COMMENTARY

Who ruled Ethiopia? The myth of 'Amara domination'
By Marcos Lemma (MD, PhD)
Aug 23, 2004
(The following document tries to demystify "Amhara domination" while supporting Dr. Tseggai Mebrahtu's educational article: “Modernisation: a poisoned chalice for Ethiopians” - Aug 6: ethiomedia)

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Are they fully aware of what they are advocating for when they accuse a single ethnic group, in this case Amara, of what they call “Amara national domination” and in particular “Shewan supremacism”?

This is precisely analogous to the 1930-40’s European fascisms of victimisation by “race”, in this case victimisation by ethnicity to achieve the means and meat the ends of their own hidden agenda of expansion of “empires” at the cost of their neighbours. The exact analogy with European fascism is, Europeans by scapegoating a certain group/ethnicity/nations also justified their expansion of Empires at the cost of the neighbouring people/states territories and or overseas empires which reached its momentum immediately after 1492 (In what we can call post Christopher Columbus Europe).

Each of the groups: TPLF, EPLF/affiliated organisations and the OLF have had and still have their own agenda and reason.

In relation to Eritrean and pro Eritrean liberation movements and in particular the TPLF, Dr Tseggai Mebrahtu has given a detailed analysis and an educational article.

I can add one important point here concerning the TPLF. The TPLF leaders while engaged in scapegoating Amara’s and disseminating lies, disinformation, defamation, biased and incorrect interpretation of history, on the other hand they see it just in all occasions to occupy and annex a huge (what they in public declared “a lions share”) territory of Begemidir (Gonder) of Setit, Humera and so-called Falasha” land incorporating it to Tigray.

On the other hand the OLF and affiliated organisations, which was the ally of the TPLF till 1992, have also been and is still today engaged in the same act for a long time. To understand the real situation, however, one has to go back to the historical period of during/immediately before and after 1535 of Grang Muhammed’s and his followers Jihad war for conquest. While accusing Amara’s as settlers in “their” territory, what has happened is exactly the vice versa! It they who have been and continue to be engaged in expansion of empires at the cost of the scapegoated and victimised Amara’s.

What concerns the “Amara domination” and or “Shewa Amara supremacism” I hereby present for everybody to see a list of leaders that have ruled Ethiopia from Emperor Minilik to the Derg.

THE RULERS OF ETHIOPIA (WHO RULED ETHIOPIA IN THE PAST?)

1. Emperor Minilik - FatherHaile Melekot (Amara); Mother, W/o Ejigayehu (Oromo)

2. Emperor Hailesselassie - Father Mekkonen Woldemikael Gudesa (Oromo and Amara) and Ato Welde Melekot Yemane Kristos was only his parental father (Asadagi Abbat), who was a Tigrean noble from Tambien who had moved to Shewa, Mother W/o Yeshimebet (Gurage) Ali AbaJiffar (a daughter of an Oromo Chieftan of Wello) Woizero Yeshimebet died before her son was 2 years old. And his second wife was weizero Welete Giorgis Yimeru, (a Gurage) once married to Ras Darge Sahle Selassie (Minilik II’s uncle), who is not Haileselassie's mother.

Persons in political power during Emperor Minilik and Haileselassie’s time:

Oromo:

Ras Abbebe Aregay Bichire – Defence Minister
Bilata Deresa Amintu – Vice Minister of ministry of Agriculture
Dejazmach Deresu Duke – Governor general of Illubabur and Gemugofa
Dejazmach Fikreselassie Habtemariam – Governor General of Wellega
Dejazmach Kasa weldemariam – President of Addis Abeba University and Minister of Agriculture
Dejazmach Shiferaw Balcha – Administrator of Wellega and Abegaz of Jijjiga and Ogaden
Dejazmach Kifle Dadi – Governor of Gonde
Dejazmach Sebsibe Shiberru – Governor of Arussi
Dejazmach Bekele Weya – Adminstrator of Chebbo and Gurage and later on Adinistrotor of CherCher (Harer)
Dejazmach Kebede Bizuneh – Governor of Kibre Mengist (Adola), Nazareth (Yerer Kereiyu) and Menagesha
Fitawrari Hailemikael Zewde Goben-?
Fitawrari Lemma WeldeTsadik – Vice Governor of Sidamo
Lut. General Jagamma Kello – Commander of the forth army division and Governor of Bale
Maj. General Mulugeta Buli – Commandor of the Body Guard and Minister of Culture
Maj. General Abebe Gemeda – Commandor of the Second army division, Vice minister of Finance, Commandor of the Police and in charge of the Body Guard
Maj. General Wakjira Wereda – In charge of various army divisions
Maj. General Kelbesa Bekka – Administrator of Sidamo and Tigray
Maj. General Abera Weldemariam – Vice Commandor of the Air Force
Maj. General Regasa Jimma – Commandor of various army divisions
General Demise Bultu – Commandor of the second army division and Comandor of the Army
General Tadesse Birru –Comandor of the police and special forces
General Dawit Abdi – Comandor of the army’s engineering division
Col. Solomon Kedir – Vice minister of customs and (yehizb dehninet minister)
Lutenant Girma weldegiorgis – Vice minister of the civil aviation and member of the Senet
Legaba Bekele Hordofa Chengire – Responsible of the Royal Palace (Gibbi)
Ato Yilma Deresa Amentu – Ethiopian Ambassador to the U.S.A, Minister of Foreign Affairs, Minister of Finance and Trade
Ato Gebremariam Amentu – Advisor of Telecomunications and Finance
Ato Amanuel Abrham – Ambassodr, Minister of Police and telecommunications, Advisor and member of the Crown Concil
Ato Bulcha Demeksa – Vice minister of ministry of finance, Minister of Agriculture
Ato Solomon Gebremariam – Director, vice miniter in various ministries
Ato Tesfaye Bushen – Vice minister of ministry of Agriculture and Governor of Arusi
Ato Teshome Gebremariam – Chairperson in the kinistry of Justice, vice minister of ministry of mines
Ato Olena Natnael – Vice minister of Finance and monitory fund
Ato Efrem Boru – Ambasador
Ato Molisa Rabu – Chiefe director in the ministry of Education

Tigray:

Leul Ras Mengesha – Administrator of Tigray
Leul Ras Mengesha – Governor of Gibat and Mecha, Sidamo, Minister of labour and Communication
Ato Abebe Retta – Ambasador
Ato Belay Abay Kassa – Minister of Land and has been in charge of many other high ranking positions in the governement
Likemekuas Tadesse Negash – Chief director of ministry of Labour, Vice minister of ministry of Justice, Minster of Justice
Dejazmach Abbay Kassa – Governor of Chilalo
Dejazmach Kidane M hailu – Vice president of parliament
Ato Wendwosen Hailu – Ambasador
Nebured Gizaw Abera – Administrator Raija and Azebo, Aksum , member of the pariament
Lt. General Esayas Gebreselassie – Commandor of the armed forces, Governor of Sidamo
Ato Yohanes Kidanemariam - ?
Col. Simret Medhine Gebra – Chief of the Air force pilots, The first administretor of Ethiopian Airlines, Minister of labour, minister of city planning
Doctor Mengesha Gebre Hiwot – Vice minister of ministry of education
Ato Yohannes welde Gerima – Vice Mayor of Addis Abeba, vice minister of minitry of labour
Major Mesfin Yebegaeshet – Ambasador and Special Envoy
Dejazmach Gebre Hiwot Meshesha – Adminstrator of Ticho and also Shire
General Nega Haileselassie – Adminstrator
Ato Kidanewold haile – Ambasador
Doctor tesfaye Gebre Egzi – Minister of Information

Gurage:

Dejazmach gebremariam Gari –Country Administrator
Dejazmach Kifle Ergettu – Minister of Interior
Lut. General Weldeselassie Berka – Comandor of special forces in the army, Comandor of the armed forces
General Welde Yohanes Shita – Second administreter of the Body Guard, Ambasador
General Teshome Ergetu – Comandor of the Armed Forces, Chief of the Eritrean Police
Ato Alfred Shafi – Director of Public administration, Vice minister of Interior and later a minister
Keng Azmach feleke Ergetu – (Has been in charge of Hizb Dehninet , Administrater, Minister
Lt. General Weldeselassie Bereka – Comander of spezial forces in the armed forces, Comander of the armed forces
Maj. General Yilma Shibeshi – Commander of the police force
Fitawrari Habtemariam weldekidan – Director under the ministry of Health, Administreter of Bahirdar and Gojjam
Ato Weldegebriel Ambaw – A judge in the Supreme Court
General Kifle Weldesenbet – Department Chief in the Ministry of Defence, In charge of education in the ministry of defence
General Gizaw Gebremikael – In charge of wealth and finance of the defence forces
Ato Seifu Dibaba – Administreter of Gojjam, Secretary trade and Finance, Oditor of minister of communication, Vice minister in the ministry of communication
Fitawrari Roga Ashame – Governer of the Lakes and Butagira
Maj. General Taye Balakir Sosum – Comander of Eritrean police force
Ato Haile Gebre Meskel – Yshewa administration wanna tekotatari
Azasz Hailu habte – Palace (Gibbi) Administreter
Ato Abebe ketema – Minister of health

Afar, Harari and Sidama, Gemu Goffa, Somalia and Welaita:

Ato Minase Lemma – Minister of Money, Directer and Vice minister, Chief Oditor, Minster of mines, Chief of National bank of Ethiopia
Fitawrari Desta Fiseha Tona – Governer of Wolaita, Member of Parliament
Ato Bogale Waselu – Responsible of education in Sidamo
Ato Mulu Mojja – Judge in the Supreme court
Fitawrari Abayneh Fanno – Member of the parliament
Fitawrari Zewde Otoro – Member of the committee for jurisdication, Member of Parliament, Assistant Adminstreter of Sidamo
Ato Amanuel Habtegiworgis – Member of the Committee for Jurisdication and Judge of the Supreme Court
Fitawrari Mekonen Dori – Govrner of Geleb Hamar and Bakko, Assistance Administreter of Gemu Goffa
Bitweded Ali Mirah – Govrner of Adal and Isa, Chief Administeretr of Awassa
Ato Abdulahi Mume – Harer Custom Director, Assistance and Vice Minister in the ministry of Monetary Fund
Dejazmach Omar Samater – Administerter of Ogaden
Fitawrari Ahmed Ali Tase – Administrator of Harar
Fitawrari Ibrahim Hamid – Judge in the Supreme Court
Fitawrari Mume Arfo – Administeret of Yegaramulet
Fitawrari Sayed Weger – Administerter
Dejazmach Adem Abdu Lemer – Administreter of Wenbera

Eritrea :

Bilaten Geta Lorenz Teezaz – Different post under various ministries, Advisor of the Crown and Minister of Foreign Affairs
Bilaten Geta Efrem Tewlde Medhin – Special envoy for king Haileselassie, Minister of agriculture, Member of the Parliament
Bitweded Asfha Welde Mikael – Special Envoy for Affairs concerning Eritrea , Minster of Health, Advisor of the Crown
Dejazmach Tedla Bahru – Special Envoy for Eritrean Parliament, Assistant administreter of Eritrea
Dejazmach Tesfayohanes Berhe – Special Envoy for the Eritrean Parliament,
Dejazmach Haregot Abbay – Mayor of Eritrea
Bilata Kifle Egzi Yihdego – Judge in the Supreme Court, Affe Negus in the Supreme Court
Bilata Dawit Ekube Egzi – Special envoy of the king, Assistant minister in the ministry of Foreign Affairs
Ato Seyoum Haregot – Assistant Prime minister, In the Prime ministers office Yeastedader Wanna Halafi
Ato Melese Mikael Andom – Special Envoy for the crown
Ato Tesfaye GebreEgzi – Ambasador, Assistance minister in the ministry of foreign Affairs and ministry fo Information
Doctor Solomon Abrha – Behager Astedader Wanna director, Vice minister
Dejazmach Gebre Yohanes Teklemariam – Ambasador, Minister in the ministry of Education
Ato Sereke Berhan GebreEgzi –Ambasador, Assistant minister in the ministry of Foreign Affairs,
Ato Araya Ekube Egzi – Ambasador – Chief commissioner of Tourism, Assistance minister in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs
General Yakob Gebre Leul – Commander of various divisions of the Armed forces
General Aman Andom – Commander of the armed forces and member of the parliament
General HaYile Baikedang – Commander of the first and second armed divisions
Maj. General Mebratu Fiseha – Assistant Chief of the Police force, Assistant minister maritiems, Assistant administrator of Gamu Goffa
Doctor Ambaye Gebremariam – Ambasador, Vice minister in the ministry of Justice
Ato Osman Muhammed – Ambasodor, Yehizb Habt Mikitil Minister, Assistant minister of Mayors
Ato Melakeselam Dimitros – Yeaksum Neburid, Beminister Dereja Yeabyote Kirstianat Wanna Asfetsami, Member of the parliament
Ato Hagos Tewlde Medhin – Assistant administrative minister in the ministry of Agriculture, Chief Judge, Mikitil Afe Negus
Ato Yohanes Tsige – Ambasador, Assistant minister in the ministry of Healt
Doctor bereketeab Habteselassie – Professor in Addis Abeba University , Yehager Mikitil Astedadari, Wannana Mikitil Akabe Hig, Mikitil Yehager wist Astedader Minister
General Asefa Gebre Egzi – Commander of Safty Flight operation, Assistant commander of the Air Force
Doctor Abrham Demoz – Assistance and Professor of Linguistics and history

During The Time Of The Derg And Mengistu Hailemariam:

Col. Mengistu Hailemariam - President (Father Oromo, Mother Wolaita and Not as claimed Amara.)
Col. Debela Dinsa- Member of Office of the Police Force and Vice President
Ato Yesuf Ahmed – Vice President
Colonel Tekka Tullu – Member of the Police Force and Yedehninet Halafi
Colonel Tesfaye Weldeselassie – Member of the Politburou
Doctor Geremew Debele – Ambassador and Minister of Agriculture
Ato Tesfaye Dinka – Member of the Politburou, Minister of Agriculture, Minister of Money, Minister of Industry and Foreign Affairs, Prime Minister
General Tesfaye Gebrekidan – Member of the Politburou, Minister of Diffence and later on President
Capitan Mengistu Gemechu – Special Aid and Advisor for col. Mengistu Hailemariam
General Mesfin Gebrekal –Armed forces operational and political Chief
General Fiseha Desta – Member of the Politburou and Vice President
Doctor Berhane Gebrayi – Central Comitee member of the Ethiopian Workers Party, Ambasador, Assistant minister in the ministry of Education
General Yaditu Girumu – Chief of the Addis Abeba Police
Doctor Duri Muhammed – President of Addis Abeba University ,
Ato Simon Galore – Chief of Ethiopian Workers Party in Southern Ethiopia
Ato Tadese – General Maneger of the National Bank of Ethiopia , Minister of Foreign Trade and Ambasador


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