THE

PAPYRUS  E B E R S

THE GREATEST
EGYPTIAN MEDICAL DOCUMENT

TRANSLATED BY

B. EBBELL

LATE COUNTY MEDICAL OFFICER

LEVIN & MUNKSGAARD . EJNAR MUNKSGAARD
COPENHAGEN 1937


For I have entered into the fire and have come forth from the water, I will not fall into this day's trap. I have spoken (and now) I am young and am h3.-Oh Rê, speaks over his (Uraeus) serpent, Osiris, call over what came out of thee! Re speaks over his (Uraeus)­serpent, Osiris calls over what came out of him. Lo, thou hast saved me from everything bad and evil and vicious, from afflic­tions (caused) by a god or goddess, from dead man or woman etc.-Really excellent, (proved) many times!

Recital on drinking a remedy: Come remedy! Come thou who expellest (evil) things in this my stomach and in these my limbs! The spell is powerful over the remedy. Repeat it backwards! Dost thou remember that Horus and Seth have been conducted to the big palace at Heliopolis, when there was negotiated of Seth's testicles with Horus, and he shall get well like one who is on earth. He does all that he may wish like these gods who are there.-Spoken when drinking a remedy. Really excellent, (proved) many times!

 

 

Internal-medical diseases.

The beginning of a compilation of remedies.

To expel diseases in the belly: thwj mixed with beer, is drunk by the man.

Another (remedy) for the belly, when it is ill: cumin 1/2 ro, goosefat 4 ro, milk 20 ro, are boiled, strained and taken.

Another: figs 4 ro, sebesten 4 ro, sweet. beer 20 ro, likewise.

Remedy to open the bowels: milk 25 ro, sycamore-fruit 8 ro, honey 8 ro, are boiled, strained and taken for 4 days.

Another to cause evacuation: honey |, powder of d3rt | powder of s`m | , are made into suppository.

Remedy for dejection: colocynth 4 ro, honey 4 ro, are mixed together, eaten and swallowed with beer 10 ro or wine 5 ro.

Another: "3m 4 ro, d3rt 4 ro, colocynth 4 ro, honey 1 ro, are mixed together and eaten by the man in one day.


Another: honey 4 ro, colocynth 5 ro, date-wine 5 ro, senna 4 ro, oil 5 ro, are boiled and eaten by the man in one day.

Another: wine|, honey |, colocynth |, are strained and taken in one day.

Another: fresh dates | , northern salt | , šbbt-fluid, | are mixed with water and placed in a mht-vessel; powder of senna is added to it, boiled together and put into a box or a b3w-vessel; is eaten by the man when finger-warm and swallowed with sweet beer.

Another: colocynth 4 ro, honey 8 ro, are ground fine, eaten by the man and swallowed with sweet beer.

Another: malachite |, is ground fine, put into bread-dough, made into 3 pills and swallowed by the man and gulped down with sweet beer.

Another remedy to open the bowels: w3m | , inb | , srj of ksbt | , honey | , silphium (?) | , are mixed together and eaten for 4 days.

Another: tj'm | , d3rt | , cumin | , figs | , sebesten | , oil | , are mixed together and eaten by the man.

Another to empty the belly: cow's milk |, sycamore-fruit |, honey | , are ground fine, boiled and taken for 4 days.

Another for the belly: hmw of k3k3 8 ro, dates tf 2 ½ ro, rush-nut 1 ro, kf3 of h3sjt 1 ro, coriander 1 ro, thick beer 10 ro, remains during the night in the dew, is strained and taken for 4 days.

Another to expel slags (?) in the belly: thyme (?) |, is boiled with cow's milk or sweet beer and drunk by the man, so that he evacuates the slags (?) that are in his belly.

Another to treat the lung: d3rt 5 ro, sweet beer 21 1/3  ro, remains during the night in the dew and is drunk by the man for 4 days.

Another to empty the belly and make all evil that is in the body of a man come out: colocynth 4 ro, honey 4 ro, dates 5 to, manna 5 to, are mixed together and taken in 1 day.

Another remedy: viscous fluid 16 ro, s3m 1 ro, "3m 1 ro, tj'm 1 ro, pignons 2 ro, rush-nut 1 ro, fruit of juniperus 2 ro, frankincense 1/2 ro, northern salt 1 ro, are boiled until there remain 15 ro; thou shalt add honey before it is taken away (from the fire); is warmed up to finger-warmth and drunk in 1 day.

Another remedy for the belly: colocynth 8 ro, senna 8 ro, s’m 8 ro, sweet beer 15 to, are mixed together, boiled, strained and taken in 1 day. It causes the man to evacuate all accumula­tions that are in his belly.

Another to empty the belly and expel putrefaction (?) in the belly of a man: seeds of ricinus, are chewed and swallowed with beer, until all that is in his belly comes out.

Remedy for cases of evacuation: honey |s3s3 | s'm | , pignons | , fruit of juniperus |, the interior of wd'jt | , cumin | "3m | , tj'm |, northern salt , are made into a suppository and put into the hinder part.

Another to regulate the urine and cause purgation: goosefat 5 ro, sory 1 ro, are boiled to finger-warmth and swallowed with wine.

Another to cause purgation:" 6 senna (pods) (which are like beans from Crete) and fruit of mnwh (which is called colocynth) are ground fine, put on honey and eaten by the man and swal­lowed with sweet wine 5 ro.

Another: colocynth 4 ro, honey 4 ro, are warmed up to finger­warmth and swallowed with hmtnj of beer of d3d3jt in 1 day.

Another to expel noxious excrements in the belly of a man: white gum 1, red dye 1, human milk, are mixed together and swallowed by the man.

Another: wheat-flour | tj'm |, fruit of juniperus |, colocynth | , senna |, mustard | , are ground together, shaped to sns-­bread and eaten by the man.

Another to empty the belly and clear out purulency: sspt of hmjt, is ground fine, put into 4 fk3-cakes, moistened with honey and swallowed by the man.

Another: malachite ½  ro, honey, likewise.

Remedy to open the bowels: colocynth I , pignons |, goosefat| , honey |, sweet beer, are mixed together and drunk for 4 days.

Another to expel all illnesses in the belly and treat the lung: sweet beer n d3d3jt, d3rt 10 ro, is put into a ds-jar hkn r mt; it is rubbed in a d3d3-vessel; thou shalt warm up therein every time.

Another to cause purgation: sweet beer 25 ro, silphium (?) 2 ro, northern salt 2 ro, sebesten 4 ro, remains during the night in the dew and is drunk for 4 days.

Another: barley 32 ro, toasted and fully dried, is shaped to fk3-cakes, put into oil and eaten by a man who cannot get purga­tion.

Another to regulate the bowels: s3s3 | , s3ms |, d3' | , malachite a little, honey |, are mixed and eaten before going to bed.

Another to expel š  f t j w in the belly: figs 4 ro, sebesten 4 ro, raisin 4 ro, milk 4 ro, sycamore-fruit 4 ro, fruit of h3sjt 4 ro, yellow ochre 1 ro, frankincense 1/2 to, water, remains during the night in the dew and is taken for 4 days.

Another to expel illness in one side of the belly: 'f3 |, date­wine | , is boiled with oil and herewith is bandaged.

Another to expel all illnesses in the belly: figs roasted and moistened with fresh balanites-oil, raisin likewise, pignons like­wise, are mixed together and eaten by a man in whose belly there is illness, and let him drink (something).

Another: figs roasted and moistened with fresh balanites-oil, raisin likewise, pignons likewise, p3-ib-fluid 32 ro, wine 32 ro, are mixed together and drunk by a man, in whose belly there is illness.

Another to expel illness of the belly: oil, manna, s'3m, wheat (?) ground with honey, are mixed together and eaten in 1 day.

Remedy to stop (too frequent) evacuations (i.e. diarrhea) fresh dart 4 ro, fresh porridge 4 ro, oil, honey 8 ro, wax 2 ro, water 25 ro, are boiled and eaten for 4 days.

Another: iwbt of šns-bread 2 ro, yellow ochre 1 ro, yolk of an egg n dwjw 2 ro, water 25 ro, are taken for 4 days.

Another: silphium (?) 4 ro, sebesten 4 ro, raisin 2 ro, inbt 2 ro, fruit of juniperus 2 ro, honey 2 ro, water 25 ro, remains during the night in the dew, likewise.

Another: iwbt of šns-bread 2 ro, yolk of an egg n dwjw 4 ro, d3rt 1 ro, water 25 ro, are drunk for 4 days.

Another:  figs 4 ro, grapes 4 ro, sycamore-fruit 1 ro, gum 1 ro, yellow ochre ½ ro, d3rt 1 ro, pignons 4 ro.  It shall be said: oh htw-animal! Oh htt-animal! Is repeated backwards; oh dn! Oh dnjt! Is repeated backwards.  It is supplemented (?) with water 5 ro, remains during the night in the dew and is taken for 4 days.

 

Another to expel evacuation of blood (dysentery?) that is (too) frequent: fresh porridge 4 ro, pulverized manna 5 ro, oil 4 ro, honey 4 ro, are strained and taken for 4 days.  All (the other) remedies are about the same as this (lit. all remedies are like its fellow).

 

 

 

To kill roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides): root of pomegranate 5 ro, water 10 ro, remains during the night in the dew, is strained and taken in 1 day.

Another:  Upper Egyptian barley 5 ro, northern salt 2 ½ ro, water 10 ro, likewise.

Another: juice of acacia 5 ro, water 10 ro, remains during the night in the dew, is strained and taken in 1 day.

To expel roundworm in the belly: malachite 4 bits, are placed in 4 fk3-cakes and swallowed by the man.

Another: hr of ksbt 5 ro, yeast-fluid 5 ro, water 15 ro, remains during the night in the dew, is strained and taken in 1 day.

Remedy to kill roundworm: njt of dates 4 ro, d3rt 4 ro, sweet beer 25 ro, are boiled, strained and taken.

Another: leaves of potamogeton 5 ro, s’m 5 ro, sweet beer 20 ro, are ground, strained and taken.

Another: hr of ksbt, to be left 4 days with hmtnj-fluid, it remains during the night in the dew and is strained into a mht-vessel on the 5th day: not let – (found defective) – of id; it remains during the night in the dew in summer and is drunk in the morning.

 

Another: mwt of rush-nut 1 ro, malachite 1 ro, water 5 ro, are boiled and taken for 4 days.

Another: w3m 8 ro, silphium (?) 8 ro, hr of ksbt 4 ro, honey 4 ro, beer 5 ro; are ground and remain during the night with the honey; thou shalt rise early in order to rub it with the beer 5 ro; is taken by the man.

Another: w3m 5 ro, water 10 ro, remains during the night in the dew, is taken for 4 days-or with beer.

Another: isw 5 ro, s3ms 8 ro, are boiled with honey and eaten.-Their incantation: the burdens are loosened, and the faintness departs which the worm has put into this my belly. The one whom the god has created, against him the enemy has made violation; (but) the god cures that which he has done in this my belly.

Another excellent remedy amongst those prepared for the belly: isw | , s3ms | , are ground fine, boiled with honey and eaten by a man in whose belly there are "hrrw-worms)[1] ; it is haematuria that produces them, and (they) are not killed by any remedy.

Another: root of pomegranate, is pounded with beer 5 ro and remains during the night in a hin-vessel with water 15 ro; thou shalt rise early to strain it in cloth; is drunk by the man.

Another to expel roundworm in the belly: 'f3 | ,s’m | , viscous fluid | , are mixed together and eaten; then he evacuates all worms that are in his belly.

Another to kill roundworm: dried unripe sycamore-fruit |, date from its mother | , are pounded thoroughly, put into thick beer and drunk by the man.

Another to expel pains caused by roundworm or tape-worm (tænia) : powder of hyoscyamus | , the best of 'm3w |, goose­fat | , are mixed together, strained and eaten for 4 days.

To expel pains caused by tape-worm: juice of acacia |, leaves of i3jw |,'f3 |,d3ji |, are pounded together and the belly of a woman or a man is bandaged with it.

 

Remedy to kill roundworm: juice of acacia, is put into water in a njw-vessel and remains during the night covered with cloth; thou shalt rise early to pound it in a stone-mortar, until thou pulverizest it; a swt-plant is rubbed on his nose after he has drunk it.

Another to expel pains caused by tape-worm: thyme (?) |; inb | ,tst of swt-plant |, honey |, are taken for 4 days.

Another to kill roundworm: w3m 4 ro, silphium (?) 2 ro, northern salt 1 ro, honey 4 to, are mixed together and taken in 1 day.

Another remedy: dried k33 of sycamore |, fresh dates |, are pounded with beer and drunk for 4 days.

Another remedy to kill tape-worm: hr of ksbt 5 ro, dsrt-beer 20 ro, are boiled, strained and taken immediately.

Another: w3m 4 to, northern salt 1 ro, silphium (?) 1 ro, honey 4 ro, sweet beer 2 ½  ro, are made into 4 pills, swallowed by the man and gulped down with beer 21 ro.

Another remedy: w3m 8 ro, silphium (?) 1 ro, dsrt-beer 5 ro, are ground fine and drunk in 1 day.

Another: colocynth | , turpentine | , grease | , red patron gall of ox |, are shaped into fk3-cake and eaten. in 1 day.

Another: red ochre |, costus (?), starch (?), double-bread |, rock-oil |, sweet beer, are ground fine, strained and taken in 1 day.

Another: colocynth | , red natron | , turpentine | , are shaped (to) fk3-cake and eaten in 1 day.

Another: fruit of bgsw 4 ro, wine 5 ro, 'm3w 5 ro, are warmed up and drunk for 4 days.

Another: dsrt-beer | , cumin |, d3js | , swt dhwtj |, 'm3w |, tj'm |, sebesten | , sweet beer, are boiled and taken in 1 day.

Another: fruit of moringa | , milk | , honey | , colocynth | , wine, are boiled, strained and taken for 4 days; it empties the belly.

Another: colocynth |, heart of -bird|, honey |, wine |, thyme (?) | , sweet beer |, are shaped into fk3-cake and eaten in 1 day.

Another to treat tape-worm: nj3j3 | , kmw |, nw3 | ,'m3w | ,are boiled, strained and taken in 1 day.

Another: bran (?) of dates 2 ro, s'm 4 ro, rush-nut 2 ro, sory 1/2 to, silphium (?) 1 ro, crocus 2 ½  ro, 'maw 5 ro, cumin 2 ro, sweet beer 20 ro, are boiled, strained and taken for 4 days.

Another: d3rt 4 ro, red ochre ½  ro, viscous fluid of fermented drink 2 ½  ro, white oil ro, sweet beer 25 ro, are boiled and take thereof; it kills tape-worm.

Another: fruit of juniperus 5 ro, white oil 5 to, ate taken in 1 day.


Anatomical-physiological-section

 

                The beginning of the physician's secret: knowledge of the heart's movement and knowledge of the heart.

There are vessels from it to every limb. As to this, when any physician, any surgeon (lit. Sachmet-priest) or any exorcist applies the hands or his fingers to the head, to the back of the head, to the hands, to the place of the stomach, to the arms or to the feet, then he examines the heart, because all the limbs possess its vessels, that is: it (the heart) speaks out of the vessels of every limb.

There are 4 vessels in his nostrils, 2 give mucus and 2 give blood.

There are 4 vessels in the interior of his temples which then give blood (to) the eyes; all diseases of the eyes arise through them, because there is an opening to the eyes.  As to “the water (i.e. the tears) that comes down from them”: it is the pupils of the eyes that produce it; another lection: it is the sleep in the eyes which makes it.

There are 4 vessels dispersing to the head which effuse in the back of the head and which then produce htp a bald spot (?) and loss of hair (?); this is their production upwards.

 

As to “the breath which enters into the nose”: it enters into the heart and the lung; these give to the whole belly.

As to “that through which the ears become deaf”: there are 2 vessels that effect it, (namely) the ones leading to the root of the eye; another lection: to the whole eye.  When he is deaf, his mouth cannot be opened (i.e. he cannot speak).  Another lection: as to “that through which the ear becomes deaf”: it is these (vessels) which are on the temples of a man hr nššw; it is these (vessels) which give a cutter in a man, so that he (the cutter) takes for him his air (?).

As to “innudation of the stomach “: it is (due to) fluid of the mouth; all his limbs become faint.

               As to “šs of the stomach”: it is a vessel whose name is “receiving” (šspw) which makes it; it gives humour to the heart, and all his limbs become weary after yonder receiving by the heart thereof.

As to "debility which arises in the heart": it is h3sf as far as the lung and the liver; deafness (insensibility?) comes forth for it (i.e.. the heart), and its vessels fall down after their heat, h3s f sf h-hr.

 

There are 4 vessels to his 2 ears together with the (ear)canal, (namely) 2 on his right side and 2 to his left side. The breath of life enters into the right ear, and the breath of death enters into the left ear; another lection: it (i.e. the breath of life) enters into the right side, and the breath of death enters into the left side:

There are 6 vessels that lead to the arms, 3 to the right and 3 to the left; they lead to his fingers.

There are 6 vessels that lead to the feet, 3 to the right foot and 3 to the left foot, until they reach the sole of the foot.

There are 2 vessels to his testicles; it is they which give semen.

There are 2 vessels to the buttocks, 1 to (the right) buttock and the other to (the left) buttock.

There are 4 vessels to the liver; it is they which give to it humour and air, which afterwards cause all diseases to arise in it by overfilling with blood.

There are 4 vessels to the lung and to the spleen; it is they which give humour and air to it likewise.

There are 2 vessels to the bladder; it is they which give urine.

There are 4 vessels that open to the anus (rectum?) ; it is they which cause humour and air to be produced for it. Now the anus opens to every vessel to the right side and the left side in arms and legs, when (it) is overfilled with excrements.

 

As to "faintness": it is (due to the fact) that the heart does not speak or that the vessels of the heart are dumb, there being no perception of them under thy fingers (i.e. thou dost not feel them) ; it arises through the air which fills them. 

As to the "feeling of sickness": it is (due to) debility of the heart through heat from the anus; if thou findest it (the sickness?) great, something shp (rotates?) in his cardia, likewise in the eye.

As to "his mind (consciousness?) passes away": it is (due to the fact) that the vessels of the heart are carrying faeces.

As to "all dropsical diseases that enter into the left eye and go forth from pudenda": it is (due to) the breath of the activity of the priest. It is the heart which causes them to enter into his vessels, and it boils and boils in all his flesh; the heart ndhdh to him through them, because it becomes boiling, and the vessels of his heart become faint to him thereby. As to the phrase "they displace (?) their clothes": it means dropsical diseases. As to "his dropsical diseases are high": this means that they overflow.

As to "ndhdh of the mind": this means that the mind ht3 in the heart; another lection: it means that the mind h3h3 in the heart, which goes up and falls down, after it has reached his sat (throat?); his mind is suffering from wj3t (debility?).

As to "the mind's kneeling (breakdown?)": this means that his mind is constricted, and his heart in its place in the blood of the lung. becomes small through it. It is (due to the fact) that the heart is hot, and then his mind becomes weary through it; he eats little and is fastidious.

As to "drying up of the mind": it is (due to the fact) that the blood dm3 (coagulates?) in the heart.

As to "the mind kneels through purulency": this means that his mind is small in the interior of his belly, the purulency falling on his heart, and so he becomes i3r and kneels.

As to "debility through senile decay": it is (due to the fact) that punrlency is on his heart.

As to "the heart's dancing": this means that it moves itself to his left breast (mamma), and so it pushes on its seat and moves from its place; this (i.e. the phrase "its place") means that its adipose sac (?) is in his left side towards the joining with his shoulder.

As to "his stomach is very (too?) low”: this means that his stomach has sunk, it having proceeded downwards, and it is not in its (right) place.

As to "his heart is in its (right) place": this means that the adipose sac (?) of the heart is in his left side; it does not go upwards and does not fall downwards through anything, remain­ing in its place.

As to "his heart nb3(?)-f '3 the adipose sac (?) under his left breast (mamma)": this means (or: it is due to the fact) that his heart has made a little going downwards, and so his disease passes away (?).

As to "his cardia hs'f': this means that his cardia is big.

As to "the mouth is hot and hnws' (stings?)" and as to "the stomach ,hnws': it is (due to the fact) that heat has passed over his heart, and that his stomach is hot on account of burning, as (in) a man whom hnws'. has heard (?).

As to "his stomach is overclouded, as (in) a man who has eaten unripe sycamore fruit": this means that his stomach is covered, as (in) a man who has eaten unripe sycamore fruit.

As to "perishing of the mind and forgetfulness": it is breath of the activity of the reciting priest that does it; it (i,e. the breath) enters into the lung several times, and the mind becomes confused through it.

As to "rotation falls on his heart": this means that heat­rotation falls on his heart, that many become faint, and that his mind is consumed through dnd. It is his heart's overfilling with blood which does it, (an overfilling) that arises through drink­ing of water and eating of hot sbjt-fishes, it causes (it) to arise.

As to "his mind is dark (melancholic?), and he tastes his heart": this means that his mind is contracted, there being darkness in his, interior (lit. belly) through dnwd, and he makes the deed to consume his mind (i.e. he repents).

As to "his entire flesh (i.e. the muscles) is ddnw like the tiredness of a man whom the way has found": this means that his flesh is tired through it, as the flesh of a man is tired through long going.

As to "raving (?) through something entering from above":  this means that his mind raves (?) through something entering from above.

As to "his mind is drowned": this means that his mind is forgetful like one who is thinking of something else.

The beginning of the book on the traversing of purulency in all limbs of a man according to what was found in a writing under Anubis' feet in Letopolis; it was brought to his Majesty of Upper and Lower Egypt Usaphais, the justified.

 

As to man, there are 22 vessels in him to his heart; they give to all his limbs.

There are 2 vessels in him in srtjw (the superficial venous plexus?) to his breast (mamma); they make burning in the anus. What is done against it: fresh dates, hmw of k3k3, tp3wt of sycamore, are pounded together with water, strained, and let (it) be taken for 4 days.

There are 2 vessels in him to his thigh; if he is ill in his thigh or his feet ache (?), then thou shalt say concerning it: it is (due to the fact) that the vessel s'rtjw (the superficial venous plexus?) of his thigh has received the illness. What is done against it: viscous fluid, s''3m, natron, are boiled together and drunk by the man for 4 days.

(There are 2 vessels in him to his nape). If he is ill in his nape and his eyes are dim-sighted, then thou shalt say concerning it: it is (due to the fact) that the vessels of his nape have received the disease. What is done against it: myrtle (?), washerman's slops, pignon, fruit of s3ms, are mixed with honey, applied to his nape and (it) is bandaged therewith for 4 days.

There are 2 vessels in him to his arm; if he is ill in his shoulder or his fingers ache (?), then thou shalt say concerning it: it is a rheumatic pain. What is done against it: let him vomit by means of fish with beer and d3js' or meat, and his fingers are bandaged with water-melon, until he is healed.

There are 2 vessels in him to the back of his head.

There are 2 vessels in him to his forehead.

There are 2 vessels in him to his eye.

There are 2 vessels in him to his eyebrow.

There are 2 vessels in him to his nose.

There are 2 vessels in him to his right ear; the breath of life enters into them.

There are 2 vessels in him to his left ear; the breath of death enters into them.

All together (they) go to his heart, divide to his nose, all together (they) unite to his hinder parts, and illnesses of the hinder parts arise through them; it is excrements that are carried, it is the vessels of the feet that begin to die.

 

Surgical diseases

Instructions[2] concerning an enlarged gland on the neck of a man:

 

If thou examinest this on the neck of a man with a previous attack of bile (?), and thou findest it as if there were cloth (a rag?) in it, it is soft to feel (lit. under thy fingers), and there was something on it like vesicles (?), then thou shalt say concerning it: (it is) one suffering from a cystoid enlarged gland[3] through an attack of bile (?) on the neck of the man; it is a disease which I will treat.  Thou shalt prepare for it remedies to make it go away by means of strong remedies; sj3, acacia seyal, fly’s blood, gall of ox, northern salt, powder of beans, are ground and (it) is bandaged therewith for 4 days.

Instructions[4] concerning an enlarged gland which has arisen through an attack of purulency in any limb of a man, and thou findest it like a fruit of calotropis procera, a decaying bubo whose skin is hard, but not very; if it decays with matter in the interior of his body, then thou shalt say concerning it: (it is) one suffering from suppurating enlarged gland which has produced matter; it is a disease which I will treat. Thou shalt prepare for it remedies to break the suppurating membrane and bring forth the matter: acacia seyal, fruit of thwj, fly, northern salt, water­melon, hmjt (?), powder of bran (?), powder of beans, grease of ox, natron, are heated and (it) is bandaged therewith, until he is healed.

Instructions') [5]concerning an enlarged gland which has arisen through an attack of bile (?) or matter:

If thou examinest an enlarged gland in the throat of a man which has arisen through an attack of bile (?) or matter in any limb of a man, and thou findest its top pointed and projecting like a breast (mamma) and matter running in its place, then thou shalt say concerning it: (it is) one suffering from an enlarged gland in his throat, matter running in its place; it is a disease which I will treat. Thou shalt prepare for it remedies to cause it to decay by means of medicines: onion, date-wine, thwj, cumin, northern salt, yeast-fluid, powder of beans, fruit of 11 ml, honey, oil, are mixed together and (it) is bandaged therewith for 4 days, until he gets well.

              Instructions)[6] concerning cystoid enlarged gland on his neck:

If thou examinest a cystoid enlarged gland on his neck, and thou findest it like the thymus (?) in the body, being soft to feel and its secretion being whitish dgj3), then thou shalt say concerning it: (it is) one suffering from cystoid enlarged gland on his neck; it is a disease which I will treat by an operation that guards the vessels. Thou shalt prepare for it remedies to treat it with a dressing that breaks the suppurating membrane: acacia seyal, tbwj, fruit of rim}, blood of the hwr-bird, fly's blood, š3š3, honey, 'maw, spry, northern salt, are ground, mixed together and (it) is bandaged therewith.

Instructions[7]'concerning a suppurating enlarged gland on the neck of a man:

If thou examinest a suppurating enlarged gland on the neck of a man which, after becoming big, has given off the overlying (skin) and produceds uppurating granulations and has lasted for years or months and from which comes out a secretion like the sperm of a big male synodontis-fish, then thou shalt say con­cerning it: (it is) one suffering from a suppurating enlarged gland; it is a disease with which I will contend. Thou shalt prepare for it remedies to contract the suppurating membrane on his neck: wax, grease of ox, myrtle (?), ink-powder, acacia seyal, cumin, hammering-flakes from copper, malachite, gypsum of tint, northern salt, goose-fat, fruit of ?, frankincense, stibium, are heated and the neck is bandaged therewith.

Instructions[8] concerning an enlarged gland of bile (?), which has lasted for many days:

If thou examinest an enlarged gland of bile (?) which has lasted for many days and in which imw arises and which has produced liquid contents and a suppurating membrane and whose greater part is warm, then thou shalt say concerning it: (it is) one suffering from an enlarged gland of bile (?) which has pro­duced a matter-place (fistula?) and in which imw arises and through which he is warm; it is a disease with which I will contend. Thou shalt prepare for it remedies to treat it, as truly as remedies can expel (it) : dried blood, cumin, oil, dart, juice of acacia, tp3wt, k33 of acacia, cuttle-bone, soot from copper, are made into a powder.



[1]   By this Bilharzia haematobia must no doubt be meant, a trematode worm, which is found in the veins of the abdominal organs in the haematuria which is endemic in Egypt.

[2]  This very likely refers to a carbuncle on the nape of the neck

[3]  By this is meant an enlarged gland with liquid contants (something like fluid grease).

[4]   A suppurating lymphatic gland is here referred to.

[5]   This no doubt refers to a boil in the throat (angina phlegmonosa).

[6]   This certainly refers to a softened tubercular gland.

[7]   This no doubt refers to scrofulodenna.

[8]   This' perhaps refers to a fistula remaining after an abscess.