "developed."
In the recapitulation, the exposition is repeated with modifications.
THE SPEED OF MUSIC (Tempo)
Adagio: Leisurely, slow
Allegro: Bright, fast
Andante: Walking speed
Andantino: Slightly quicker than andante
Forte (f): Loud