[Inquiry] Re: Verities Of Likely Stories

Jon Awbrey jawbrey at att.net
Wed Aug 13 12:50:03 CDT 2003


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VOLS.  Note 13

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| But since few of the propositions of the rhetorical syllogism
| are necessary ['anagkaion'], for most of the things which we
| judge and examine can be other than they are, human actions,
| which are the subject of our deliberation and examination,
| being all of such a character and, generally speaking, none of
| them necessary;  since, further, facts which only generally happen
| or are merely possible can only be demonstrated by other facts of
| the same kind, and necessary facts by necessary propositions (and
| that this is so is clear from the 'Analytics'), it is evident that
| the materials from which enthymemes are derived will be sometimes
| necessary, but for the most part only generally true;  and these
| materials being probabilities and signs, it follows that these
| two elements must correspond to these two kinds of propositions,
| each to each.  For that which is probable is that which generally
| happens, not however unreservedly, as some define it, but that
| which is concerned with things that may be other than they are,
| being so related to that in regard to which it is probable as
| the universal to the particular.  As to signs, some are related
| as the particular to the universal, others as the universal to
| the particular.  Necessary signs are called 'tekmeria';  those
| which are not necessary have no distinguishing name.  I call
| those necessary signs from which a logical syllogism can be
| constructed, wherefore such a sign is called 'tekmerion';
| for when people think that their arguments are irrefutable,
| they think that they are bringing forward a 'tekmerion',
| something as it were proved and concluded;  for in
| the old language 'tekmar' and 'peras' have the
| same meaning (limit, conclusion).
| 
| Aristotle, "Art of Rhetoric", 1.2.14-17.
|
| Aristotle, "The 'Art' of Rhetoric",
| John Henry Freese (trans.), in:
|'Aristotle, Volume 22', G.P. Goold (ed.),
| William Heinemann, London, UK, 1926, 1982.

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