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The Man Who Would Be Queen: The Science of Gender-Bending and Transsexualism (2003)
Joseph Henry Press (JHP)
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Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
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Index Abbe de Choisy, 171 Abortion controversy, 114 Adoptive brothers, 108 AIDS/HIV infection, 84, 86,108, 110,119,120,121,162, 183,185, 217 Allen, Laura,119,120 Ambady, Nalini, 73-74 American Psychiatric Association, 81 Amputee fetish, 201, 206 Anal sex, 57, 83-84,128,131,148, 156,188 Anderson, Clinton, 26 Anxiety, 81-82 Apostle Paul, 128 Archives of General Psychiatry, 110 Aristophanes, 128 Artistic brother hypothesis, l 17-118 Autoerotic asphyxia, l 72 BabucharaMata, 134 Bawer, Bruce, 100 Behavior modification therapy,24- 26, 28 Bend Over Boyfriend (video), 83 Benjamin, Harry, 174,201 Bergling,Tim,59 Bestiality, 171 Birdcage, The (movie), 76,77 Birth order hypothesis, lll,158 Bisexuals and bisexuality, 95, 107, 108,132,133,136,159, 162 Blanchard, Ray,157-159,162, 165-167,168,169,176, 186,192, 201-202, 207- 208,218 Bloom, Amy,218-219 Boston University, 106 Boswell, John, 128 221
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222 Brain development and gender identity development, 44, 207 INAH-1 and INAH-3, 119- 122 sexual differentiation in,72- 73,118-122, 169 Sexually Dimorphic Nucleus (rats),119-120 Breedlove, Marc, 123 British public schools, 125, 131, 132 Brown, John Ronald, 200 Burke, Phyllis, 26, 27 Byne, Bill, 121 -122 Canada, 205 Casual sex, 86, 87-90,101,156, 185, 211, 216-217 Catholic priests, 66, 69 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 86 Chase, Cheryl, 174 Chicago Baton, 186-187 gay district, 59-60, 63-64, 96, 128,141,142 Childhood behavior autogynephilic cross dressing, 170 awareness of unacceptability of,7-10 with cloacal exstropy, 41-42 feminine boys, x,3-15,18,68, 147 She Plan TAlho Would He Queen male homosexuals, x-xl, 12, 13,17,19-20,38,58-59, 61-62, 68, 80-81 sexual knowledge, 34-35 Childrearing practices. See Parenting behavior Clark Institute of Psychiatry, 157, 162,163,170,172-173, 201, 204, 205 Cloacal exstrophy assessment of outcomes, 49-50 childhood behavior, 41-42 female assignment of males, 40-44, 47 and gender identity development, 42-45, 47, 48-50,51-52 male assignment of males, 51 and persecution and stigmatization, 46 prevalence, 41 refusal of sex reassignment, 49 sex reassignment surgery,40- 44,47,49,51 and sexual orientation, 45, 46, 47, 48,111 telling children about, 42-43, 51 Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy, 32 Corbett, Ken, 26 Creation myth, 128 Crisp, Quentin, 79,84, 216 Cross-dressing/ cross-dressers autoerotic asphyxia and, 172 in childhood, 3, 4, 6,18,147, 170
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Index ~ . . . . . cone Toning explanations, 169 counseling for, 164 by drag queens, 135, 159-160 179-180 erotic component to, l 52- 153,157,160-161,163- 164,170,173,174-175, 176 genetic link, 170, 172 guilt and purging, 153, 161, 171 heterosexual transvestites, l 55, 160-161,165 occupational, 135 sexual sadism and, 172 she-male prostitute customers, 187-188 stigmatization, 161 by transsexuals,147,148,152- 153,155,159,163-165, 168,169-170,173, 203, 218-219 Crying Game, The (movie),79,142, 198-199 Cultural influences feminine boys, 73 sexual behavior of male homosexuals, 133-138 end transsexualism, 171, 183- 184 Dancers, 67-69, 76 Davidson,Jaye,79 Denny, Dallas, 200-201 223 Depression, 81 -82,83,155,163 Die Transvestiten (HirschLeld) ,171 Dorner, Gunter, 104-105 Dominatrix, 188 Drag queens, 72,76,135,136,155, 159-160,179-180,183, 205, 219 Eating disorders, 82, 93 Ed Wood (movie), 142 Egalitarian relationships, l 34,137- 138 Estrogen therapy,46,48,149,196- 197 Evolution and age preferences in mates, 96-97 homosexuality as a paradox, 88,115-118 and interest in casual sex,87- 88 and visual sexual stimuli, 94 Exhibitionism, 171 Family relationships feminine boys, l 8-19,26,30, 37-38, 103 gay sons,37,98-99,114-115 oftranssexuals, 15, 20, 32, 149-150,155-156,183, 203,204-205, 206, 209, 211 Fathers, and feminine sons, x,4,6, 17,19-20, 26,37,103
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224 Female impersonators,185,186- 187, 205 Feminine boys She Plan TAlho Would He Queen behavior modification therapy, 24-26, 28 causes attributed to, x,10-12, 22-34,39,52-54,111, 169; see also Gender identity disorder childhood behavior and experiences, x,3-15,18, 68,147 childrearing practices and,10- 12,16,18-19,20-22,30, 31,39,52,103 cross dressing,3,4,6,18, 147 cultural influences, 73 and family dynamics,18-19, 26,30,37-38,103 friendships, 8-9 genetic link, l l-13, 22, 82-83, 103-104,108,118 Green's study, 17-19,25-26 normalization of gender role behavior, 184,213-214 occupational and recreational interests, 65, 68-69 prenatal effects of hormones, 53-54 psychological treatment, 15, 20,22,23-28,29,30-31, 38 sexual orientation, x-xi,12- 13,17,19-20,26,36,38, 58-59,61-84,91,93,108, 111,134,135-136,138 shame and defensiveness, 15, 37,58-59,103 speech development, 73, 214 stereotypes, 17 . . . ~ stigmatization anc ~ persecution, xi,7-10,14- 15,17,30,31,32-33,35- 36,38, 80,183 suicide, 37 and transsexualism, xi,15, 20, 28,30,31-32,33,135- 136,138,146,148,163, 168,178,183,184 "Femmes," xi, 36, 78, 79, 80, 84, 93,109 "Femiphobia/sissyphobia," 59,77- 78, 80 Filipino bayot, 136 Finger length ratio, 122, 123 Florence, Italy, in fifteenth-century, 125,129 Frotteurism, 171 Freund, Kurt,95,157, 158 G Gay men. See also Male homosexuality accent/speech, xi, 69-73, 75- 76, 79, 79-80 age preferences in mates,96- 98,131,132 AIDS/HIV infection, 84,162, 183 childhood behavior, x-xl, 12, 13,17,19-20,38,58-59, 61-62, 68, 80-81
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Index coming out, 19,36, 37, 57 drag queens, 72, 76,135,136, 155,159-160,179-180, 183, 205 earliest sexual experiences, 36, 112,148 "femmes," xi, 36, 78, 79, 80, 84, 93,109 "femiphobia/sissyphobia," 59, 77-78, 80 flaming, 79 knowledge of sexuality, 35-36 mating psychology and relationships,76-81,87, 90-91, 98, 100-101 monogamy,85-86,90,100-101 movement patterns and motor behavior, xi,73- 76, 79-80 number of sex partners,86, 100 occupational and recreational interests, 63-69, 79-80, 105-106 persecution by other gays,35- 36 personals ads,77-79,84,86- 87, 93, 98,101 prostitutes/prostitution, 134, 135,136 psychological problems,81- 83, 93 research as a threat to,113- 115,158 sex with women,57,116 sexual practices and preferences, 57, 83-84, 86 225 stereotypes, 63-81 stigmatization/so cial intolerance,37, 81, 100, 114,115 twins, 106-110 Gay marriage, 100 Gay rights movement, 100 Gender dysphoria, 23, 27 Gender identity, xi, 22, 47 defined, 50 gradations in, 50 "look at'em funny" theories of, 52-53 Gender Identity and Psychosexual Disorders Clinic, 48 Gender identity development brain differences, 44 cloacal exstrophy and, 42-45, 47, 48-50,51-52 hormones and, 42, 44, 53-54 nature-nurture debate, 44-47, 52-53 psychosexual neutrality at birth, theory of, 47-48 socialization and, 39-40, 41- 44,52,65 Gender identity disorder behavioral criteria, 22-23 conservatives' theories and therapies, 24-26, 31 controversies, 23-24 defined, 22 liberals' theories and therapies, 26-28, 29-30,31 moderates' theories and therapies, 28-34
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226 research design, 34 transsexual outcomes, 28, 31- 32,33-34,167,178-179, 180 Gender Identity Disorder and Psychosocial Problems in Children andAdolescents (Zucker),29,215 Gender role behavior, xi,45,184 Gender Shock (Burke),26,216 Genetic testing for homosexuality, 113-114 Genetics and cross dressing, 170, 172 and femininity in males, 11- 13,22, 82-83,103-104, 108,118 multiple gene hypothesis, 118 of sexual orientation,58,106- 110,112-113,118 twin studies of gays, l 06- 110 X-linked trait, l 12-113 Genital arousal, measurement of, 94 Greek pederasty, 124, 125,126, 127,128,131 Green, Richard, 17-19, 25-26, 32, 62,178, 215 Gynandromorphophiles, 186 Hamer, Dean, 112,120, 121 Harry Benjamin International Gender Dysphoria Association, 201 Harvard Sentences, 70 She Plan TAlho Would He Queen Harvard University, 24 Heimel, Cynthia, 93 Heterosexual outlets, and male homosexuality, 131 -132 HirschLeld, Magnus, 171 Homosexuality. See also Gay men; Male homosexuality abortion controversy, 114 artistic brother hypothesis, 117-118 children's knowledge of,34- 35,36 creation myth, 128 genetic testing for,113-114 inclusive fitness hypothesis, 117 parents' reaction to, 98-99, 114-115 as perversion or inferior sexuality, 24, 101 prevalence of,111-112,126- 127 psychological therapy, 29 removal from DSM, 81 as social construction, 124-133 as solution to overpopulation, 117 Hooker, Evelyn, 81 Immune response hypothesis, l l l Inclusive fitness hypothesis, 117 Indian hijras, 134,138 Intercrural intercourse, 127 International Academy of Sex Research, 158
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Index Intersexuality, 175 Isay, Richard, 26, 27 J Japan, 205 Johns Hopkins University, 47, 48, 206-207 Jorgensen, Christine, 20, 217 em Kenrick Doug 98 , , Kleinfelter's syndrome, 22 Lawrence,Anne, 168, 174-175, 218, 219 Leadership U,24 Leno, Jay, 123Lesbians, 47, 67-68, 99,100,122-123,185, 204, 211 LeVay, Simon,26,27,28,32,119- 121, 217 Lippa, Richard, 64-65, 66, 123 Ma Vie en Rose (film) ,215 Machiavelli, 129 Malaysia, 205 Male homosexuality. See also Gay men in adoptive brothers, 108 brain development and,72- 73,118-122, 169 birth order and, lll,158 in British public schools, 125, 131,132 227 cultural differences in behavior, 133-138 egalitarian relationships, 134, 137-138 evolutionary paradox, 88, 115-118 family acceptance of, 37 and femininity, x-xi,12-13, 17,19-20,26,36,38,58- 59,61-84,91,93,108, 111,134,135-136,138 in fifteenth-century Florence, 125,129 geneticlink,106-110,112-113 Greek pederasty, l 24,125, 126,127,128,131 heterosexual outlets and,131- 132 immune response hypothesis, 111 Indian hijras, 134,138 and masculinity, 58, 60, 84, 85-102,108, 135-136 Native American berdache tradition, 134, 137, 138 Oman xanith, 135 in prison, l 31 Roman cinacdi, 125, 128 in Sambia tribe of New Guinea, 125,130-131, 132 seduction-and-recruitment hypothesis, 112 self-awareness of, 36-37 shame and conflict about, 26, 27,31,33,36,59,108
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228 Tahitian mahu, 134 transsexual, 134, 135,136, 137,138,146,147-151, 159,162,163,167,168- 169,171,172,176,177- 191 in twins, 106-111 as X-linked trait,112-113 Marks, Mimi, 186 Masculine females, xii Masculinity, and male homosexuality, 58, 60, 84, 85-102,108, 135-136 Masochism, 171,172 Mating psychology and relationships of gay men, 76-81, 87, 90-91,98, 100-101 Mattison,Andrew,90 McCloskey, Deirdre N.,218 McHugh, Paul, 206-207 McWhirter, David, 90 Midnight in the Garden of Good and Evil (movie), 143 Money, John, 47-48,50, 155, 216 Monogamy, 85-86, 90, 100-101 Mothers, and feminine sons, 3-5, 8-15,18-19, 20-21,26, 37,39,52 Movement patterns and motor behavior, xi, 73-76, 79-80 Mutual masturbation, 131 r Naked Civil Servant, The (Crisp), 84,216 She Plan TAlho Would He Queen National Association for Research and Therapy of Homosexuality (NARTH),24,216 National Institutes of Health, 24 Native American berdache tradition, 134,137,138 Nature (journal), 122-123 Necrophilia, 171 Netherlands, 32, 82,197, 205 Neuroticism, 82-83 Northwestern University, 16, 64, 86,107, 206 Norton, Rictor, 217 o Oberschneider, Michael, 67 Occupational and recreational Interests offeminine males, 65, 68-69 of gay men, 63-69, 79-80, 105-106 oftranssexuals, 136, 142, 149, 152-153,168,184-185, 210 Oman xanith, 135 Ontario Correctional Institute, 157 Oral sex, 57, 86,130,131,134, 148,149,188 Paraphilia, 171-172 Parenting behavior and femininity in boys, 10-12, 16,18-19,20-22,30,31, 39,52,103
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Index study design, 21-22 Pederastic relationships, 128 Pedophilia, 171 Penile ablation, and gender development, 45-47 Penile plethysmograph, 94, 95 Persecution and stigmatization cloacal exstrophy end, 46 cross dressing and, 161 of feminine boys, xi,7-10,14- 15,17,30,31,32-33,35- 36,38, 80,183 of gays by other gays, 35-36 of homosexuals by heterosexuals,37,81, 100, 114,115 of transsexuals, 183 Personals ads, 77-79, 84, 86-87, 93, 98,101 Peterson, Maxine, 172-173,202, 203, 204-205, 208 Pillard, Richard,106,110,121 Playgirl magazine, 94 Pornography, 93-96 Prejudice against "femmes," xi Prenatal effects of hormones,53- 54,104-105,119-120, 121,122 Pressland, Natasha, 135 Priscilla: Queen of the Desert (movie), 142 Prisons, homosexuality in, l 31 Prostitutes/prostitution, 134, 135, 136,151,183-185,187- 188,211 Pseudo-hermaphrodites, 47 229 Psychological problems, of gay men, 81-83, 93 Psychosexual neutrality at birth, theory of, 47-48 Psychotherapy for cross dressing, 164 for feminine boys, 15,20,22, 23-28,29,30-31,38 for homosexuals, 29 Reimer, David John/Joan case), 45-46, 48,51, 216 Reiner,William, 48, 51-52 Rekers, George, 24-25, 27, 28, 31, 216 Richardson, Justin, 26 Rocke, Michael, 129 Rodman, Dennis, 142 Roman cinacdi, 125, 128 S Sambia tribe of New Guinea, 125, 130-131,132 Science magazine, 120 Sedaris, David, 35, 73 S eduction-and-recruitment hypothesis, 112 Sex differences . . in age preferences in mates, 96-98 in brain development, 72-73, 118-122 in casual sex interests,86,88- 90,101 finger length ratio, 122, 123
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230 the Plan TAlho Would He Queen in height, 65 in interest in children, 99-100 in mating psychology, 76-77, 87-88 in movement and motor behavior, xi, 73-76 in sexual arousal patterns,94- 96 in socialization, 65-66 in speech, 72-73 in visual sexual stimuli, 93-96 Sex reassignment surgery age factors, 46-47 appropriateness for autogynephiles, l 73,174 breast implants, l 98-199 castration, 196 cloacal exstrophy and, 40-44, 47,49,51 costs, 149, 197,198, 199 electrolysis, 196 employers' tolerance of, 203, 208 facial plastic surgery, 198 in homosexual transsexuals, 159,182-183,185,188- 191 hormone therapy,46,48,149, 196-197, 201, 202 insurance coverage, 205-206 international differences in compassion and assistance, 205-206 labiaplasty, 200 and orgasm, 208 penile ablation and, 45-47 penile construction, 45 postoperative regret, 173,202, 207-208 procedures, l 95-201,219 quack surgeons, 200-201 realism and sensitivity of neo- vagina,195,200,208 and sexual relationships, 46, 149,185,188-191, 209- 211 side effects,31,197, 199 silicon injections, 199 social transition prior to,201- 205 successful outcomes, 207-209 vaginoplasty,45-46,189,199- 201 voice surgery or therapy,197- 198, 219 Sexual arousal patterns, 94-96 Sexual orientation, xi of autogynephilic transsexuals, 180,183, 190-191 biological markers of,122- 123 cloacal exstrophy and, 45, 46, 47, 48,111 and dance, 67-69, 76 environmental factors, l 10- 112 essentialists' view, 126 of feminine boys, x-xi, 12,13, 17,19-20,38,58-59, 61- 63, 84 genetics of,58,106-110,112- 113,118
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Index of homosexual transsexuals, 136,146,151,159,182- 183 and interest in parenting,99- 100 negative effects of research on gays,113-115 parental influence, 4 and physical attractiveness of partners, 91-93 and physical violence, 91 prenatal effects of androgens, 53-54,104-105,119-120, 122 prenatal stress and, 53-54, 104-106 psychological hypothesis,65- 66 and Rorschack test responses, 81 sexual arousal patterns and, 94-96 and sexual jealousy, 90-91 and sexual promiscuity, 86-87, 101 social constructionists' view, 124-133 sociological hypothesis, 66 of transsexuals, xi-xii, 136, 148,152-154,156,178, 211 twin studies, 106-110 and visual sexual stimuli,93- 96 Sexual partners, number of, 86, 100; see also Casual sex 231 Sexual sadism, 171, 172 Sexually Dimorphic Nucleus (rats),119-120 She-males, 186-188,190 Siblings, and feminine brothers, 5 Silence of the Lambs (movie), 143 Social conservatives' theories and therapies, 24-26, 31, 87, 89-90,100,111 Social constructionism controversy, 124-133, 217 Social liberals' theories and therapies, 26-28,29-30, 31 Social moderates' theories and therapies, 28-34 Socialization, and gender development,39-40,41- 44,52,65 Society for the Second Self (Tri- Ess),161,168 Standards of Care for Gender Identity Disorders, 201 Stereotypes, gay, 63-81 Suicide, 37, 83 Sullivan, Andrew, 100 Symons, Donald, 90 Symposium (Plato), 128 Tahitian mahu, 134 Testosterone,42,44,53, 118-120, 122, 201 Thailand, 135 Tonga, 135 Transgendered, 174
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232 TransexualWomen's Resources, 218, 219 Transsexualism, female-to-male, 201, 205, 207 Transsexualism, male-to-female causes, 145, 166-167, 169-170, 171-172,178, 206, 207 defined, 144 degrees of, 144 and femininity, xi, 15,20,28, 30,31-32,33,135-136, 138,146,148,163,167, 168,178,181,184 gender identity disorder and, 28,31-32,33-34,167, 178-179,180, 207 genetic links, 183-184 motivation for, xi-xii, 146, 164 movies about, 142-143 as paraphilia, 171-172 prevalence, 20, 142 surgery, see Sex reassignment surgery talk-show themes, 142-143 therapy,153,162-163,165- 166 types, 162-166 Transsexuals asexual, 159,162, 163 autogynephilic,146,147,151- 156,163-176,181,190- 191,192-194, 202, 203- 204,206, 207-208, 209, 211, 218 beauty pageants, 135 She Plan TAlho Would He Queen bisexual, 159, 162 and casual sex, 156, 185, 211 common lies and deceptiveness of, 172-176 cross-cultural occurence, 171, 183-184 cross dressing,147,148,152- 153,155,159,163-165, 168,169,173,174-175, 176, 203 depression, l 55,163 disclosure to partners,190- 191 discrimination against, 183 distinguishing between types, 192-194 dreams for the future, 186, 210 family relationships, 15, 20, 32,149-150,155-156, 183,203, 204-205, 206, 209, 211 female impersonators, 185, 186-187 Filipino bayot, 136 heterosexual, l 59,162 HIV infection, 185 homosexual, 134, 135,136, 137,138,146,147-151, 159,162,163,167,168- 169,171,172,176,177- 191, 207, 209-210 marriage and children, 162, 168,174,188-191, 201, 203,204-205, 206, 209, 210, 211
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Index medical procedures,149,196- 201 occupational preferences, 136, 142,149,152-153,168, 184-185, 210 partner preferences, l 36,146, 151,159, 182-183 physical attractiveness, 135, 141,180-183,188-189 198 prostitutes/prostitution, 151, 183-185, 187-188, 211 sexual preferences and practices, xi-xii, 136, 148, 152-154,156, 178, 211 she-males, 186-188, 190 shoplifting, 184, 185 social transition prior to surgery, 201-205 socialization between types, 147, 177-178, 211-212 voice/speech pasterns, 72, 197-198, 201 Transvestites,155,160-161,165, 218 233 Tula, 180 Twilight of the Golds (play),113 Ulrichs, Karl, xi University Medical Center (Utrecht),32 University of California at Los Angeles, 24 University of South Carolina, 24 Visual sexual stimuli, 94 Weinrich,James,84 Whitam, Fred, 135-136 Wilson, E. O.,117 Witelson, Sandra, 60 Wongprasert,Thanaporn, 135 Zucker, Ken,28-34,62,170,178- 179
Representative terms from entire chapter:
gender identity disorder, gender identity development, gender identity, visual sexual stimuli, feminine boys, sex reassignment surgery, plan talho, sexual arousal patterns, gender role behavior, visual sexual, childhood behavior, casual sex, artistic brother hypothesis, sex reassignment, identity disorder, inclusive fitness hypothesis, american berdache tradition, cross dressing, native american berdache, finger length ratio, british public schools, cloacal exstrophy, social transition prior, sexually dimorphic nucleus, sexual stimuli, sexual orientation, sexual arousal, identity development, motor behavior, brain development,