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Spokane And Salish Tribes
Map:Native Cultures (c. 1800)
Map:Plateau Tribes
Children of the Sun
  1. Before the White Man
  2. Fur Traders and Missionaries
  3. The Fortunes of War
  4. Reservations Established
  5. The Reservations Today
Historical Readings
  A Spokane Timeline
  Lewis & Clark (1805)
  Gibbs (1848)
  Nancy Wynecoop (1870s)
  Indian Calendar
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Thursday March 17, 2005    10:15 PM
 INDIANS TRIBES of WASHINGTON TERRITORY by George Gibbs

originally published in the
United States Geographical and Geological Survey of the Rocky Mountain Region
Washington, 1877

Please read my NOTE about this Text.


This work was originally published as a 34 page article. It had no subdivisions and consequently no table of contents. I have created the following table of contents only as a rough guide for navigating this very interesting historical document.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

bullet Introductory
bullet Horses among the Klikatats and Yakimas
bullet Several legends of the Klikatats and Yakimas
bullet The Spokanes
bullet Population Estimates of Eastern Washington Tribes
bullet Forts and Missionaries
bullet Suggestions for dealing with the Native Peoples
bullet Tribes of Western Washington
bullet Tribes of Puget Sound
bullet Population Estimates of Western Washington Tribes



J.
INDIAN AFFAIRS

39. REPORT OF MR. GEORGE GIBBS TO CAPTAIN MC'CLELLAN, ON THE INDIAN TRIBES OF THE TERRITORY OF WASHINGTON.


OLYMPIA, WASHINGTON TERRITORY,
March 4, 1854.

SIR: Herewith I have the honor to submit my report upon the subject of the Indian inhabitants of Washington Territory ; and to be,

Very respectfully,
GEORGE GIBBS.

Capt. GEORGE B. MCCLELLAN,
spacerCommanding Western Division N. P. Railroad Exploration.


REPORT.

In considering the general subject of the Indian tribes of this territory, two natural divisions present themselves, separated by a marked and definite boundary - the Cascade mountains - on either side of which the native inhabitants differ not less than the geographical features of the country.

It will be proper to examine them in turn, taking up the various tribes of each division in order, and appending such observations in regard to their management as the most careful inquiry practicable has suggested.

In this connection, the word "nation" will be used of the whole people speaking a common language, and "tribe" as comprehending the bands organized under one head.

And first of the interior or eastern section.

Those living between the Cascade and Rocky mountains, within the limits of this Territory, or extending into it, are, first, the Wallah-Wallah nation, under which term is embraced a number of bands living usually on the south side of the Columbia, and on the Snake river to a little east of the Peluse; as also the Klikatats and Yakimas, north of the former. The first may be, for the present purpose, classed together as the Wallah-Wallah Tribe. The greater part of their country, it will be seen, lies in the adjoining Territory of Oregon, and it is proposed should remain under the direction of that superintendency. The number of these bands was in 1851 stated by Dr. Anson Dart, then superintendent of Indian affairs, at 1,093 ; a part. of whom, however, belonged to the Upper Chinooks. The whole number is since much diminished by the smallpox. The present population is probably reduced to 600, of whom the majority are in Oregon Territory. The head chief of the Wallah-Wallahs is Pu-pu-mux-mux, or the Yellow Serpent - an old man, who generally makes his residence near Fort Wallah-Wallah. His influence with his people is said to be good as far as it goes, but he does not exercise it beyond his immediate band. This tribe have been notorious as thieves since their first intercourse with the whites. They, as well as their neighbors, the Nez Perces, own large bands of horses, which roam at large, over the hills south of the Columbia, and their principal wealth consists in them. There is no wood in their country, and they depend upon the drift brought down by the stream for their fuel. Their very canoes are purchased from the Spokanes. They move about a great deal, generally camping in winter on the north side of the river. Their fisheries at the Dalles, and at the falls ten miles above, are the finest on the river. The expedition passed through the Wallah-Wallah country on its return route, but no official intercourse took place with the tribe. They, as well as the Nez Perces and Cayuses, are at present included in the agency of Mr. R. R. Thompson, of Oregon. At the crossing of Snake river, at the mouth of the Peluse, we met with an interesting relic. The chief of the band, Wattai-wattai-how-lis, in coming to visit Captain McClellan, exhibited, with great pride, the medal presented to his father, Ke-powh-kan, by Captains Lewis and Clark. It is of silver, double, and hollow, having on the obverse a medallion bust, with the legend, "Thomas Jefferson, President U. S. A., 1801;" and on the reverse the clasped hands, pipe, and battle-axe, crossed, with the legend, "Peace and Friendship."

The Klikatats and Yakimas will remain to the Washington superintendency. The former inhabit, properly, the valleys lying between Mounts St. Helens and Adams, but they have spread over districts belonging to other tribes, and a band of them is now located as far south as the Umpqua. Their nomadic habits render a census very difficult, though their number is not large. Dr. Dart stated them at 492; since when, there has certainly been a great decrease. The number of the two principal bands, as obtained during the summer, was, at the Chequoss 135, and at the Kamas plain 84. These must have constituted the chief part, as it was the season of berries when they congregated there. Including all others within the Territory, the total does not probably exceed 300. In this, however, are not reckoned the Tai-tin-a-pam, a band said to live apart in the country lying on the western side of the mountains, between the heads of the Cathlapoot'i and Cowlitz, and which probably did not enter into the former estimate. But little is known of them, and their numbers are undoubtedly small. The head chief of the Klikitats is a very old man, named Towe-toks. He evidently possesses but little influence, his people paying much more respect to his wealthier neighbors, Ka-mai-ya-kan, Skloo, and the other chiefs of the Yakimas.

The Klikatats and Yakimas, in all essential peculiarities of character, are identical, and their intercourse is constant; but the former, though a mountain tribe, are much more unsettled in their habits than their brethren.

This fact is probably due, in the first place, to their having been driven from their homes, many years ago, by the Cayuses, with whom they were at war. They thus became acquainted with other parts of the country, as well as with the advantage to be derived from trade. It was not, however, until about 1839 that they crossed the Columbia, when they overran the Willamette valley, attracted by the game with which it abounded, and which they destroyed in defiance

of the weak and indolent Callapooyas. They still boast that they taught the latter to ride and to hunt.

They manifest a peculiar aptitude for trading, and have become to the neighboring tribes what the Yankees were to the once Western States, the travelling retailers of notions; purchasing from the whites feathers, beads, cloth, and other articles prized by Indians, and exchanging them for horses, which in turn they sell in the settlements. Their country supplies them with an abundance of food. The lower prairies afford games, and the mountains a great variety of berries in profusion. The business of gathering these of course falls on the women, who go out in small parties, attended by a boy or old man as camp-keeper, collect and dry the berries, or bring into the general camp what is wanted for present food. Such of them as bear keeping they stare for winter use, and also for trade, exchanging them for fish, smoked clams, and the roots which their own territory does not furnish.

Of game, there is but little left. The deer and elk are almost exterminated throughout the country. the deep snows of winter driving them to the valleys, where the Indians, with their usual improvidence, have slaughtered them without mercy. The mountain goat, and the big-horn, or sheep, are both said to have formerly existed here, but, since the introduction of firearms, have retired far into the recesses of the Cascades. The black bear alone is still found, though but rarely. The salmon furnishes to these, as to most other tribes of the Pacific, their greatest staple of food. Their neighborhood to the fisheries of the Cascades and the Dalles provides them for the summer; while, after the subsidence of the Columbia, later schools ascend the small rivers, and in the autumn an inferior kind forces its way into the brooks, and even the shallow pools which form in the prairies.

Very few attempt any cultivation of the soil, though their lower prairies would admit of it. We were informed, however, that the next season many of them intended to build houses there and plant potatoes. Their usual residence during the summer is around Chequoss, one of the most elevated points on our trail from Fort Vancouver across the Cascades, where we met them at the beginning of August. They were, at this time, feasting on strawberries and the mountain whortleberry, which covered the hills around, though during the night the ice formed on the ponds to the thickness of half an inch. Towards the end of the month they descend to the Yahkohtl, Chalacha, and Tahk prairies, where they are met by the Yakimas, who assemble with them; for the purpose of gathering a later species of berry and of racing horses. The racing season is the grand annual occasion of these tribes. A horse of proved reputation is a source of wealth or of ruin to his owner. On his speed he stakes his whole stud, his household goods, clothes, and finally his wives; and a single heat doubles his fortune, or sends him forth an impoverished adventurer. The, interest, however, is not confined to the individual directly concerned; the tribe share it, with him, and a common pile of goods, of motley description, apportioned according to their ideas of value, is put up by either party, to be divided among the backers of the winner. The Klikatats themselves are not as rich in horses as those living on the plains, their country generally affording but little pasturage, and the deep snows compelling them to winter their stock at a distance from their usual abodes. The horse is to them what the canoe is to the Indians of the river and coast. They ride with skill, reckless of all obstacles, and with little mercy to their beasts, the right hand swinging the whip at every bound. Some of the horses are of fine form and action; but they are generally injured by too early use, and sore backs are universal. Indiscriminate breeding has greatly deteriorated what must have been originally a good stock, and the prevalence of white and gray in their colors is a great objection. Wall-eyes, white noses and hoofs, are more than common among them. They are almost always either vicious or lazy, and usually combine both qualities. In their capacity for a continued endurance, they are overrated. A good American horse is as much superior to them in this, as in speed; but they are hardy, and capable of shifting with but little food. Nothing is known of their first introduction. They were abundant when the country was discovered. It is probable that the Shoshonees or Snakes, a branch of the Camanches, first introduced them from the South, and that the breed has since been crossed by others from Canada. The best are those belonging to the Cayuses and Nez Perce. The demand for horses, consequent upon the settlement of the country, has rendered the tribes possessing them really wealthy.

Their price is from $40 to $100, but they have some which they will not dispose of at much higher rates. A few of the chiefs have great numbers, and one, it is said, has offered 400 , a by no means contemptible dowry - to any respectable white man who will marry his daughter. The Indians ride with a hair-rope knotted around the under jaw for a bridle. The men use a stuffed pad, with wooden stirrups. The women sit astride, in a saddle made, with a very high pommel and cantle, and in travelling carry their infants either dangling by the cradle-strap to the former, or slung in a blanket over their shoulders; while children of a little larger growth sit perched upon the pack-animals, and hold on as best they may.

The horses are trained to stand for hours with merely a lariat thrown loosely around their necks, the end trailing upon the ground. With the whites they are at first as shy as are American horses or mules with the Indians; but they suffer handling from the squaws and children with perfect contentment, and hang around the huts like dogs. When camping near them we often found the horses an intolerable nuisance, from their incessant whinnying during the night. Whenever the musquitoes were abundant they posted themselves in the smoke of the fires. It is the business of the squaws in travelling to pack the animals, the men contenting themselves with catching them up; and they pile on the most heterogeneous assortment of luggage with a skill that would immortalize a professional packer. In breaking horses the Indians usually blind them before mounting, often tying down their ears in addition. A strap or cord is then passed around, the body of the animal, loose enough to admit the knees of the rider. Much time is spent in soothing and quieting the beast, as the Indian has plenty of it upon his hands. When everything is ready he vaults to his back, always from the off-side, slips his knees under the girth and tightens it, withdraws the muffle, and sits prepared for a series of stiff-legged plunges, ending in a charge. If the horse throws himself - for throw his rider he cannot - the quick straightening of the leg releases the knee, and he is prepared for the emergency.

In describing the household goods of the Indian, his dogs are not to be forgotten. They vary considerably in form with different tribes, but always preserve the same general character. Quarrelsome and cowardly, inveterate thieves, suspicious and inquisitive, they are constantly engaged in fights among themselves, or in prowling around the lodges for food. The approach of a stranger is heralded by short, sharp yelps, succeeded by a general scamper. They all bear the some mysterious resemblance to the cayote--the sharp muzzle, erect ears, and stiffly curling tail. Notwithstanding their worthlessness, they seem to have a strong attachment to their owners, and an Indian camp would be a novelty without its pack of curs. Very few characteristic features remain among these people. Their long intercourse with the Hudson's Bag Company, and of late years with the Americans, has obliterated what peculiarities they may have had; nor is there any essential difference in their habits or manners from those of the Indians adjoining them. They use, for the most part, the arms and utensils of the whites, and the gun has superseded the bow. The pails and baskets, constructed from the bark of the cedars, saddles and fishing apparatus, are their principal articles of domestic manufacture; and even of such things it is almost as common to find the imported substitutes.

In regard to moral character they are much superior to the river Indians; not that perfect virtue is by any means to be expected, but they are more strict in respect to their women, particularly the married ones, and they are far less thievish.

Their mode of disposing of their dead, like that of their kindred tribes, is in the ground, but without any attempt at coffins, the body being merely wrapped in its clothing. Just before our arrival at Chequoss a man had died of the smallpox, and those who bad buried him were purifying themselves. During the three days occupied in this, they absented themselves from camp, alternately using the sweat-house and plunging into cold water.

The house, which was a small oven-shaped affair, was heated with stones. The mourning is performed by the women, who live apart for a few days, and afterwards bathe and purify themselves. They have the common objection to mentioning the names of the dead, as well as their own. The practice of medicine, as elsewhere, consists in incantations, and is attended with the usual hazards; the life of the practitioner answering for the want of success, or a refusal to attend when properly feed. Besides these mummeries, however, they use certain plants as medicines, among which are both emetics and cathartics. The patriarchal institutions of slavery and polygamy are yet retained among them; the number of wives being limited only by the wealth of the husband, for with them it is the woman who is sold.

A curious custom exists, exhibiting their savage ideas of equity as opposed to the common-law maxim of "caveat emptor." If a wife dies within a short period after marriage, the bereaved husband may reclaim the consideration from the father; so also with slaves and horses. No systematic attempt has, it is believed, been made to convert the Klikatats to Christianity, although many individuals have come in contact with missionaries of some denomination. Several of those at Chequoss have had instruction from the Rev. Jason Lee and others, formerly at the Dalles.

The old chief Tow-e-toks preserved a paper on which some one made a sort of calendar or record of the days of the week. He expressed great anxiety lest, as it was nearly worn out, he should be unable to distinguish the Sundays, and requested me to prepare him a new one. He added that he was in great fear of death, and constantly "talked to the Chief above." As will readily be imagined, the remarkable features of this mountain scenery, and the neighborhood of the great snow peaks - Mount St. Helens and Mount Adams -give a color to the legends of the Klikatats. They, in common with the other Oregon tribes, seem to have had no distinct religious ideas previous to those introduced by the whites, nor any conception of a Supreme Being. Their mythology consists of vague and incoherent tales, in most of which Ta-la-pus, or the prairie wolf, figures as a supernatural power. Besides him there are other agents, among whom a race denominated the "Elip Tilicum," from two jargon words signifying " first people," or "people before," figure prominently. Though trifling in themselves, yet, as specimens of what may be considered the unwritten literature of the Indians, they may not be uninteresting - the more especially as the belief in the existence of' those giants seems to be of universal currency throughout Oregon. The following are among them:

In descending the valley from Chequoss, there occurs beneath a field of lava a vaulted passage, some miles in length, through which a stream flows in the rainy season, and the roof of which has fallen in here and there. Concerning this they relate that a very long time ago, before there were any Indians, there lived in this country a man and wife of gigantic stature. The man became tired of his partner, and took to himself a mouse, which thereupon became a woman. When the first wife knew of this, she was very naturally enraged, and threatened to kill them. This coming to the man's knowledge, he hid himself and his mouse-wife in a place higher up the mountain, where there is a small lake having no visible outlet. The first woman finding that they had escaped her, and suspecting that they were hidden underground, commenced digging, and tore up this passage. At last she came beneath where they stood, and looking up through a hole, saw them laughing at her. With great difficulty, and after sliding back two or three times, she succeeded in reaching them; when the man, now much alarmed, begged her not to kill him, but to allow him to return to their home and live with her as of old. She finally consented to kill only the mouse-wife, which she did, and it is her blood that has colored the stones at: the lake. After a time the man asked her why she had wished to kill the other woman. She answered, because they had brought her to shame, and that she had a mind to kill him too; which she finally did, and since when she has lived alone in the mountains.

Another story about the same place is to the effect that it was made by a former people called the Siam, a name corresponding with the jargon word for grizzly bear. The mouse story appears to be interwoven with the Klikatat mythology, for besides the name of this place, Hool-hool-se, (from hool-hool, a mouse,) one of the names of their country is Hool-hool-pam, or the mouse-land. This is given to it by the Yakimas. Both versions, as well as many others of their tales, refer to their Indian Pre-adamites, the Elip Tilicum; to whom, and to the Ta-la-pus, as many wonders are attributed as among Christians to Satan.

Concerning the Ta-la-pus, this story is related by the Klikatats in connexion with a favorite valley - the Tahk prairie. This was formerly the bed of a lake, the remains of which now appear in a marshy pond of some extent. The wolf, when the prairie was made, promised that it should be rich in their favorite roots, the kamas and the wapp-a-too; and likewise that the salmon should come there in abundance. But the Indians, forgetful of their obligation to him, showed no gratitude, and when they came there, spent their time in horse-racing and gambling, instead of fishing and the business of life; wherefore the wolf took away the salmon, and placed two stones upon the prairie, beyond which they should not pass.

Alas, for the perverseness of man! notwithstanding the punishment, the Klikatats and their friends run horses and gamble there to this day.

There is also, in contrast with the gigantic race above mentioned, a story of one of diminutive size, but a span high, who lived near the foot of the St. Helens, and whose footprints the Indians have seen where they held their nocturnal dances. Since the eruption of 1842, it may be mentioned, they have not ventured to ascend Mount St. Helens. They have also tales connected with certain of the constellations, many of which are named.. The Great Bear, for instance, is called "spilyeh," or the wolf. The Yakimas occupy the country drained by the river of that name. They are divided into two principal bands, each made up of a number of villages, and very closely connected; the one owning the country on the Nahchess and lower Yakima, the other upon the Wenass and main branch above the forks. Over the first there are three chiefs - Kam-ai-ya-kan and his brothers Skloo and Sha-wa-wai. Over the latter, Te-eh-yas and Owhai. Of all these, Kam-ai-ya-kin possesses the greatest influence, none of the others undertaking any matter of importance without consulting him. Skloo is accused of being tyrannical and overbearing with his weaker neighbors, and Sha-wa-wai of being indolent and wanting in force.

Kam-ai-ya-kan is, in turn, much under the influence of the missionaries, with whom he lives altogether. The others are both intelligent, and bear very good characters. All of them appear to be well disposed and friendly towards the whites, whose superiority they have sense enough to understand.

Most of what has been said of the Klikatats is applicable also to the Yakimas, though, from the nature of their country, some difference in their modes of life is of course observable. Their name, it may be mentioned, is not an appellation of their own. It is said to be the word signifying a black bear in the Wallah-Walllah dialect. West of the mountains, both at Vancouver and at Puget sound, they also are generally called Klikatats. Like the last, they live in rude huts covered with mate, the distance of their winter habitations from timber rendering the construction of houses inconvenient; a reason, however, which does not exist with the others. They raise potatoes, a few melons and squashes, together with a little barley and Indian corn. The latter is of the eight-rowed variety, and what we saw of it very small and stunted, the ears being not over five inches long. The potatoes were generally very fine, and of several varieties; of which we noticed the lady-finger, mercer, and blue-nose. Their gardens were, for the most part, situated in the little valleys running up towards the mountains, and near enough to the streams to receive moisture during the early summer. They were rudely fenced around to exclude animals. This invaluable addition to their means of subsistence, it should be said, they, in common with many other tribes, owe to the Hudson's Bay Company. The country around the northern or main branch of the Yakima is frequently called by them Pschwan-wapp-am, or the stony ground, and the Indians living there sometimes assume the name to themselves. Besides the fisheries at the Dalles, the Yakimas have others in their river, up which the salmon run without interruption far into the mountains. On the main fork, in particular, they penetrate to Lake Kitchelus, at the very foot of the dividing ridge. In addition to the different kinds of salmon proper, they have also the salmon-trout, two varieties of the speckled trout, the red and black spotted, both of them growing to a large size; and some other species of fresh-water fish.

The salmon they take in webs and cast-nets. The weirs are constructed with considerable skill, upon horizontal spars, and supported by tripods of strong poles erected at short distances apart, two of the legs fronting up stream, and one supporting them below. There are several of these weirs on the main river fifty or sixty yards in length. The cast-nets are managed by two men in a canoe, one of whom extends it with a pole and the other manages the rope. Their canoes are of very rude workmanship, compared with those belonging to tribes of more aquatic habits, being simply logs hollowed out and sloped up at the ends, without form or finish.

Another article of food obtained from the rivers is the unis, or fresh-water muscle, of which there are several varieties. Deep beds of their shells are found near the sites of villages on the river.

Of game the Yakima country is as destitute as that of the Klikatats - so much so that ten deer skins will purchase a horse. The sage-fowl and sharp-tailed grouse are abundant. The chiefs possess a considerable number of cattle, which, in the summer, find good bunch-grass on the hills. In winter they are driven to great straits for subsistence, being compelled, when the snow lies deep, as it does in the valleys, to browse upon the tops of the wild sage, or artemisia. In horses they are well off, though not rich as compared with adjoining tribes. A portion of the Yakimas, more particularly those living on the main river, in hunters language, "go to buffalo," joining the Flatheads in their hunts; but these expeditions are probably far more rare than formerly, when, with greater numbers, they and their allies carried war against the Blackfeet beyond the mountains. With the tribes on Puget sound they communicate continually during the summer by the Nahchess and main Yakima passes, taking horses for sale to Nisqually, and purchasing "hai-qua," dried clams, and other savage merchandise, on their return. The Yakimas have, like the Klikatats, during the past year suffered severely from the smallpox; the village at the Dalles in particular, the Wish-ram of evil notoriety, in Mr. Irving's Astoria, having been depopulated.

Individuals among them profess to have some remedy for the disease. Father Pandozy, one of the missionaries among them, informed me that he believed it to be the root of a species of iris. He had once tasted it, and it acted as a violent emetic. The Spokanes have also another and different specific. It is known to but few persons, having been gradually forgotten since the former visitation. Recently, when it broke out in one of the Spokane villages, an old woman, who was blind, described it to her daughter and directed her to proceed towards Kam-ai-ya-kans, and that if she encountered none in her way, to get from him some of that which he used. The girl, however, did find the herb and returned with it. The mother prepared the medicine, and the smallpox was stayed, but not until it had nearly destroyed the village. We were not successful in obtaining specimens of this plant, but Father Pandozy kindly promised to save some when opportunity offered. In regard to this disease, the greatest scourge of the red man, it has passed through this region more than once, and was probably the first severe blow which fell upon the Oregon tribes. Its appearance seems to have been before any direct intercourse took place with the whites, and it may have found its way northward from California. Captains Lewis and Clark conjectured, from the relations of the Indians, and the apparent age of individuals marked with it, that it had prevailed about thirty years before their arrival. It also spread with great virulence in 1843. From the other, and no less sure, destroyer of the coast tribes, the venereal, the Yakimas, and generally the Indians east of the mountains, are, as yet, exempt. Spirituous liquors have never been introduced into their country, at least beyond the neighborhood of the Dalles.

That a population very considerably more numerous than the existing one formerly occupied this region ,there can be no doubt. The estimates of Lewis and Clark gave a sum of 3,240 for the bands on the Klikatat and Yakima rivers, without including those upon the Columbia, which amounted to 3,000 in addition; The whole course of the Yakima is lined with the vestiges of former villages now vacant. A very interesting subject of inquiry has been pursued by Mr. Schoolcraft, in his endeavor to follow the earth-works of the Ohio and Mississippi valley into the region west of the Rocky mountains. A careful inquiry among the officers of the Hudson's Bay Company, and the most intelligent free trappers of Oregon, had satisfied me that none such existed in the country. During an examination of the lower Yakima, however, the old Indian guide who accompanied me pointed out, on the left bank, a work which may possibly be considered as belonging to the same system, although being, so far as is known, a solitary one, it is somewhat questionable.

The work consists of two concentric circles of earth about three feet high, with a ditch between. Within are about twenty cellars situated without apparent design, except economy of room. They are some thirty feet across and three feet deep, and the whole circle eighty yards in diameter. We had no time to examine it more particularly, and no tools to excavate. The ground was overgrown with artemisia bushes, but, except the form of the work, there was nothing to attract particular attention, or lead to the belief that it was the remains of any other than a Yakima village. Our guide, however, who was great authority on such matters, declared that it was made very long ago, by men of whom his people knew nothing. He added that there was no other like it. It is well posted for defence in Indian warfare, being on the edge of a terrace about fifteen feet high, a short distance from the river, and flanked on either side by a gully.

Outside of the circle, but quite near it, are other cellars unenclosed, and in no way differing from the remains of villages frequently met with there. The Indian also pointed out, near by, a low hill or spur, which in form might be supposed to resemble an inverted canoe, and which be said was a ship. It deserves investigation, at least, whether any relation can be traced between the authors of this and of the mounds in Sacramento valley, yet occupied by existing tribes. In this connexion may also be mentioned a couple of modern fortifications erected by the Yakimas upon the Simkwe fork. They are situated between two small branches upon the summit of a narrow ridge, some two hundred yards long, and thirty feet in height, and are about twenty-five yards apart. The first is a square, with rounded corners, formed by an earthen embankment capped with stones, the interstices between which serve for loop-holes, and without any ditch. It is about thirty feet on the sides, and the wall three feet high. The other is built of adobes in the form of a rectangle, twenty by thirty-four feet, the walls three feet high and twelve to eighteen inches thick, with loop-holes six feet apart. Both are commanded within rifle-shot by neighboring hills. They were erected in 1847, by Skloo, as a defence against the Cayuses. We did not learn whether they were successfully maintained, accounts varying greatly on this subject. In the same neighborhood we noticed small piles of stones raised by the Indians on the edges of the basaltic walls which enclose these valleys, but were informed that they had no purpose - they were put up through idleness. Similar piles are, however, sometimes erected to mark the fork of a trail. At paints on these walls there were also many graves, generally made in regular form, covered with loose stones to protect them from the cayotes, and marked by poles decorated with tin cups, powder-horns, and articles of dress. During the summer the Indians, for the most part, live in the small valleys lying well into the foot of the mountains. These are, however, uninhabitable during the winter, and they move farther down, or to more sheltered situations. The mission, which in summer is maintained in the Atahnam valley, is transferred into that of the main river. There are two priests attached to this mission, belonging to the order of the Oblats, Fathers Pandozy and d'Harbomey. The stations are small log buildings, divided into a chapel and lodging-room, with a corral for horses and a spot of enclosed garden ground adjoining the one at Atahnam. The fathers informed us that they found the Yakimas not very teachable, and that they had accomplished little except as peacemakers; the Indians were lazy and cultivated the ground with but little regularity, some years not planting at all. They did not believe that a resident farmer would be of use. The Indians, however, say, and justly, that they have no tools, and but little inducement to labor, their country affording other subsistence, and the toil of planting with their own rude implements not; being compensated by the result. With proper encouragement, and assistance in breaking up the ground, they would doubtless do more. It is probably an object with the missionaries to discourage secular residents, who might divide their own influence over the natives.

The courteous attention of these gentlemen to the officers of the expedition requires acknowledgment. They furnished all the information in their power respecting the country, secured good guides to the parties, and acted as interpreters with the Indians. Father Pandozy, in particular, is familiarly acquainted with the Yakima tongue. Kam-ai-ya-kan is the only one of the three brothers who has adopted even the forms of Catholicism, and he refuses to be baptised, because he would be compelled to put away his surplus wives, of whom he has several. Skloo and Sha wa-wai are unchanged heathens.

On leaving the Klikatat country, Captain McClellan had made a small present to the chief Tow-e-toks, and distributed some tobacco among the men. It was not, however, considered necessary to enter into a formal talk with that tribe, the object of our visit, and some other points, being casually explained to them. With the Yakimas the case was different. Their country was to become a thoroughfare for the whites, and it was very important that a proper impression should be made, and a friendly understanding established. On leaving the mountains we first encountered Skloo, a tall, fine looking, but very dark-skinned man, who came up to camp attended by Wee-ni-nah, a sub-chief, living at the village of Skin, opposite the mouth of the Des Chutes river. We had already met with an amusing instance of Indian craft, in which Skloo proved to have been the operator. A small party of Indians had come on to Chequoss, and stated that they had been told the expedition was out for the purpose of seizing the horses and cattle of the Yakimas, taking their country, and destroying them if they resisted; that Lieutenant Saxton's party had proceeded against the Spokanes for the same purpose, and that Kam-ai-ya-kan and Skloo were determined to oppose us. The report had created no uneasiness, except lest it should alarm the Indians, and prevent the necessary intercourse with them. Skloo being now questioned as to the author of the report, stated that it was a Frenchman, in charge of the Hudson's Bay Company's train, who on his way to Fort Colville had preceded Lieutenant Saxton a few days. As the story had already caused us some inconvenience, in preventing us from obtaining a guide, and as it was feared that more serious annoyance would result to the other party, Captain McClellan forwarded a complaint on the subject to Governor Ogden, at Fort Vancouver. It subsequently appeared that the person referred to was a gentleman far above the suspicion of any such conduct, and that the whole was a fabrication got up by Skloo himself, for the purpose of fishing out the object of the expedition. A short talk was held with him by Captain McClellan, explaining this to his entire content, and in turn he gave what information he possessed respecting the mountain trails. In justice to him, it should be said, the more especially as he has but few friends, that his manly deportment left a more favorable impression than did some who bore a far better character. A small present was given him on parting.

Kam-ai-ya-kan we found at the mission, and he afterwards came over to the camp at Wenass for a formal visit. He is a large, gloomy-looking Indian, with a very long and strongly-marked face; slovenly in dress, but said to be generous and honest. Captain McClellan explained to him the general nature of the American government, as far as was necessary for him to understand, and the rank that Governor Stevens, who was coming with a party across the mountains, would hold in the country. He expressed the hope that the good disposition which Kam-ai-ya-kan had shown towards the whites would be maintained; that if any injury was done by them to his people, they were not to seek revenge, but complain to the Governor, who would redress it; and that if any was suffered from the Indians, he would expect him to punish the offender. It was the intention of the whites to make a wagon road across the mountains, and many would undoubtedly pass through their country. Should they be in need, he wished Kam-ai-ya-kan to assist them. Their coming would be an advantage to his people, for they would buy their potatoes, and exchange cattle which had become tired with long travel, for his, which were fat, giving him boot. In conclusion, he added that the great white chief had instructed him, when he met with friendly chiefs among the Indians, to give them a present as coming from him. A quantity of Indian goods were thereupon given him. Kam-ai-ya-kan made a suitable reply, in which he referred to a subject previously mentioned by Skloo - the negotiations of white men pretending to be chiefs, who were not, particularly in regard to the purchase of their lands. He had heard they would give a few presents, and then pretend they had purchased the land. Captain McClellan informed him who were the persons having the power to make these purchases, or to treat with them, with which he expressed himself satisfied.

At Ketetas, on the main Yakima, we were visited by Ow-hai, one of the two principal chiefs of the northern band of this tribe. His elder brother, Te-eh-yas, had gone to Puget sound, and we did not see him. Ow-hai appears to be forty-five or fifty years of age, and has a very pleasant face, with a high but retreating forehead, of which he is somewhat vain. In speaking of Kam-ai-ya-kan, he remarked that he had a big head, and thought much; adding, as he touched his own, "like myself."

He remained with us during our stay, and afterwards accompanied the party as far as the Pisquouse. In a talk with him the same information was communicated, in substance, as that given to Kam-ai-ya-kan. This band trades much more with the Sound than Kam-ai-ya-kan's,

and is, therefore, better acquainted with trails; the one which proved on examination the best, leading directly up the river from our camp. After the usual custom of seeking wives in adjoining tribes, they are much intermingled with the Snoqualme on the western side of the Cascades, as well as the Pisquouse to the northward. The latter, in fact, speak indifferently the Yakima and their own languages. We found the people here much better dressed than those below. The young men and women affected more of their native costume than the old. Owhai's two sons, both tall, handsome men, had their blankets and dress profusely ornamented, and the wife of one of them, a very pretty woman, wore a dress stiff with bead-work and porcupine quills. Ow-hai himself, on the other hand, appeared in a full American suit, and touched his hat by way of salutation - a compliment which he clearly expected to be noticed and returned. He, like Kam-ai-ya-kan, has adopted some of the forms of Catholicism, and professes to pray habitually, but there seemed to be a shadow of hypocrisy in his devotion. He is, however, a man of very considerable understanding and policy, and inclined to profit by the example of the whites.

On striking the Columbia after passing the mountains, between the Yakima country and the Pisquouse, Ow-hai pointed out to us one of the lions of the country, in the shape of two columns of sandstone standing together, but apart from the bluff, which was of similar material. These, he told us, were " Ahn-cotte" or, in the language of the fairy tales, "once upon a time" two women of the race of "Ellip Tilicum," who lived here, and were very bad, being in the habit of killing those who passed by, the Indians begged the Great Spirit to destroy them, and He granting their prayer, sent an enormous bird which picked out their brains, and then turned them into stone. In proof of which, the narrator pointed out a hole in the top of one of the columns, from which a boulder had fallen, as the aperture broken by the bird in extracting his meal. A short distance beyond, he turned a little off the trail to point out to us another curiosity. It was a perpendicular rock, on the face of which were carved sundry figures, most of them intended for men. They were slightly sunk into the sandstone and colored, some black, others red, and traces of paint remained more or less distinctly on all of them. These also, according to their report, were the work of the ancient race; but from the soft nature of the rock, and the freshness of some of the paint, they were probably not of extreme antiquity.

Nothing could in this connection, he ascertained from the Indians, whether they had any traditions of their own migration from another country.

With the exception of the district occupied by the Flatbows and Kootenaies, the remaining country north of the forty-seventh parcel is occupied by different tribes of the Selish or Flathead nation. These may be divided for the present purpose into the following: the Pisquouse, Okinakane, Schwo-yelpi or Kettle Falls, Spokane, Coeur d'Alene, upper and lower Pend d'Oreilles, and Selish or Flathead proper.

The country of the Pisquouse lies immediately north of that of the Yakimas, and we entered it next upon our route. Under this appellation are here included the Indians on the Columbia between the Priest's and Boss rapids, on the Pisquouse or Winatshapam river, the En-te-at-kwu, Chelan lake, and the Methow or Barrier river. The name of Pisquouse, however, properly refers to a single locality on the river, known to the Yakimas as Winatshapam.

The Pisquouse themselves, as has before been remarked, are so much intermarried with the Yakimas that they have almost lost their nationality. These bands were formerly all united under one principal chief, Stal-koo-sum, who is said to have been a man of great note among them. He was killed a few years since in a fight with the Blackfeet, since when there has been no head of the tribe. Stal-koo-sum's son, Quil-tan-ei-nok, or Louis, was an aspirant for his father's throne, and came over to Ketetas to recommend himself to captain McClellan's patronage, under the tuition of Ow-hai, who seemed to be interested in his promotion. It was considered desirable to unite the scattered fragments of the empire under one head, if possible, and he was therefore engaged as a guide, the better to ascertain his character. It should be remarked, that though the chiefdom of the petty bands, or villages, seems to be hereditary, it does not always follow that one who has placed himself at the head of the tribe, or confederacy, transmits his power. Quil-tan-ei-nok had, as we learned, used great efforts to succeed in this object of his ambition ; having gone to the Sound, and even to the Willamette valley, to procure a paper from some agent recognising his rights, on the strength of which he might silence all cavillers. In this he had been hitherto unsuccessful, and he was doomed to further disappointment. On reaching the mouth of the Pisquouse, Captain McClellan informed the Indians that it would be well for them to choose, in concert with their neighbors, a head chief, who would represent them all, and who might talk for them with the chief of the whites; that if they would agree among themselves upon a proper person, the Governor would give him a great writing, signifying his consent. In the mean time some presents were distributed; that to Quil-tan-ei-nok being the largest, that he might have honor among his own people at least. When the election came off, however, he was beaten, and by a candidate whose name had never previously been mentioned. At this place we were offered the entertainment of a horse-race, and on promising a yard of red cloth as the prize of victory, a general enthusiasm seized upon the whole tribe. Horses were sought in every direction, that would stand a chance of winning, and in a short time a dozen of the best came up to the starting-point. A goal was fixed on the plain, at some distance, which they were to turn around and return; and at a signal from the chief they stripped - not the horses, but the riders; doffing their blankets and other inconvenient articles, and appearing in costumes of primitive simplicity. One rider wore a pair of moccasins, and another sported a shirt; while with a third a streak or two of red paint, judiciously disposed, gave every requisite distinction. There was some very pretty running, and still better jockeying; but as the distance was unmeasured, and nobody took note of the time, an official report cannot be given. The winner, who rode a handsome gray gelding, carried off a prize that a few years before was worth as much as his horse.

The Okinakanes comprise the bands lying on the river of that name as far north as the foot of the Great lake. They are six in number, viz: the T'Kwuratum, at the mouth; Konekonl'p, on the creek of that name; Kluckhaitkwu, at the falls; Kinakanes, near the forks; and Milakitekwa, on the west fork. With them may be classed the N'pockle, or Sans Puelles, on the Columbia river; though these are also claimed by the Spokanes. The two bands on the forks are more nearly connected with the Schwoyelpi than with the ones first named. The country of the Pisquouse and Okinakanes may be described together, and briefly. It is mountainous and sterile, the valleys narrow, and affording here and there spots susceptible of cultivation. For grazing it is as little adapted; and there is, in its whole extent, nothing to tempt encroachment upon its miserable owners.

During Captain McClellan's examination of the Methow river, six of the bands, belonging in part to each tribe, agreed upon Ke-keh-tum-nouse, or Pierre, an Indian from Klahum, the site of Astor's old fort, at the mouth of the Okinakane, as their chief.

The occasion furnished an opportunity of making an actual count, which for these six bands gave a total of 214. The remainder would, according to our observations, raise the number of Indians south of the 49th degree, and between the Columbia and the Cascade mountains, to 550 ; a larger one than was expected, As the smallpox was at its height, however, this is doubtless already much diminished. During the whole route we found the disease prevailing to a fearful extent. Several villages had been nearly cut off; and we saw, at some places, the dead left unburied on the surface of the ground. These tribes have no cattle, and but comparatively few horses. They told us that formerly they had many, but that the company had purchased them for food; and they complained bitterly that the shirts and other articles given them in exchange were worn out, and nothing was left them but their new religion. At Fort Okinakane we observed a mode of disposing of the dead differing from any before noticed. They were wrapped in their blankets, or other clothing, and bound up right to the trunk of a tree, at a sufficient distance from the ground to preserve them from wild animals. Notwithstanding the climate, none of these Indians have a better shelter than is furnished by their mats. They raise some potatoes, but their main resource is salmon.. These, at the time of their visit, actually filled the streams. In the Okinakane, in particular, there were myriads of a small species, which had assumed a uniform red color. They were depositing their spawn, and were in a condition eatable only by Indians, who were busily engaged in drying them.

On leaving Fort Okinakane, the new chief accompanied the party to Fort Colville in the capacity of a guide, assisted by two of his subjects; and the cavalcade was enlarged at the lake by the chief of the Saht-lil-kwu band, a religious personage, who sported the title of King George, and persecuted us nightly with family worship. We parted with the whole with the loss of much tobacco and few regrets. Fort Colville is the principal ground of the Schwoyelpi, or Kettle Falls tribe, one of the largest of the Selish.

According to the information received from Father Joset, of the Jesuit mission, they number from five to six hundred. At the time of our visit the greater part had gone to the buffalo hunt. They do not obtain many furs, the greater part of those taken at this post coming from the upper Columbia. The fishery at the Kettle falls is one of the most important on the river; and the arrangements of the Indians, in the shape of drying-scaffolds and stone houses, are on a corresponding scale. They take the fish by suspending immense baskets upon poles beneath the traps, into which the salmon spring. We saw here, for the first time, the canoe used upon the upper waters of the Columbia. It is of birch bark, and of a form peculiar to these rivers, being longer on the bottom than on the top. A canoe, of thirty feet in length on the floor, is open only about twenty-four feet, and gathered to a point about three feet long at each end. They are stretched on a light frame of split twigs, and are at once fast and buoyant. The mission is situated upon a high bluff above the falls, and consists of a small house for the priest and a chapel. Around these are a number of huts and store-houses belonging to the Indians; the latter raised from the ground on posts. Fathers Louis and Joset, of the Order of Jesuits, are stationed here. Our visit admitted of but little opportunity of gathering further information concerning the Indians than what has already been published. The few who were present; were assembled by Governor Stevens, who addressed them. They have no head chief of note, and there were present on the occasion only Klekahkahi, the chief at the falls; Kuiltkuiltlouis, a sub-chief; and Elimiklka, the son of a former chief of this place.

The last was highly spoken of by Mr. McDonald, but did not seem to be in equal favor at the mission. We learned that but few of the original Schwoyelpi stock remained; they had gradually

become extinct, and their places were filled by people from the adjoining bands. The smallpox had as yet made no great inroads on this band; its general course seemingly having been up the eastern side of the Columbia. One case had, however, occurred at the time of our arrival. On the route from Fort Colville to Wallah-Wallah the party passed the old Chemakane mission, the former station of Messrs. Walker and Eels. The house was still standing, and occupied by an American. This is the country of the Spokanes, who are next to be noticed.

The Spokehnish, or Spokanes, lie south of the Schwoyelpi, and chiefly upon or near the Spokane river. The name applied by the whites to a number of small bands, is that given by the Coeur d'Alenes to the one living at the forks. They are also called Sinkoman by the Kootenaies. These bands are eight in number: the Sin-slik-hoo-ish, on the great plain above the crossings of the Coeur d'Alene river; the Sintootoolish, on the river above the forks; the Sma-hoo-men-a-ish, (Spokenish.) at the forks; the Skai-schil-t'nish, at the old Chemakane mission; the Ske-chei-a-mouse, above them on the Colville trail; the Schu-el-stish; the Sin-poil-schne, and Sin-spee-lish, on the Columbia river; the last-named band is nearly extinct. The Sin-poil-schne (N'pochele, or Sans Puelles) have already been included among the Okinakanes, though, as well as the Sin-spee-lish below them, they are claimed by the Spokanes. The three bands on the Columbia all speak a different language from the rest. Most of the Indians, at the time of our visit, were absent on their hunt, and we had no opportunities of estimating their number by inspection. Judging from those that we saw, and the information received from various sources, they probably amount, excluding those enumerated at Okinakane, to four hundred and fifty. They were a wilder looking race than the tribes to the westward. The men are generally spare, even when young, and soon become withered.

Their principal chief is Spokane Garry, whose name was bestowed upon him by Governor Sir George Simpson, by whom he was sent, when about twelve years old, to the Red river for education, where he spent five years. Garry is now about forty-two years of age, is very intelligent, and speaks English fluently. He bears an excellent character, and is what he claims to be, a chief. Of petty chiefs there are, besides, an abundance, each band having two or three.

Garry himself accompanied us to the forks of the Spokane, where his band usually reside. A few lodges, chiefly old men and women, were there at the time. His own, in neatness and comfort, was far beyond any we had seen. His family were dressed in the costume of the whites, which in fact now prevails over their own. Many of the Spokanes, besides their intercourse with the fort, visit the American settlements, where they earn money by occasional work, most of which is spent in clothing, blankets, &c. The chief offered us the hospitality of his house with much cordiality - a cup of tea or coffee and bread. The "Spokane House," which is a landmark upon all the maps of this country, was an old Hudson's Bay fort, situated at his village, but has long since been destroyed.

This tribe claim as their territory the country commencing on the large plain at the head of the Slawntehus -- the stream entering the Columbia at Fort Colville; thence down the Spokane to the Columbia, down the Columbia half-way to Fort Okinakane, and up the Spokane and Coeur d'Alene, to some point between the falls and the lake, on the latter. There is in this direction a question of boundary between them and the Coeur d'Alenes, which appears to be as complicated

as some of those between more civilized nations. No resort to arms has, however, occurred, and the territory continues under joint occupation. An additional source of coolness between them arises from a difference in religion - the Spokanes being Protestants, or of the "American religion," and the Coeur d'Alenes Catholics. The latter taunt the former as heretics, whose faith is worthless. Garry narrated to us the evils arising from this state of feeling, with a forbearance and Christian spirit of toleration which would have honored any one. This tribe have at present

no missionary among them, but they seem to have been consistent to what they learned under the tuition of Messrs. Walker and Eels, of the Chemakane mission. The country of the Spokanes, though in most respects unattractive to settlement by the whites, is well suited to the pursuits of the Indian.

The high plain, which extends from the Spokane river to Lewis's fork of the Columbia, and which belongs chiefly to them and the Nez Perces, though bleak and exposed to violent winds, affords grazing for their stock and an abundance of the roots used by themselves for food, while their river supplies them with salmon. They obtain buffalo hides for their lodges, and skins of elk, carraboo, and deer, for their own clothing, in their semi-annual hunts to the eastward.

Of the larger game there is but little in their own country. The buffalo, it would seem, in former times penetrated at least occasionally thus far to the westward, though now they never come through the northern passes. We were informed by an old Iroquois hunter, at Fort Colville, who has been some forty-eight years in the company's service, that the last bull was killed some twenty-five years ago in the Grand Coulee.

Of the remaining tribes of the nation it will be necessary to speak even more briefly, for out journey did not bring us in contact with them, and but little can be added to what has been before published.

The Skitswish, or Coeur d'Alenes, live upon the upper part of the Coeur d'Alene river, above the Spokanes, and around the lake of the same name. They are estimated by Dr. Dart as only two hundred in number, which is believed, however, to be too low an estimate. Father Mengarini, formerly missionary among the Flatheads, gives as his opinion that they reach four hundred and fifty. A mean has been adopted in the recapitulation. This tribe has also a missionary station belonging to the Order of Jesuits.

The Kalispelms, or Pend d'Oreilles of the Lower Lake, inhabit the country north of the Coeur d'Alenes and around the Kalispelm lake. Dr. Dart gives their population as five hundred and twenty, which is but little short of Father Mengarini's.

The Slka-tkml-schi, or Pend d'Oreilles of the Upper Lake, a tribe who, by the consent of the

Selish, occupy jointly with them the country of the latter. According to the same authorities, they reach about four hundred and eighty.

The Selish proper, or Flatheads, inhabit St. Mary's or the Flathead valley, and the neighborhood of the lake of the same name. Mr. John Owen, who occupies the site of the old Jesuit mission of St. Mary's as a trading-post, says that there remain of these but sixty-five lodges, of about five to a lodge, giving a total of three hundred and twenty-five - a number considerably exceeding Dr. Dart's estimate, which, is but two hundred and ten.

The tribe was once a very powerful one, but has been much diminished by the attacks of the Blackfeet, who enter into their country through the mountain passes, or meet them in their hunts

upon the eastern side.

Their custom is to make two hunts annually across the mountains- one in April, for the bulls, from which they return in June and July; and another, after about a month's recruit, to kill cows, which have by that time become fat. In these excursions they are accompanied by that portion of the Pend d'Oreilles who live in their country, and about one hundred lodges of the Nez

Perces, as well as parties from such other tribes as see fit to join them. Their country is admirably adapted for grazing, and they possess about one thousand head of American cattle, which were introduced by the worthy and zealous Father De Smet.

They are not rich in horses, but still have many good ones, though frequently robbed by their enemies, the Blackfeet. They get no salmon, but live altogether by the hunt, and do not manifest, any disposition to agricultural pursuits or fixed residence. They have no canoes, but in ferrying streams use their lodge: skins, which are drawn up into an oval form by cords, and stretched on a few twigs. These they tow with horses, riding sometimes three abreast. Their own territory still furnishes them with ordinary kinds of game - elk, moose, black and white-tailed deer, the big-horn, and bears. Beaver and otter are abundant.

The mission of St. Mary's was abandoned in 1860, the habits of the Flatheads leaving the missionaries unprotected, end proving an obstacle to effectual labor. They have at the station a village of log-houses, but notwithstanding generally prefer their own lodges. Their great chief is Kmi-kwi-kal-sih, or Victor, a man highly spoken of by the whites who have come in contact with him. The tribe, in fact, seem to be an exception among the Indians of Oregon. Their heroism in battle, their good faith towards others, and their generally inoffensive conduct, have been the theme of praise both from priest and layman. They are, however, rapidly disappearing before the murderous warfare of the Blackfeet. Should their country become a thoroughfare of travel, they will, to some degree at least, be protected from their enemies; but, on the other hand, the destruction of the buffalo and other game will render some new mode of subsistence an object of proper care on the part of the government.

The Kootenaies or Kitunahas, and the Flatbows, who now, according to Father De Smet, form one tribe, called by their neighbors Skalza, or Skolsa, inhabit the country extending along the foot of the Rocky mountains, north of the Flatheads, for a very considerable distance, and are about equally in American and in British territory. They do not enter into the census of the Oregon superintendent, and they have had no intercourse with the whites except through the Fur Company. Captain Wilkes states their number at about 400. Their usual camp is situated in the Tobacco plains, where they were visited in 1845 by Father De Smet, who gives a description of their country.

The Nez Perces, or Saptin, lie to the south of the Selish, and on both sides of the Kooskooskia and north fork of Snake river.

Their country, like that of the Wallah-Wallahs, extends into both Oregon and Washington Territories. They are one of the most numerous of all these, tribes, amounting, according to the census of 1861, to 1880; since when there has probably been less decrease than among some of the others.

They are much intermarried with the Wallah-Wallahs, whose language belongs to the same family, and also with the Cayuses. They have no chief of note at present living; Towwattu, or the "Young Chief," having recently died.

Wailatpu, or Cayuse: The country belonging to this tribe is to the south of and between the Nez Perces and Wallah-Wallahs, extending from the Des Chutes or Wawanui river to the eastern side of the Blue mountains. It is almost entirely in Oregon, a small part only, upon the upper Wallah-Wallah river, lying within Washington Territory. The tribe, though still dreaded by their neighbors, from their courage and warlike spirit, is but a small one, numbering, according to the same authority, 126. Of these, individuals of the pure blood are very few; the majority being intermixed with the Nez Perces and Wallah-Wallahs - particularly with the former - to such a degree that their own language has fallen into disuse.

It was this tribe that destroyed Dr. Whitman's mission in 1847. Their head chief, Pa, or the " Five Crows," has since then generally absented himself from his people, as, although not concerned in the murder, he became notorious for the abduction of one of the women. These are all the tribes which enter into the Territory east of the mountains, except that a small remnant of the original tribe belonging at the Cascades of the Columbia river still exist. They are of the Upper Chinook nation. From their geographical situation, they will fall within the eastern district; and as the Klikatats frequent the fishery there, it would be desirable to comprehend them with the latter.

It would be interesting to give a reliable comparison of the Indian population at the different periods since their intercourse with the whites; but the data from which this could be drawn me too uncertain to furnish satisfactory conclusions. Messrs. Lewis and Clark give the earliest information respecting them.

Their journey, however, permitted only very loose conjectures on the subject, and their division of the tribes is with difficulty to be recognised at present. The following, however, appears to be the arrangement, and it is so far intelligible as to render it certain that their locations have not materially changed within that time.

Lewis and Clark's Estimate - 1806 and 1807,

Names of Tribes.

Corresponding names.

Population.

Wallah-Wallah

Wallah-Wallah

2,600

Wah-how-pum

John Day's river

1,000

E-ne-show

Des Chutes river

1,200

Se-wat-palla

Peluse

3,000

Sokulk

Priest's Rapids

3,000

Chan-wap-pan

Lower Yakima

400

Shal-tat-tos

Lower Yakima

200

Squam-a-ross

Lower Yakima

240

Skal-dals

Lower Yakima

400

Chim-nah-pun

Upper Yakima

2,000

Sha-la-la

Cascades, Upper Chenooks

1,000

E-che-loot

Cascades, Upper Chenooks

1,000

Chilluk-kit-e-quaw

Dalles

2,400

Smak-shop

Dalles

200

Cat-sa-nim

Okin-a-kanes

2,400

He-high-e-nim-mo

Sans Puelles

1,500

Whe-el-po

Schwo-yel-pi

3,500

Sar-lis-lo

Spokanes

900

Sket-so-mish

Spokanes

2,600

Mick-suck-seal-tom

Pend d'Oreilles

300

Ho-pil-po

Flatheads

600

Tush-e-pah

Koo-tames

800

Chopunnish

Nez Perces

8,000

Wille-wah

Grand Ronde

1,100

Willet-pos

Wai-lat-pu

-------

   

----------------

Total population

 

42, 200

Captain Wilkes' Estimate - 1841.

Names of Tribes.

Population.

Cascades

150

Dalles

250

Yakima

100

Okinakane

300

Colville and Spokane

450

Des Chutes &c

300

Wallah-Wallah

1,100

 

--------------

Total population

2,650

The above furnishes a very incorrect statement even of the tribes that are given, and some of the most important are omitted altogether, No conclusion can be drawn from it whatever. A more general one is contained in Captain Wilkes's pamphlet on Western America, as follows:

Names of Tribes.

Population.

Kitunana

400

Flatheads

3,000

Nez Perces

2,000

Wallah-Wallahs

2,200

 

--------------

Total population

7,600

Which is also much less than the actual number at that time. Yet more incorrect is the estimate of Lieutenants Warre and Vavasour, R. N., published in Martin's "Hudson's Bay Territories, &c.," in 1849, though, as regards this part of the Territory, it is not so bad as the rest:

Estimate of Lieutenants Warre and Vavasour.

Names of Tribes.

Population.

Wallah-Wallahs, Nez Perces, Snakes, &c

3,000

Colville and Spokane

450

Okinakane, several tribes

300

Kullas Palus, (Kalispelm,) several tribes

300

Kootenaies, several tribes

400

 

--------------

Total population

4,500



Dr. Dart's Estimate - 1861.

Names of Tribes.

Men.

Women.

Children.

Total.

Wallah-Wallah

52

40

38

130

Des Chutes

95

115

90

300

Dalles

129

206

147

482

Peluse

60

62

59

181

Kanatat

297

195

 

492

Yakima, (estimate)

     

1,000

Rock Island

     

300

Okinakane

     

250

Colville

     

320

Sin-ha-ma-mish, (Spokane)

     

232

Coeur d'Alene

     

200

Lower Pend d'Oreille

     

520

Upper Pend d'Oreille

     

480

Mission

     

210

Nez Perzes

698

1,182

 

1,880

Cayuse

38

48

40

126

       

----------------

Total population

     

7,103

* The Pisquouse and Kootenaies are omitted, and the band of Upper Chinooks, at the Dalles, included with the WallahWallahs.

Estimate of 1853

Names of Tribes, &c.

Population.

Klikitats

300

Yakimas

600

Pisquouse and Okinakanes

550

Schwoyelpi, or Colville

500

Spokane

450

Coeur d'Alene

325

Lower Pend d'Oreille

480

Upper Pend d'Oreille

520

Flatheads

325

Kootenaies and Flatbows

400

Nez Perces

1,700

Cayuse

120

Wallah-Wallahs, Peluse, &c

500

Dalles bands

200

Cascades

36

 

----------------

Total population

7,006

NOTE - Of which it is proposed that the Nez Perces, Cayuse, Wallah-Wallahs and Dalles Indians remain under the Oregon superintendency.

As the relations of the Hudson's Bay Company to the Indian tribes, as well as to the citizens of the Territory, is a matter of some importance, a statement of their establishments is herewith submitted.

The principal is Fort Vancouver, on the Columbia river, which is the parent establishment whence the others are supplied with goods. The post is enclosed by a stockade of two hundred by one hundred and seventy-five yards, twelve feet in height, and is defended by bastions on the northwest and southeast angles mounted with cannon. Within are the governor's house, two smaller buildings used by clerks, a range of dwellings for families, and five large two-story warehouses, besides offices. Without, there is another large storehouse, at present hired by the United States. These are all built of square logs framed together. At some little distance there is also a village of fifty or sixty cabins, occupied by servants, Kanakas, and Indians, and a salmon-house on the bank of the river. The buildings are old and considerably decayed, only the repairs necessary to keep them in tenantable order having of late years been expended. There are at present two chief factors at this post, Messrs. Peter Skene Ogden and Donald MacTavish, with a considerable number of clerks and other employes.

The company's land claim at Fort Vancouver embraces several tracts: first, the plain on which the fort and United States barracks are situated, with a small one behind it, making together a tract of about four miles square. About one thousand acres are enclosed or under cultivation; attached to which there are sheds, stabling, and a small dwelling for a farmer. Adjoining this, to the eastward, is another tract, known as the Mill claim, two and a half by three quarter miles square, on which is a saw-mill having tolerable water-power, but subject to stoppage during freshets. Besides the above, they claim two other small prairies behind the first mentioned, which are respectively a half and one mile square.

The business at this post has changed with the condition of the country since the treaty, and is now almost entirely mercantile and carried on with the settlers. American Oregon never was, strictly speaking, a fur country, and the fall in the value of beaver has annihilated what trade it once afforded. Comparatively a small amount of Indian goods are now imported, that description of merchandise being sent to the posts in their own territory by way of Victoria. What trade with Indians is carried on here is the ordinary retail trade of country stores, and for cash. The amount of their general business may be gathered from their imports during 1863. These consisted of one cargo of assorted American goods from New York, and another valued at about e19,000 from London, paying duties to the amount of nearly $24,000. A considerable portion of these were sold on commission at Portland, Oregon City, and other places in the Willamette valley.

The next post above Vancouver is Fort Wallah-Wallah, on the Columbia river, below the entrance of the Snake. There are here three or four one-story adobe buildings, with offices, enclosed by a wall of the same material some thirty-five yards on each side, having a bastion at one angle. It is almost utterly valueless except as a station where horses can be kept for the trains. There is, indeed, some trade with the neighboring Indians, chiefly in cash, but not enough to warrant its maintenance, except for the above purpose. The fort is in very indifferent repair, and the country in the immediate neighborhood a desert of drifting sand. Some eighteen or twenty miles up the Wallah-Wallah river is a so-called farm, on which are two small buildings, a dwelling-house, and dairy. There was formerly a dam for irrigation, but it is broken down. They have here some twenty acres cultivated in different spots; the principal object is grazing. The force here consists of Mr. Pambrun, chief clerk, one interpreter, two traders, and six men, Canadians and Indians.

Fort Colville, upon the Columbia, above Kettle falls, is next in importance to Vancouver, though far inferior to it in extent. It is situated on the second terrace, at some distance back from the river, the lower one being flooded in part during the freshets. The buildings consist of a dwelling, three or four store-houses, and some smaller ones used as a blacksmith's shop, &c.; all of one story, and built of square logs. The whole was once surrounded by a stockade, forming a square of about seventy yards on each side. This had been removed, except on the north, where it encloses a narrow yard containing offices. One bastion remains. About thirty yards in the rear of this square are the cattle-yard, hay-sheds, &c., enclosing a space of forty by sixty yards, roughly fenced in, and the sheds covered with bark. On the left of the front are seven huts, occupied by the lower employes of the company; they are of rude construction and much decayed. On the right of the square, in the rear, at a distance of a few hundred yards, are three more buildings, used for storing produce.

Besides the principal establishment, there is a cattle-post, about nine miles distant, on the stream laid down as the Slawntehus, and a grist-mill of one pair of stones, three miles off, on the same stream. The latter is said to be in pretty good order, and the water to serve all the year round. Here, formerly, the flour for the northern posts was ground from wheat raised on the company's farm. This farm was once pretty extensive, but only a small portion is cultivated at present.

Fort Colville was once the post of a chief factor, the highest officer in charge of a station, and here the annual accounts of the whole country were consolidated previous to transmission across the mountains. The present force consists only of Mr. McDonald, chief clerk, a trader, and about twenty Canadians and Iroquois Indians. In former years goods were sent through this post for those north of the line, but this route is now abandoned. The amount of furs collected here is not large, and comes chiefly from the upper Columbia. They are principally bear, beaver, muskrat, marten, and fox skins. The beaver is not considered to be worth in London more than its cost when laid down there.

About fifteen Canadians are settled on claims in this neighborhood, chiefly on the Slawntehus. They are former servants of the company whose time has expired, and who intend to be naturalized.

Below Fort Colville is Fort Okinakane, situated on a level plain on the right bank of the Columbia, a little above the mouth of the Okinakane river, and not far from the site of one of Mr. Astor's posts. The fort consists of three small houses, enclosed with a stockade. There were formerly some outbuildings, but they have been suffered to decay. There is no appearance of business here, and no goods on hand. One trader, a Canadian, was the only white man on the ground when we visited it. A few furs only are taken, and the post probably does not pay its expenses. It was once of consequence as a. stopping place for the bateaux passage to and from Fort Colville, but is now kept up apparently for form's sake. We learned that the price of such furs as were taken here was, for a black fox-skin, a quarter of a yard of red cloth, or a red cocktail plume; for marten or red fox, ten charges of powder and ball; for beaver, otter, or bear skins, thirty charges.

Fort Kontamie, upon the great bend of the Flatbow river, and not far from the Flathead lake, is an inferior post, in charge of a Canadian as trader and postmaster, with one Canadian and a half-breed under him.

The above constitutes all the posts situated in the country east of the Cascades and north of 46O. It may be worth while to include the rest of those in American territory.

There are in Oregon and east of the mountains only two - Fort Hall, on the head of the Snake river; and Fort Boisee upon the same, nearly opposite the mouth of the Owy-hee. The latter is merely a stopping place, occupied by a trader and a few Kanakas. The former is a more important one, from its opportunities for trade with the emigrants and with the Salt lake. Of the present condition of this I am not informed; but it is only a third-rate post.

West of the Cascades, in Oregon Territory, the principal is Fort Umpqua, on the Umpqua river. This was destroyed by fire two or three years since; but to what extent, since rebuilt, I do not know. The rest consist of a house and granary at Champoes, on the Willamette; one acre of ground below the falls of Oregon City, purchased from an American, a farmer; 640 acres on Souvies's island, at the mouth of the Willamette; with a house, dairy, and garden - the building about six years old. The old buildings at Astoria are of no value whatever.

In Washington Territory, west of the Cascades, there are, first, and the only one of importance, Fort Nisqually, on the lands of the Puget Sound Agricultural Company. It is situated at some distance from the water, on a high, undulating prairie, and is a cluster of small buildings, of no great value, within a stockade. The trade here is principally with the settlers. Besides this, there is a granary and about five acres of land two miles above the mouth of the Cowlitz river; a tract of land on Cape Disappointment, occupied by an old servant, and a small store and lot of ground at Chinook.

With the exception of Fort Vancouver, it is believed that none of these posts are worth maintaining for any other purpose than that of holding the property till a sale can be effected. The condition of the whole country is completely changed since they were established, and the company are now little else than general merchants. At all points of present importance they meet with the usual competition from our citizens; and whenever it will repay the enterprise, the same competition will follow them elsewhere. The relations of the company to the Indians are necessarily far less intimate than they have been, though not less friendly; but even the more distant tribes now frequent the towns, attracted partly by novelty, and partly by the opportunities afforded for earning money by labor. Most of them comprehend fully that the sceptre has departed from Judah, and that our own people possess the country.

The familiarity of the company's officers with the Indians and their usages, of course gives them a certain influence; but there is no evidence that this has been used unfairly, or that since the conclusion of the treaty they have ever endeavored to prejudice them against our government. So far as regards their course previous to that time, it was clear enough. As traders, they endeavored to secure to themselves every advantage of trade; as British subjects, they upheld and stood by their country while it stood by them; but in every matter between a white man and an Indian, they sustained the white, of whatever nation. The conduct of Dr. John McLoughlin and of Mr. Peter Skene Ogden, on more than one trying occasion, was worthy of all praise. It was the former who, on the destruction by the Umpqua Indians of the train under the command of Jedediah Smith, an American and a rival fur-trader, sent against the aggressors an armed party, and restored to him, without charge, his recaptured goods; it was the latter who, upon hearing of the Whitman massacre, instantly set out himself for the Cayuse country anti purchased the liberty of the surviving women and children. For the expenditure on this occasion, it may be mentioned, the company have never requested or received payment. Their hospitality and kindness to the early settlers drew upon them censure from home; while, in this country, those who have received most at their hands have been most bitter in their abuse.

The white servants of the company, as their time expires, settle here and become naturalized. Some of the officers, also, are already citizens, and others will follow their example. Very few will ever leave the country.

In respect to the impression which it is supposed may be created by purchasing goods from them for Indian service, it may be remarked, that any danger or misconception of this point has passed away. Very few goods have, in fact, ever been purchased from the company by government officers for this purpose, and the reason, on those occasions, has been simply because they alone had supplies of suitable kind.

The missions also require notice in connexion with Indian relations.

The Presbyterians formerly had stations among the Cayuse at Waiatpu, on the, Wallah-Wallah river, under the superintendence of Dr. Whitman; among the Spokanes at Chemakane, upon a branch of the Spokane river, under Messrs. Walker and Eels; among the Nez Perces at Lapwai, near the mouth of the Kooskooskia, under Mr. Spalding; and at Kaima, on its headwaters, under Mr. Smith. The last was maintained but a short time, and all of them have been abandoned since Dr. Whitman's murder. The Methodists also once had a mission at the Dalles.

The only missions now among the eastern tribes are those of the Jesuits and Oblats. There are, of the former, two priests at Fort Colville, two among the Pend d'Oreilles and two among the Coeur d'Alenes. Of the latter, there is one at Wailatpu, and two on the Yakima. The mission of St. Mary's, among the Flatheads, was given up in 1851, on account of the Blackfeet incursions. The Yakima mission is not fixed, but transitory, having two regular stations, one occupied in winter, the other in the summer.

Concerning the influence of the existing missions, there can be no doubt that it is, to a certain extent, beneficial in preserving peace among the tribes? as well as in settling private quarrels. Beyond a very small number, however, their control over individuals is limited. They have, unquestionably, inculcated principles of honesty and morality, which in some cases perhaps have taken root, but have essentially failed in accomplishing any great and lasting improvement. Many of the Indians have adopted certain forms of Christianity, such as the sign of the cross, the repetition of short prayers, or singing of canticles ; but I have failed to notice that this has always been a proof of trustworthiness. For the rest, it is evident that the objects of these gentlemen are inconsistent with the settlement of the country, or the establishment of fixed agencies. It is not intended to be represented that they have used reprehensible means; but in the knowledge that their influence must infallibly be shaken whenever contact with the whites becomes general, it is not to he doubted that they have discouraged it.

In this connexion it may be remarked, that under no consideration should agencies be conferred on priests or clergymen of any denomination, as the desire to propagate their own peculiar tenets cannot fail to embarrass their official relations. The distinction is already drawn among the Indians between the " American" and French religions, and, as in the case of the Coeur d'Alenes and Spokanes, has already created ill feelings. Any appointments of clerical officers will necessarily be regarded as an endorsement of their peculiar doctrines; whereas all idea of a connexion of religion and government should be discountenanced.

It is a fortunate circumstance that there has as yet been little or no negotiation with the Indians of the Territory, and that their official relations with the government have been but few, and those confined to tribes on the Columbia river. The, evils arising from the want of a settled and consistent policy, from constant changes of agents, and from the rejection of treaties entered into with them, have not arisen here. The field is new, and it is highly desirable, both for the sake of the whites and the Indians, that it should be entered upon with judgment.

To remove the Indians altogether into any one district is impracticable, for the western verge has been reached. To throw the fishing tribes of the coast back upon the, interior, even were the measure possible, would destroy them; nor is there any suitable region east of the Cascades where all of the tribes now living there could be concentrated and find food. They must, therefore, remain as they are, adopting such a plan only as will remedy, so far as may be, the inconvenience of the contact.

The great primary source of evil in Oregon and the western part of this Territory is the donation act, in which, contrary to established usage and to natural right, the United States assumed to grant, absolutely, the land of the Indians without previous purchase from them. It followed, as a necessary consequence, that as settlers poured in, the Indians were unceremoniously thrust from their homes and driven forth to shift for themselves. No provision was made to support them after their former means were taken away; and finally the treaties negotiated by authorized agents of the government, in which some small patches of their own territories were secured to them, were either rejected or passed over in silence. A consequence of this has been that a natural distrust has sprung up in their minds as to the good faith of the government or its agents in making treaties at all. The policy has indeed one merit, that of economy. Bur a few years will elapse before a universal escheat will preclude the necessity of any purchase.

Excepting a few persons south of the Columbia and Snake rivers, and the Hudson's Bay Company's forts, there tire few or no white settlers within the limits of Washington Territory east of the Cascades. so far, therefore, as the tribes inhabiting that country are concerned, no difficulty has as yet sprung up. It is entirely in the power of the government to obviate its future occurrence.

But in order to avoid the rejection of future treaties, a course almost impossible to explain satisfactorily, and which is rendered still more unfortunate by the length of lime required to amend or renew them, it is necessary to procure in advance from Congress some expression of its views on the subject. This is in fact requisite under any circumstances, because the law gives no power to the superintendent to make even provisional reserves, and lands set aside for Indian use may be taken up without remedy before a satisfaction can be procured. In fact, they are very likely to be so, with a view to speculation out of the government.

It is not believed that extensive reserves would be desirable for these tribes. The nature of their country and their own habits make the case entirely different from those of the prairie Indians. Although some, of them cross the mountains in search of buffalo, they are not generally hunters; nor is their country any longer a game country. They require the liberty of motion for the purpose of seeking, in their proper season, roots, berries, and fish, where those articles can be found, and of grazing their horses and cattle at large; but they do not need the exclusive use of any considerable districts. A large portion of their territory will, in all human probability, never be occupied by white men; and so far nature has provided reserves. What is necessary for them, and just in itself, is, that small tracts of good land should be set apart as permanent abodes, where they may raise their vegetables and bury their dead, secure that they will not be driven off at the pleasure of the first comer.

This is especially so, because their main resource during a portion of the year is speedily destroyed in the neighborhood of settlements. A drove of hogs belonging to one white man will consume the winter provision of a tribe of Indians. In like manner, the use of their customary fisheries, and free pasturage for their stock on unenclosed lands, should be secured.

The subject of the right of fishery, in its present position, is believed to be one concerning which difficulties may arise. It is certain that the intention of Congress never was that the Indians should be excluded from them; but as no condition to this effect was inserted in the donation act, the question has been started whether persons taking claims, including such fisheries, do not possess the right of monopolizing them. It is, therefore, proper that this also should be set at rest by law.

A tract of a mile square would, it is believed, be sufficient for each of the before-mentioned tribes, or, where deemed more convenient, four quarter-sections at different points. This amount, however, should not include the land required for agencies; and authority ought to be given to the superintendent to set aside for this purpose not exceeding another square mile, (to be in one body,) in the territory of each tribe, which shall be exempted from individual claim. It is not supposed that it will be requisite to occupy them all at once; but, in anticipation of the future settlement of the country, it is desirable to secure suitable positions, that the United States may not be compelled to buy back what is required for public uses.

No conventional arrangements, strictly so speaking, are known which need action on the part of the government; but the assurance has everywhere been given by the whites, settling among the Indian tribes, that Congress would compensate them for the lands taken. Those among whom establishments have been made for any length of time, finding themselves crowded out of their houses, and fast dwindling away, ask often when this promise will be fulfilled, for they have but a little time left to employ it, and they leave no children behind. Distrust thus attaches to the country, and the advance of settlement into new districts is looked upon with suspicion.

As regards treaties for the purchase of their lands and other purposes, it would be most advantageous simply to acquire the right of settlement at pleasure in their territory, except upon the tracts reserved for their own use, leaving the remainder as lands common to both. Payment should-be made to them in goods, for although most of them understand the value of money perfectly, the former mode is preferable, as it does not furnish an inducement to go into the tons, and as it confers a greater benefit at less cost. The merchandise should consist chiefly of blankets, coarse warm clothing, agricultural tools, &c., with as few of what is termed ''Indian goods" as possible. In respect to presents, the indiscriminate distribution of considerable amounts is to be avoided as useless if not injurious. Small presents are proper on the occasional visits of chiefs to the agencies, but these should be discouraged when not on business.

In negotiating treaties, as the distance from the settlements to the residences of the different tribes is very considerable, and the cost of transporting merchandise for presents to the interior would be enormous, it is recommended that none whatever be given, with the exception of a little tobacco for the council smoke, and on the conclusion of the treaty a beef-ox or two to each tribe. If the reason is explained to them, as they will of course know what to expect when the treaty is ratified, they will be perfectly contented. Should the suggestions elsewhere made be adopted, arrangements may be in progress before the first distribution, which will much reduce the cost of delivering the annuities. The estimates in other respects have been made for a small party of officers and their necessary attendants. No troops are required, and every additional person only adds to the expense and prevents celerity of movement.

As nearly two years must elapse after the conclusion of a treaty before a ratification can take place, an appropriation be made, the goods purchased, forwarded, and transported to the place of distribution in the usual course, it is recommended that an appropriation for the first payment be made in advance, that the goods may be on hand as soon as the ratification takes place. Goods for the eastern part of the Territory should be shipped to Portland or Fort Vancouver; those for the western, to Puget sound. But most of the necessary articles can now to better advantage be purchased in San Francisco than imported from the States, and it is recommended that this course be pursued.

In every treaty concluded with these tribes, it should expressly be stipulated that for offences committed against the persons or property of the whites, the chiefs in the first instance shall be held responsible for the delivery of the offender and the restoration of the goods, and that, further, the amount of all damages shall be deducted from the annuity of the tribe. The chief should receive some compensation for his responsibility, and be assured of the support of the government in maintaining his authority.

With proper judgment and care, no difficulty is to be apprehended in managing the relations with any of the tribes east of the Cascade mountains. They are none of them disposed to hostilities against the whites, and the most that is to be feared is an occasional theft. Parties of two or three might traverse the whole country without annoyance. Neither are they at variance with one another, but pass fearlessly 6úom tribe to tribe. Petty jealousies of course exist, as they do between band and band in the same tribe; but there is no serious dissension, calculated to lead to warfare among themselves. Policy requires that some military force should be maintained in the neighborhood of the great emigrant trails, and perhaps hereafter a post may be required on the main Columbia, at or near Fort Colville; but for this there is no present necessity. Whatever force is employed should, however, be cavalry, and during the summer should be kept constantly in motion.

One principle of policy, in particular, should be observed--the union of small bands under a single head. The maxim of divide and conquer does not apply among these people They are never so disposed to mischief as when scattered and beyond control; whereas it is always in the power of the government to secure the influence of chiefs, and through them to manage their people. Those who at present bear the name have not influence enough, and no proper opportunity should be spared of encouraging and supporting them in its extension. This policy, long pursued by the Hudson's Bay Company, was one secret of their former great influence.

It has been mentioned that a portion of the Wallah-Wallahs, together with the Nez Perces and the Cayuses, live upon the borders of the two Territories, and partly in each.

In relation to this state of' things, it will be perceived that some arrangements must be made between the two superintendencies, to prevent clashing in their government. The WallahWallahs proper, and the other bands south of the Columbia and Snake rivers under the Yellow Serpent, may very well be separated from the Yakimas, as they already in fact, and together with the other two tribes, remain under the jurisdiction of Oregon. The three are intimately connected with one another. The Wallah-Wallahs and Nez Perces speak dialects of a common language, and the Cayuses have abandoned their own for that of the latter. They have greatly intermarried, their countries adjoin, and their separation would be almost as impossible as the division of the tribe itself. Their relations with the Oregon agency and people have, moreover, been of long standing, and will remain more intimate than with those of this Territory. Except the Bannaks and the Snakes, they form the only tribes falling within the eastern division of Oregon.

Treaties should nevertheless be concluded with them at once on behalf of the citizens of both Territories, and in the mean time their subsequent jurisdiction be permanently fixed.

The most judicious, and at the same time the most economical, mode of organizing the department, would probably be to divide the Territory into two districts, one on each side of the mountains, in both of which there should be a full agent. It should be his duty to visit in person, at least once in each year, every tribe in his district, pay the annuities, supervise the farmers or laborers employed to assist the Indians, and generally to act as the deputy of the superintendent. The agent should be authorized to employ an assistant or clerk, who should live with him, and during his absence on tours of inspection, manage the business of the office. When it is recollected that the Territory embraces eleven degrees of longitude by six in latitude, it will be obvious that the superintendent, especially when his duties are united with those of the executive, can not give his personal attention to distant tribes, and that the most responsible duties must necessarily be discharged by subordinates. Their pay and position should be such as to secure men thoroughly qualified, both by character, ability, and familiarity with the Indians. The pay of a sub-agent, barely equal to the lowest wages of common labor, cannot be expected to secure the efficient service of any man in such a situation, much less of a competent one. As the agent himself cannot personally supervise all the different tribes in learning the use of their tools, the proper arrangement of their crops, building fences, &c., it is recommended, further, that the superintendent, under the sanction of the department, be authorized to allow the pay of a sub-agent to not more than one person for each principal tribe of Indians who shall settle among them, and under his direction, or that of the agent, assist in teaching them. Should this, however, not be deemed advisable, the agent should be allowed to hire for at least three months during each of the first two years after the ratification of the treaty, a person suitable for the task.

Their own cattle would, among the eastern tribes, suffice for their wants in breaking up their land, and doing the requisite hauling. In the western agency the work would require to be done chiefly by hand, as the wooded country of the coast does not afford sufficient range, and the Indians have but few horses, and no cattle. Another provision ought to be made for the protection of their fields in that district. Settlers taking up lands adjoining the reserved grounds should be compelled to do half the fencing necessary to exclude their hogs and other stock, the Indians, under the direction of the agent, doing the remainder. As it is, they are exposed to the loss of their little provision, and government will probably be called upon to remunerate them for the damage.

The location recommended for the eastern agency is the neighborhood of the old Chemakaine mission, which affords good land and timber, and is both central to the district and accessible to wagons from Wallah-Wallah or Fort Colville. For the western agency, some point on or near the southern end of Whidby's island would probably be the most convenient.

The Columbia river should be constituted a sub-agency, to have jurisdiction over the scattered bands of the Upper and Lower Chinooks, and those of the Klikatats who reside either in whole

or in part among them. The boundaries of this jurisdiction can be served by the superintendent, as it is advised that the Indians living within it be for the most part left to the operation of civil law; the duties of the sub-agent will not be more onerous than call be performed with the necessary attention to his other occupations, and no particular residence need be furnished or designated.

In the present condition of the Territory there is great confusion as to the applicability of the laws regulating intercourse with the Indian tribes. For certain purposes it is Indian country, while for others it assuredly is not, and in every respect it is desirable that Congress draw the line of distinction.

The difference between the eastern and western sections of the Territory may require some few differences in legislation. The western portion is as yet the only one where settlements have been made ; it is there that the bulk of the population will continue to be ; but very radical amendments are demanded in the other also. The following have suggested themselves:

Act of June 30, 1834. Section 2, prohibiting trade with the Indians without license, to be repealed, except, of course, in spirituous liquors, the introduction of which into the Territory east of the mountains may continue to be illegal. West of them, however, the law as against importation is nugatory, and should be repealed. The repeal of sections 3, 4, 6, and 6, will necessarily follow. In case of the settlement of the country by the whites, there will of course be merchants and traders, and the Indians should have the right to purchase where they can get the best and cheapest goods. This they will do in any event, and the section will continue to be a dead letter, even if not repealed.

Section 7 to be limited to clothing and goods of American or European manufacture. These Indians have few peltries, and look forward to the sale of stock, horses, and potatoes, as a benefit to be derived from the incoming of settlers.

Section 9 to be repealed, and, as a substitute, the marking of cattle, horses, mules, hogs, and other domestic animals, with conspicuous ear or other marks, to be required, which marks, as in the western States, to be recorded in the office of the clerk of the county; a penalty to be affixed to the effacing of marks, adopting a mark previously recorded, forging a mark, or falsely marking animals.

Section 20. It is proposed that in lieu of the penalty here affixed, the jury shall impose the fine - not, however, to be less than say $50 for each offence; and also the term of imprisonment, if that is not repealed. One practical difficulty in the execution of the present law is, that juries are inclined to consider the amount of the penalty as too great to rest upon Indian evidence only; some other changes will follow from the amendment proposed to section 26.

Section 25. For the purpose of better defining the limits of federal and territorial jurisdiction,

it is proposed that the power of the former shall extend to all cases of felony, and that of the latter to cases of misdemeanor; that the federal courts have also power to appoint commissioners in each county, whose duties and powers shall be the same as those of commissioners of the United States courts in other States and Territories, and who shall be entitled to the same fees as justices of the peace in the Territory of Washington.

As an additional section, it is recommended that in all cases where the military forces of the United States shall be employed against Indians, and shall take as prisoners or enforce the delivery of persons accused of any crime, it shall be competent for them to try by court-martial and inflict such punishment as the case may warrant, even to that of death. The object of this provision is, the greater impression upon the tribes produced by a speedy punishment and the saving of the great expense consequent upon the keeping of prisoners until courts can be convened at distant places. The rules of the common law, moreover, in relation to evidence, are so glaringly inapplicable to cases where Indian testimony is taken, that a conviction would be utterly impossible in most instances, if depending entirely upon it.

There is another measure which, under proper regulations, it is believed would prove of essential benefit to the Indian, and of great convenience to the citizen--a well-considered system of apprenticeship. Neither those of the coast nor those of the interior have any objection to service; on the contrary, they all regard it as an advantage in securing a certainty of food, and the means of purchasing necessaries. Large numbers of Spokanes, Yakimas, &c., come down in the winter to Vancouver, Portland, and the other towns, to seek employment, and their number is yearly increasing. They do ,small jobs, and work as boatmen, porters, and house-servants, and, besides many presents of clothing, get good wages, averaging thirty dollars a month. They are, however, as might be expected, inconstant, and after a short time return to their homes, or spend their money in gambling before seeking work again. In a country where labor is as much needed as it is here, even this comparatively unprofitable kind is in demand. Were, however, a measure adopted which would give permanency to the relation of master and servant, and at the same time protect the rights of the latter, the value of Indian labor mould be greatly raised. As it is, many persons hold slaves, purchased from their Indian masters, who are to a certain extent profitable, though they are generally of the worst class. The Indians show considerable mechanical ingenuity, and would undoubtedly make good blacksmiths, carpenters, and mechanics generally. As household domestics, attendants on the saw-mills, and in many other ways, they can be employed to advantage; but it is especially as farm servants that the proposed measure would be most useful, as, at the expiration of their term of service, they would carry back with them a sufficient knowledge of agriculture to improve their condition at home. I mould therefore recommend that the superintendent of Indian affairs, or any full agent, under such general regulations as the superintendent may direct, be authorized, with the consent of the parents or next relations, to bind any Indian child as an apprentice to a citizen of good character and standing, on such terms and for such time as may be agreed upon, not, however, to extend beyond the period when the apprentice shall reach the age of twenty-one years; the contract subject to be terminated by the superintendent or agent, should he be satisfied of personal ill-treatment, immoral use, or an intention to leave the Territory. As the practical details of such a system can hardly be perfected in advance, and as abuses might arise which would require an earlier action than could be procured from Congress, it is suggested that the superintendent be vested with entire powers, subject only to the revision of the department.

These measures, it is believed, are sufficiently comprehensive to cover the whole ground, and at the same time preserve all that is requisite of the system.

The western division of the Territory remains to be considered. On the Columbia river and at Shoalwater bay are a few remnants of the once numerous Chinooks. Of these there were, properly speaking, two nations-the Upper and the Lower Chinooks; the former extending from the Dalles nearly to the Cowlitz river; the latter from thence to the ocean. As these are better known from previous accounts than any others on the Pacific, it is unnecessary to dwell at length upon them. Besides the small party at the Cascades already referred to, there are of the Upper nation but five bands, living at different points on the Washington side of the river, and one at the mouth of Dog river, in Oregon. In whatever arrangement is made, it would be well to include the whole. They number but about 200. Of the Lower Chinooks there are six or seven settlements, most of which consist of single families. The one on Chinook beach is the largest, and amounts to 66. Almost all these are, however, intermingled with the Chihalis. One of their grounds is upon the south side of the Columbia, opposite the mouth of the Cowlitz;, and therefore in Oregon. The total number of this tribe is reduced to about 120. There are four persons who claim to be chiefs: Ske-ma-que-up at Wahkiakum, To-tili-cum at Woody Island, E-la-wah at Chinook, and Toke at Shoalwater bay. As this last named locality has only recently been much known, a rather more particular notice of it is not out of place. It was really the principal seat of the Chinooks proper, who resorted to the Columbia mostly for their spring salmon, while they dug their clams and procured their winter supplies on the bay. It formed, in fact, a perfect Indian Paradise in its adaptation to canoe travel and the abundance of scale and shell-fish which it furnished. The southern half of the bay belonged to them; the country on the Willopah river to the tribe of that name, and the upper end to the Chihalis; Trails now partially obliterated and overgrown connect it with the Cowlitz, the Chihalis, and different points on the Columbia, with the people of which the inhabitants kept up a trade in dried fish and clams, purchasing in return kamas, wappatoo, and other foreign commodities. At present but few Indians remain here, the smallpox having nearly finished its work during the past year. In the winter and spring it spread with great virulence along the coast as far north as Cape Flattery. Some lodges upon the southern peninsula of Shoalwater bay were left without a survivor, and the dead were found by the whites lying wrapped in their blankets as if asleep.

Quite extensive, cemeteries are scattered along the bay, the canoes in which the bodies of former generations were deposited having out-lasted the race itself

The Willopahs, or, as called by Capt. Wilkes, Qualioquas, may be considered as extinct, a few women only remaining, and those intermarried with the Chinooks and Chihalis.

Part of the Chihalis Indians still frequent the bay for fish, clams, and oysters, and, with the Chinooks living there, are employed by the whites in taking the latter for market. They bring their canoes along the coast: if the water be smooth, paddling outside the breakers; if rough, trailing them with great dexterity between the surf and the beach. They have some horses, and this beach is a favorite race-ground. The number of the tribe upon Gray's harbor, and that part of the river from the Satsop down, is supposed to be about one hundred and fifty. No settlements have been made on Gray's harbor, and only three claims takes up; but it is impossible to foresee at what moment population may thrust itself into any district, and another season may find this occupied throughout.

There are said to be several other bands inhabiting the northern branches of the Chihalis, the Whishkah, Wynoochee, &c., between whom and the whites there has been no intercourse whatever, and who have never been included in any estimate. For the present purpose they may, with sufficient probability, be reckoned at three hundred. The Indian's of the Upper Chihalis will be considered in connexion with the Cowlitz.

Following up the coast, there is another tribe upon the Kwinaitl river, which runs into the Pacific some twenty-five miles above the Chihalis, its headwaters interlocking with the streams running into Hood's canal and the inlets of Puget sound. Little is known of them except that they speak a different language from the last. Still farther north, and between the Kwinaitl and the Makahs, or Cape Flattery Indians, are other tribes whose names are still unknown, hut who, by the vague rumors of those on the Sound, are both numerous and warlike. All these have been lately visited by the smallpox, with its customary desolating effects.

 

The Cowlitz, likewise a once numerous and powerful tribe, are now insignificant and fast disappearing. The few bands remaining are intermingled with those of the Upper Chihalis. According to the best estimates obtained, the two-united are not over one hundred and sixty-five in number, and are scattered in seven parties between the mouth of the Cowlitz and the Satsop.

The Taitinapam, a band of Klikatats already mentioned, living near the head of the Cowlitz, are probably about seventy-five in number. They are called by their eastern brethren wild or wood Indians. Until very lately they have not ventured into the settlements, and have even avoided all intercourse with their own race. The river Indians attach to them all kinds of superstitious ideas, including that of stealing and eating children, and of travelling unseen.

Upon the estimates above stated, the whole number of all the Indians south of Puget sound, and between the Cascades and the coast, would amount to about eight hundred and fifty, in place of three thousand, the estimate of Captain Wilkes in 1841 -- a diminution of -- per cent per annum.

In regard to all these tribes, scattered as most of them are in small bands at considerable distances apart, it seems hardly worth while to make any arrangements looking forward to permanence or involving great expense. The case of the Chinooks and Cowlitz Indians in particular seems desperate. They are all intemperate, and can get liquor whenever they choose. They are, besides, diseased beyond remedy, syphilis being with them hereditary as well as acquired. The speedy extinction of the race seems rather to be hoped for than regretted, and they look forward to it themselves with a sort of indifference. The duty of the government, however, is not affected by their vices, for these they owe, in a great measure, to our own citizens. If it can do nothing else, it can at least aid in supporting them while they survive. They live almost altogether among the whites, or in their immediate neighborhood, taking and selling salmon, or doing occasional work, and for the rest letting out their women as prostitutes. No essential advantage would, it is feared, be obtained by removing them to any one location, for they would not long remain away from their old haunts, and probably the assignment of a few acres of ground for their villages and cemeteries, and the right of fishing at customary points, would effect all that could be done. Still, if they should manifest such a wish, the experiment might be tried of settling each tribe in one village at some place not yet occupied, and constituting it a reserve. This, except during the salmon season, might remove them somewhat farther from temptation.

 

The tribes that inhabit the region bordering on Puget sound and the Straits of Fuca alone remain; and in speaking of them, it will be most convenient to commence with the Straits, and following up Hood's canal to the inlets at the head of the Sound, thence return northward by the, eastern shore and the islands, to the boundary line of the British provinces.

The Makahs, or Classets, inhabit the coast in the neighborhood of Cape Flattery, their country extending but a short distance up the Straits, where it adjoins that of the Clallams. Their language is said to extend down the coast about half way to Gray's harbor. This tribe, which has been the most formidable to navigators of any in the American territories on the Pacific, numbered, it is believed, until very recently, five hundred and fifty

During the last year the smallpox found its way to their region, and, it is reported, reduced them to one hundred and fifty, their famous chief, Flattery Jack, being among the number who died. The Makahs resemble the northwestern Indians far more than their neighbors. They venture well out to sea in their canoes, and even attack and kill the whale, using for this harpoons pointed with shell, and attached by a sinew line to seal-skin floats. It is said that the year previous to the sickness, they took 30,000 gallons of oil. This was purchased chiefly by vessels. They also take a number of sea otter--the skins of which are sold at Victoria--and raise a good many potatoes.

Among their articles of manufacture are blankets and capes, made of the inner bark of the cedar, and edged with fur. Their houses are of considerable size, often fifty to a hundred feet in length, and strongly built. They sometimes place their dead in trees, at others bury them. Their marriages are said to have some peculiar ceremonies, such as going through the performance of taking the whale, manning a canoe, and throwing the harpoon into the bride's house. The superior courage of the Makahs, as well as their treachery, will make them more difficult of management than most other tribes of this region. No whites are at present settled in their country; but as the occupation of the Territory progresses, some pretty stringent measures will probably be required respecting them.

Next to the Makahs are the Clallams, or, as they call themselves, S'Klallams, the most formidable tribe now remaining. Their country stretches along the whole southern shore of the Straits to between Port Discovery and Port Townsend; besides which, they have occupied the latter place, properly belonging to the Chimakum. They have eight villages, viz: Commencing nearest the Makahs, Okeno, or Ocha, which is a sort of alsatia or neutral ground for the runaways of both tribes; Pishtst, on Clallam bay; Elkwah, at the mouth of the river of that name; Tse-whit-zen, or False Dungeness; Tinnis, or Dungeness; St-queen. Squim bay, or Washington harbor; Squa-que-hl, Port Discovery; and Kahtai, Port Townsend. Their numbers have been variously estimated, end, as usual, exaggerated; some persons rating them as high as 1,600 fighting men. An actual count of the last three, which were supposed to contain half the population, was made by their chiefs in January, and, comprehending all who belonged to them, whether present or not, gave a population of only 376 all told.. The total number will not probably exceed 800. That they have been more numerous is unquestionable, and one of the chiefs informed me that they once had one hundred and forty canoes, of eighteen to the larger and fourteen to the smaller size; which, supposing the number of each kind to be equal, gives a total of 2,240 men.

One cause of the over-estimate so frequently made of Indians, is their habit of moving about, gathering in bodies--one day at one place, and at another the next; thus leaving the impression of great number in each. Many of the Clallams of Vancouver's island, too, visit the American side of the Straits, and swell the apparent population. The total of all the tribes in this part of the Territory has, however, been placed rather under than over the mark, for many of them live altogether off the Sound, and have not come in contact with the whites.

The head chief of all the Clallams was Lach-ka-nam, or Lord Nelson, who is still living, but has abdicated in favor of his son, S'Hai-ak, or King George--a very different personage, by the way, from the chief of the same name east of the mountains. Most of the principal men of the tribe have received names either from the English or the "Bostons;" and the genealogical tree of the royal Family presents as miscellaneous an assemblage of characters as a masked ball in carnival. Thus, two of King George's brothers are the Duke of York and General Gaines. His cousin is. Tom Benton; and his sons; by Queen Victoria, are General Jackson and Thomas Jefferson. The queen is daughter to the Duke of Clarence, and sister to Generals Scott and Taylor; as also to Mary Ella Coffin, the wife of John C. Calhoun. The Duke of York's wife is Jenny Lind; a brother of the Duke of Clarence is John Adams; and Calhoun's sons are James K. Polk, General Lane, and Patrick Henry. King George's sister is the daughter of the late Flattery Jack. All of them have papers certifying to these and various other items of information, which they exhibit with great satisfaction. They make shocking work, however, in the pronunciation of their names; the rs and fs being shibboleths which they cannot utter.

It is a melancholy fact that the Clallam representatives of these distinguished personages are generally as drunken and worthless a set of rascals as could he collected. The Clallam tribe has always had a bad character, which their intercourse with shipping, and the introduction of whiskey, have by no means improved.

The houses of the chiefs at Port Townsend, where they frequently gather, are of the better class-- quite spacious and tolerably clean. Two or three are not less than thirty feet long by sixteen or eighteen wide, built of heavy planks, supported oh large posts and crossbeams, and lined with mats. The planks forming the roof run the whole length of the building, being guttered to carry off the water, and sloping slightly to one end. Low platforms are carried round the interior, on which are laid mats, serving for beds and seats. Piles of very neatly made baskets are stored away in corners, containing their provisions. There are from two to four fires in each house belonging to the head of the family, and such of his sons as live with him They have an abundance of salmon, shell-fish, and potatoes, and seem to be very well off. In fact, any of the tribes living upon the Sound must be worthless indeed not to find food in the inexhaustible supplies of fish, clams, and water-fowl, of which they have one or the other at all times. They have a good deal of money among them, arising from the sale of potatoes and fish, letting out their women, and jobbing for the whites.

The Clallams, and in fact all the other Sound Indians, flatten their heads. Their canoes are of different models; the common one being that known as the Chinook canoe, the most graceful of all; some of which are of large size and great beauty. They have, besides, one called the Queen Charlotte's Island canoe, which, in a heavy sea, is preferable to the first as less liable to be boarded astern. The canoe used for duck-shooting is very pretty, and exceedingly well adapted for the purpose. It sits low on the water, and an Indian seated in it, and gliding noiselessly along beneath the shadows of the trees, or lying beside some projecting log, would need sharp eyes to detect him. Another and very large canoe, of ruder shape and workmanship, being wide and shovel-nosed, is in use among all these tribes for the transportation of their property and baggage. Among their characteristic manufactures are blankets or robes made of dogs' hair. They have a kind of cur with soft and long white hair, which they shear and mix with a little wool or the ravellings of old blankets. This is twisted by rolling on the knees into a cord or coarse yarn, and is then woven on a frame. They use the down of water-fowl in the same way, mixing it with hair, and forming a very thick and warm fabric.

The Clallams, as well as the Makahs and some other tribes, carry on a considerable trade with Vancouver's island, selling their skins, oil, &c., and bringing blankets in return. At present it is hardly worth while to check this traffic, even if it were possible; but when the white population increases, it may become necessary as a revenue measure. In any treaties made with them, it should enter as a stipulation that they should confine their trade to the American side. Apart of the Clallams are permanently located on that island, and it is believed that their language is an extensive one. The Lummi, on the northern shore of Bellingham bay, are a branch of the same nation.

This tribe have, within the last year, been guilty of the murder of three Americans, as well as of several robberies. For the first, that of a man named Pettingill, one of the two perpetrators was secured by arresting the chief, and has been in custody at Steilacoom some months waiting his trial. The other case was the murder of Captain Jewell, master of the barque John Adams, and of his cook, and was unknown till recently, as it was supposed that Jewell had absconded. In both cases the parties had considerable sums in their possession, which fell into the hands of the Indians. On learning of the last affair, a requisition was made by Governor Stevens upon the officer commanding the military post at Steilacoom, and a party promptly despatched there to support the special agent in securing the criminals.

Some severe lesson is required to reduce them to order, as their natural insolence has been increased by the weakness of the settlements near them, and by the facility with which they can procure liquor. The establishment of a military post at some point on the Straits would be very desirable for the purpose of overawing them and their neighbors.

Above the Clallams are the Chimakum, formerly one of the most powerful tribes of the Sound, but which, a few years since, is said to have been nearly destroyed at a blow by an attack of the Snoqualmoos. Their numbers have been probably much diminished by the wars in which they were constantly engaged. They now occupy some fifteen small lodges on Port Townsend bay, and number perhaps seventy in all. Lately, the Clallams have taken possession of their country, and they are, in a measure, subject to them. Their language differs materially from either that of the Clallams or the Nisqually, and is not understood by any of their neighbors. In fact, they seem to have maintained it a State secret. To what family it will ultimately be referred, cannot now be decided. Their territory seems to have embraced the shore from Port Townsend to Port Ludlow. Still above the Chimakum are the Toanhoock, occupying the western shore of Hood's canal. They are a branch of the Nisqually nation; but their dialect differs greatly from those on the eastern side of the Sound. They amount to about 266. With them may be classed the Skokamish, upon the head of the canal, who probably number 200. Neither of them have had as much intercourse with the whites as most of the Sound tribes.

Upon Puget sound, and the inlets communicating with it, are several small bands, the remnants of once larger tribes, formerly all, it is believed, under one head chief. Of these the Squalli-ah-mish or Nis-qually is the most numerous, and deserves particular mention as having given its name to the general language. Their respective numbers will be given in the general statement.

To the north of this group, another may be formed of those inhabiting the shores of Admiralty inlet from Puyallup river to Suquamish head, including Vashore's and Bainbridge's islands, Port Orchard, Elliott bay and the D'Wamish river, and Port Madison. Most of them are nominally

under a chief named Se-at-tle, belonging to the Suquamish tribe, but residing principally with another, the D'Wamish. This last is the one called, on the charts of Puget sound, the Nowamish; and it should be mentioned that a very considerable difference in the spelling of almost all these names exists, arising from the fact that several letters of their alphabet are convertible; as D and N, B and M, U and G. For instance, the band in question are indifferently termed N'Wamish and D'Wamish; another clan of the same trio, the Samamish, are also called Sababish; and the name Suquamish is frequently changed into ----------. The D'Wamish are the best known of this connexion, from their neighborhood to the rising town, named after their Chief Se-at-tie, and the whole generally bear their name, though they are by no means the most numerous. Their proper seat is the outlet of a large lake emptying into the D'Wamish river, and not on the main branch. At that place, they, and some others, have small patches of potato ground, amounting altogether to perhaps thirty acres; where, it is stated, they raised during the last year about 3,000 bushels, or an average of one hundred bushels to the acre. OF these they sold a part, reserving the rest for their own consumption. Each head of a family plants his own, the quantity being regulated by the number of his women. Their potatoes are very fine, though they have used the same seed on the same ground for a succession of years.

The jealousies existing among all these petty bands, and their fear of one, another, is everywhere noticeable in their establishing themselves near the whites. Whenever a settler's house is erected, a nest of Indian rookeries is pretty sure to follow if permitted; and in case of temporary absence, they always beg storage for their valuables. The compliment is seldom returned, though it is often considered advantageous to have them in the neighborhood as spies upon others. Some amusing traits of character occasionally develop themselves among Indians, of which an instance happened with these. A saw-mill was erected during the last autumn, upon the outlet of the lake, at a place where they are in the habit of taking salmon. The fishery was much improved by the dam, but what afforded the greatest satisfaction to them was its situation upon their property, and the superior importance thereby derived to themselves. They soon began to understand the machinery, and took every visitor through the building to explain its working, and boast of it, as if it had been of their own construction.

The southern end of Whidby's island, and the country on and near the mouth of the Sinahomish river, belong to the Sinahomish tribe. These number, including the bands connected with them, a little over 300. Their chief is S'Hoot-soot, an old man who resides chiefly at Skagit head. Above them, and upon the main branch of the river, is another band, not under the same rule, the Snoqualmoos, amounting to about 200 souls. Their chief, Pat-ka-nam, has rather an evil celebrity among the whites, and two of his brothers have been hung for their misdeeds. This hand are especially connected with the Yakimas, or, as they are called on the Sound, Klikatats.

It requires notice in this place, that besides the tribes, or bands, inhabiting the shores and the lower part of the rivers, there are on the headwaters of the latter, along the whole course of the Cascade mountains, another range of tribes, generally independent of the former, who rarely descend from their recesses, but are intermediate in their habits between the coast and mountain tribes; except the Taitinapam, however, they all belong to the general family upon whose borders they live. Those in the neighborhood of the passes own a few horses, which subsist in the small prairies skirting the base of the mountains.

The tribes living upon the eastern shore possess also territory upon the islands, and their usual custom is to resort to them at the end of the salmon season--that is, about the middle of November. It is there that they find the greatest supply of shell-fish, which form a large part of their winter stock, and which they dry both for their own use and for sale to those of the interior. The summer and fall they spend on the main, where they get fish and put in their potatoes.

Below the Sinahomish come the Stoluchquamish, (river people) or, as their name is usually corrupted, Steilaquamish, whose country is on a stream bearing their name; and still north of them the Kikialtis. No opportunity has afforded itself for accurate inquiry into the numbers of

either. The first are said by some to amount to two hundred, while the latter may perhaps be set down at seventy-five. The next tribe proceeding northward are the Skagits, who live on the main around the mouth of the Skagit river, and own the central parts of Whidby's island, their principal ground being the neighborhood of Penn's cove. They have lately diminished in numbers and lost much of their influence since the death, a year or two since, of their chief, S'neetlum, or, as he was commonly called, Snakelum. The tribe has been long at enmity with the Clallams, who have attempted to encroach upon their lands. The Skagits raise a considerable quantity of potatoes, and have, besides, a natural resource in their kamas, which grows abundantly on the prairies of Whidby's island. Both of these are now being greatly injured by the cattle and hogs of the settlers. The kamas, it is worth mentioning, improves very much by cultivation, and it is said to attain the size of a hen's egg in land that has been ploughed. Swine are exceedingly fond of' it. The Skagits are about three hundred all told; and there are other bands upon the headwaters of their river, amounting probably to as many more.

Below the Skagits again, occupying land on the main upon the northern end of Whidby's island, Ferry's island, and the Canoe passage, are three more tribes, the Squinamish, Swodamish, and Sinaahmish, probably two hundred and fifty or three hundred altogether; and lastly the Samish, on the small river of that name and the southern part of Bellingham bay, estimated at one hundred and fifty. With these, according to the best information procurable during a rapid journey of inspection, the Nisqually nation terminates, the next tribe to the north speaking a dialect of the Clallams.

It is probable that that of the Samish is a by-word between the two.

The Lummi, living on a river emptying into the northern part of Bellingham bay and on the peninsula, are variously estimated at from four to five hundred. Their chief is Sahhopkan; in general habits they resemble the Clallams.

Above the Lummi, on the main fork of the river which is said to rise in and carry off the water from Mount Baker, is still another considerable tribe called the Nooksahk. They seem to be allied with the Lummi and the Skagit, and, according to Indian account, they speak a mixed language. They are supposed to be about equal in numbers to the Lummi.

The Shimiahmoo inhabit the coast towards Frazier's river; nothing seems to be known of them whatever. They are probably the most northern tribe on the American side of the line, the Kowailchew lying principally, if not altogether, in British territory.

Concerning the tribes north of the Sinahomish, nothing but estimates founded on the opinions of the few settlers in that district could be gathered, the opportunity afforded by a hasty voyage through the Sound being, of course, very limited. Steps have been taken to correct them. The general result, it is believed, will warrant the estimates furnished.

Accompanying the recapitulation of the tribes in the western district will be found the estimate of Captain Wilkes in 1841, and one calculated by the Hudson's Bay Company in 1844, which was politely furnished by Dr. Wm. F. Tolmie, at Fort Nisqually. The latter exhibits what, according to the best information, is the decrease since that period in the tribes then known, but no adequate data then existed on which to base a reliable comparison. For the purpose of procuring certain returns hereafter, a form is herewith enclosed, and it is recommended that the agents be obliged annually to make out as fully as practicable.

Some variations from the plan suggested for the management; of the eastern district will necessarily suggest themselves in respect to the western, though it is believed they are not material; but owing to the great number of small bands into which most of' the Indian population is broken up, the labor of treating with and disposing of the latter will be much the greatest. It is therefore recommended that a separate commission be appointed for that district.

In order to bring the whole subject fully before the government, estimates have been prepared, based upon the best opinions and information attainable, of the expenses of negotiating treaties with The tribes of each district; of the annual payments they may be expected to involve; of the cost of establishing agencies ,and finally of the yearly expense of maintaining them. It is believed that the plan suggested will prove efficient, and that the expense is but trifling, compared with the extent of the country to be purchased; the number and situation of the tribes occupying it, and, above all, of the advantage to be secured to the Territory in the quiet and effectual settlement of perspective difficulties. No plan, however well devised, can be successful without the concurrence of the citizens; and in making these suggestions, the advice of men possessed of experience in Indian relations has been obtained.

GEORGE GIBBS.

 

Capt. George B. McClellan

Commanding Western Division N. P. Railroad Exploration

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I have examined the foregoing report, and fully approve of Mr. Gibbs's views as therein expressed, and would respectfully recommend that they be adopted.

GEORGE B. McCLELLAN,

Lieutenant Engineers and Brevet Captain Commanding, &c., &c.

-------------------

The estimates, as they relate to the Indian service solely, and as they are not approved by me, are not submitted. The Nez Perces are almost exclusively in Washington Territory; and being closely affiliated with the other tribes of the Territory, accompanying them always in their annual hunt, they should be attached to the Washington superintendency. There should be three agencies in the Territory--the eastern, central, and western agencies-for reasons set forth in my reports to the Indian bureau, and which have been approved both by the department and by Congress. By a law of Congress it is made the duty of the officers of the Indian department to make all treaties with Indians. Hence, the proper commissioners will be the Indian superintendent and his agents. There are minor points which are not approved; but the report, generally, is submitted as one of ability, and as exceedingly creditable to its author.

ISAAC I. STEVENS,

Governor of Washington Territory.

-------------------

Census of various Indian tribes living on or near Puget Sound, N. W. America, taken by W. F. Tolmie in the autumn of 1844.

Names of tribes

Men

Women

Boys

Girls

Slaves

Total population

Horses

Canoes

Guns.

Remarks

Stak-ta-mish

62

62

39

21

23

207

89

27

13

Between Olympia and Na-wau-kum river.

Squaks'na-mish

33

44

28

25

4

135

5

17

7

Se-hehwa-mish

29

23

7

30

3

92

---

14

7

Squalli-a-mish

138

162

75

66

30

471

190

92

48

Pu-yal-lup-a-mish

69

81

37

33

7

207

     

S'Ko-ma-mish

34

22

34

28

7

118

---

34

14

Su-qua-mish

158

102

113

97

64

525

5

160

93

Sin-a-ho-mish

102

100

61

59

---

322

---

61

28

Sno-qual-mook

122

153

65

25

8

373

---

36

27

Sin-a-ah-mish

78

37

47

22

11

195

---

36

8

Nooh-lum-mi

65

57

52

47

23

244

---

60

15

           

_____

     
           

2,689

     

 

Captain Wilkes Estimate - 1841

Tribes and localities.

Population.

Chinooks

209

Pillar Pock, Oak Point, and Columbia river.

300

Cowlitz

350

Chihalis and Puget Sound.

700

Nisqually

200

Port Orchard

150

Penn's Cove, Whidby's island, including the main land, (Scatchae tribe).

650

Birch Bay.

300

Clallams at Port Discovery, New Dungeness, &c.

350

Port Townsend.

70

Hood's canal, (Suquamish and. Toando tribe).

500

 

-------------

Total.

3,779

Estimate of Indian tribes in the Western district of Washington Territory - January, 1854.

Names of tribes and bands.

Where located.

Men.

Women.

Total bands.

Total tribes.

Remarks.

Upper Chinooks - 5 bands, not including Cascade band.

Columbia river, above the Cowlitz

--

--

--

200

Estimate. - The upper of these bands are mixed with the Klikitats; the lower with the Cowlitz

Lower Chinooks -

Chinook band,

Four others, (estimate.)

Columbia river, below the Cowlitz, and Shoalwater bay.

32

---

34

--

66

50

 

-----

116

One of these is intermixed with the Cowlitz - the rest with the Chehalis

Chihalis.

Gray's harbor and Lower Chehalis river

--

--

100

---

Estimate.

Do.

Northern forks Chihalis river

--

--

200

-----

300

Estimate.

Cowlitz and Upper Chihalis.

On Cowlitz river and the Chihalis, above the Satsop.

--

--

--

165

The two have become altogether intermixed.

Tai-tin-a-pam

Base of mountains on Cowlitz, &c.

--

--

--

75

Estimate.

Quin-aik, &c.

Coast from Gray's harbor northward.

--

--

--

500

Estimate.

Makahs

Cape Flattery and vicinity

--

--

--

150

Estimate.

S'Klallams

Straits of Fuca

--

--

--

   

Kahtai

Port Townsend

67

88

155

   

Ka-quaitl

Port Discovery

24

26

50

   

Stent-lum

New Dungeness

79

91

170

   

All others

False Dungeness, &c., westward.

--

--

475

----

-----

850

The last estimated.

             

Chima-kum

Port Townsend.

---

---

---

70

 

To-an hooch

Hood's canal.

123

109

265

-----

Some of the women omitted in the count, but estimated.

Sko-ko-mish

Hood's canal - upper end.

---

---

200

-----

Sko-ko-mish estimated.

       

----

465

 

Guak-s'n-a-mish

Case's inlet, &c.

19

21

40

   

S'Kosle-ma-mish

Case's inlet, &c.

14

13

27

   

Se-heh-wa-mish

Hammersly's inlet, &c.

11

12

23

   

Sa-wa-mish

Totten's inlet, &c.

2

1

3

   

Squa-aitl

Eld's inlet, &c.

22

23

45

   

Stell-cha-sa-mish

Budd's inlet, &c.

---

---

20

-----

Estimate.

Nov-seh-chatl

South bay.

---

---

12

-----

Estimate.

       

----

170

 

Squalli-ah-mish - six bands

Nisqually river and vicinity.

84

100

184

   

Steila-coom-a-mish

Steilacoom creek and vicinity

---

---

25

   
       

----

1700

 

Pu-yallup-a-msih

Mouth of Puyallup river, &c.

---

---

50

-----

Estimate.

T'Qua-qua-mish

Heads of ….do…….do…

---

---

50

-----

Estimate.

       

----

100

 

Su-qua-mish

Peninsula between Hood's canal and Admiralty inlet.

215

270

485

   

S'slo-ma-mish

Vaston's island

18

15

33

   
       

----

518

 

D'Wamish

Lake Fork, D'Wamish river.

89

73

162

   

Sa-ma-mish

S'kel-tehl-mish

D'Wamish lake, &c.

71

30

101

   

Smul-ka-mish

Head of White river.

---

---

8

   

Skope-ah-mish

Head of Green river.

---

---

50

   

Se-ka-mish

Main of White river.

---

---

30

   
       

----

351

 

Sin-a-ho-mish

 

161

138

350

-----

Part of the women omitted, but included in the total.

Qunk-ma-mish

Sky-wa-mish

Upper branches, north side Sinahomish river.

         

Sky-wa-mish

Sk-tah-le-gum

Upper branches, N. side Sinahomish river.

---

---

300

-----

Estimate.

Snow-qual-mook

South fork, north side Sinahomish river.

---

---

195

   
       

----

275

 

Sto-luch-wa-mish

Sto-luch-wa-mish river, &c.

---

---

200

   

Kikiallis

Kik-I-allis river, L. Whidbey’s island

---

---

75

   
       

----

275

 

Skagit

Skagit river and Penn’s Cove.

---

---

300

-----

Estimate.

N'qua-cha-mish

Sma-lih-hu

Mis-kai-whu

Sa-ku-me-hu

Branches of Skagit river.

---

---

300

-----

Estimate.

       

----

600

 

Squi-na-mish

Swo-da-mish

Sin-a-ah-mish

North end Whidby’s island.

---

---

----

300

Estimate.

Samish

Samish river and Bellingham bay.

---

---

----

150

 

Nook-sank

South fork of Lummi river.

---

---

----

450

 

Lum-mi

Lummi river and peninsula.

---

---

----

450

 

Skim-i-ah-moo

Between Lummi Point and Fraser’s river.

---

---

----

250

 
         

7,559

 

 

FORM OF CENSUS RETURN.--GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS,

The census should be taken every year at the time when the Indians are most collected together. The easiest method of obtaining it, and liable to least chance of confounding different tribes, is to employ the chief or head man to count by tallies of sticks. Special pains should be taken to ascertain correctly the number of bands into which each tribe is divided, and the names of the petty as well as the principal chief, Any other statistical details may be stated under the head of general remarks. The report must be forwarded to the superintendent, with the estimates of the agency for the service of the ensuing year.

 

Census of ________ band belonging to the __________ tribe of Indians, living at _________,

in Washington Territory, taken ______ 185 , by _________, agent,

 

Names of bands

and tribes.

Names of chiefs

and sub-chiefs.

Principal residence.

Men.

Women.

Boys.

Girls.

Slaves.

Total.

 

Canoes.

Horses.

Cattle.

Bushels of potatoes.

Remarks.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



Last Updated
December 22, 2004
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