The use of electrodeposited calcareous deposits (solidified calcium carbonate and magnesium hydroxide) for
the corrosion protection of metals immersed in sea water has been researched for over a half century. In 1974
Wolf H. Hilbertz professor of architecture first researched using thick electrodeposited calcareous deposits as
a marine construction material. This sea water derived electroaccreted construction material is commonly
referred to as "seament" or "seacrete."

Since that time a number of futurist visionaries such as Wolf Hilbertz,  Eugene Tsui and Marshall Savage have
proposed  the construction of artificial island ocean cities using electroaccreted seament as the primary
structural material.

Wolf Hilbertz published his work on the electroaccretion of minerals from sea water in technical journals
starting  in 1976.  Marshall Savage's book The Millennial Project (TMP) published in 1992, contained a
description of a futuristic city at sea which expanded in detail upon Hilbertz's original ideas about
electroaccreted ocean cities powered by ocean thermal energy conversion.  In addition to obtaining seament
from the ocean using electroaccretion, Marshall Savage proposed constructing the metal accretion framework
from magnesium extracted from sea water. The now easy availability of summaries of Professor Hilbertz's
scientific work via Internet patent archives, along with the publication of Marshall Savage's popular literature
book has created a new interest in exploring the possibilities of this technology.

This webpage is a summary of some of the information I have accumulated about the use of electroaccretion
to create structural material, some analysis of the physics behind the process, and a summary of my personal
experiments in this field.

Literature Search and Summaries

Journal Article Summaries

Patent Summaries

Physics of Seament Electroaccretion

Anodes and Cathodes

Industrial Anodes

Galvanic Series in Sea water

Electroaccretion Energy Requirement in TMP

Analysis of Seament Electroaccretion Energy

Electrical Power Sources


The Design of Seament Research Protocols
A summary of some issues and problems

Test Protocols for an Initial Study of Electroaccretion

Recipes for Synthetic Sea Water

Water Tank pH and Chemical Stability Issues

Experiments in Tanks vs. Experiments in Ocean

Personal Experimentation


Hardware Results to Date

Eric R. Lee