The first peoples to inhabit Campania were the Aurunci and the Opici.
The first Greek colony, virtually a settlement, was founded at Cuma, north of present day Naples in the eighth century B.C.; the Greeks fell to the Etruscans in the sixth century B.C. and they in turn to the Sannites who had come down from the hills in the hinterland.
In the fourth century B.C. Campania was annexed to the Roman Empire and enjoyed a period of relative calm until A.D. 79 when Vesuvius violently erupted, totally destroying the cities of Pompei and Herculaneum.
The collapse of the empire resulted in the battle for power between the Goths and the Byzantines in the fifth and sixth centuries followed by the Longobard subjugation and the creation of the five duchies of Benevento, Capua, Salerno, Gaeta and Amalfi.
Campania was conquered and reunified by the Normans from which period dates the founding of the Reign of Sicily and the successive Reign of Naples and the Two Sicilies.