Chioglossa lusitanica - Golden-striped Salamander
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Taxonomy/Classification
Scientific Name: Chioglossa lusitanica
Authority: Bocage, 1864
English Common Name(s): Golden-striped Salamander
Other Common Name(s): Salamandra Rabilarga (Spanish)


Class Order Family Genus
Amphibia Caudata Salamandridae Chioglossa
Taxonomic Comments: Two genetically distinct forms are recognized, based on genetic data (Alexandrino et al. 2000, 2002), but these have yet to be formally to be described as subspecies.

For further information, please search Amphibian Species of the World Online Database

For further information, please see AmphibiaWeb Online Database Species Report

Red List Status   (See 2001 IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria)
Red List Category: Near Threatened (NT)
Red List Category Rationale: Listed as Near Threatened since the species depends streams in montane forested and well vegetated areas, and so its Area of Occupancy is probably not much greater than 2,000 km2, and the extent and quality of its habitat is declining, thus making the species close to qualifying for Vulnerable.
Date of Assessment: 05 Apr 2004
Red List Assessor(s): Jan Willem Arntzen, Jaime Bosch, Mathieu Deno�l, Miguel Tejedo, Paul Edgar, Miguel Lizana, I�igo Mart�nez-Solano, Alfredo Salvador, Mario Garc�a-Par�s, Ernesto Recuero Gil
Red List Evaluator(s): Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson and Neil Cox)
Population Trend: Decreasing

Geographic Range


Range Comments: This species is restricted to mountainous and hilly areas in northwestern Spain (Galicia and Asturias) and northern and central Portugal with an annual precipitation of over 1,000mm. It has been introduced to the Serra de Sintra, Portugal. It has an altitudinal distribution 100 to 1,000m (records above 1,000m asl require confirmation).
Biogeographic Realm(s): Palearctic
Distribution Status:
Native Portugal; Spain



Population
This is a localised species that may be abundant in suitable habitats (4 to 5 adults per metre of brook habitat). Eastern Spanish populations are found at lower population densities, and there have been reports of declines and extinctions of some populations in Galicia. In Portugal populations are widespread and abundant (P. Arntzen, pers. comm.) and not in any immediate danger, but they are considered to be vulnerable because of their specialised habitat requirements (Paulo, 1997).
Habitat and Ecology
The species is associated with clear, well-oxygenated, small to medium sized slightly acidic streams (although in Portugal it has been found in water with pH 7 to 8), with dense surrounding vegetation in mountainous and hilly areas. The species has also been recorded from caves and abandoned flooded mines. The females lay approximately 12 to 20 eggs in shallow stream water, often attaching the eggs to the bottom substrate. It is often associated with areas of traditional farming practices, and is particularly found in dry stonewalls.
Biomes: Terrestrial, Freshwater
Habitats: (See complete standardized list of habitats)
Forest - Temperate
Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls)
Wetlands (inland) - Karst and Other Subterranean Hydrological Systems (inland)
Caves and Subterranean Habitats (non-aquatic) - Caves
Caves and Subterranean Habitats (non-aquatic) - Other Subterranean Habitats
Major Threats
The major threats to the species are pollution of streams with agrochemicals, channalisation and water extraction from streams for agricultural purposes, and the loss of terrestrial habitats associated with the streams through conversion to forestry plantations (Eucalyptus and Pinus plantations).

Specific Threat (See complete standardized list of threats) Past Present Future
1 Habitat Loss/Degradation (human induced)
   1.3 Extraction
     1.3.6 Groundwater extraction
     1.3.7 Other
6 Pollution (affecting habitat and/or species)
   6.3 Water pollution
     6.3.1 Agriculture
Conservation Measures
It is protected by national legislation in both Portugal and Spain. It occurs in several protected areas including Picos de Europa National Park, Spain and Peneda-Ger�z National Park, Portugal. It is listed on Appendix II of the Berne Convention, and is also listed on Annexes II and IV of the EU Natural Habitats Directive.

Measure (See complete standardized list of conservation measures) In Place Needed
1 Policy-based actions  
   1.2 Legislation  
     1.2.1 Development  
       1.2.1.1 International level  
       1.2.1.2 National level  
     1.2.2 Implementation  
       1.2.2.1 International level  
       1.2.2.2 National level  
3 Research actions  
   3.2 Population numbers and range  
   3.3 Biology and Ecology  
   3.5 Threats  
   3.8 Conservation measures  
   3.9 Trends/Monitoring  
4 Habitat and site-based actions
   4.1 Maintenance/Conservation
   4.4 Protected areas
     4.4.1 Identification of new protected areas  
     4.4.2 Establishment  
     4.4.3 Management
Utilization
There is no known utilization of this species.

CITES Status (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species): Not listed
Bibliography

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