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Addendum to initial report

MIN-LANG/PR (2002) 5

  • Strasbourg, 1 July 2002

European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages

Initial Periodical Report by the United Kingdom presented to the Secretary General of the Council of Europe in accordance with Article 15 of the Charter

CONTENTS

Foreword:
PART ONE
PART TWO
PART THREE
Language: WELSH
Article 8 - Education
Article 9 – Judicial authorities
Article 10 – Administrative authorities and public services
Article 11 – Media
Article 12 – Cultural activities and facilities
Article 13 – Economic and social life
ANNEX A

Language: SCOTTISH GAELIC
Article 8 - Education
Article 9 - Judicial authorities
Article 10 - Administrative authorities and public services
Article 11 - Media
Article 12 - Cultural activities and facilities
Article 13 - Economic and social life
Article 14 - Transfrontier exchanges

Language: IRISH
Article 8 - Education
Article 9 – Judicial authorities
Article 10 – Administrative authorities and public services
Article 11 – Media
Article 12 – Cultural activities and facilities
Article 13 – Economic and social life
Article 14 – Transfrontier exchanges

Foreword: 

During 1997 and 1998, referendums were held in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland on how those countries and regions should be governed. The referendums decided in favour of devolved governments. Elections were subsequently held for a new Northern Ireland Assembly, a new Scottish Parliament and a new National Assembly for Wales.

Devolved powers were formally transferred from the UK government to the devolved administrations in Scotland and Wales on 1 July 1999. At this time, the Welsh Assembly took over responsibility for a number of the UK government’s functions, including the Welsh language, education and training, economic development, and local government. The Scottish Parliament was given responsibility for the Scottish Executive’s existing powers, which included responsibility for Scottish Gaelic and Scots.

Devolved powers were transferred to the Northern Ireland Assembly and Executive on 2 December 1999. The Assembly and Executive are able to exercise full legislative and executive authority in respect of those matters which fall within the responsibility of the Northern Ireland Government Departments in Belfast. This gives the Assembly devolved power over a number of areas, including culture and the arts.

The UK government retains responsibility for foreign affairs, defence, national economic policy, social security and broadcasting.

There are therefore three devolved bodies which are principally responsible for implementing the provisions of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages in the United Kingdom.

PART ONE  

1. Please state the main legal act(s) whereby the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages has been implemented in your State. If you so desire, please mention the general considerations which have guided your country in the ratification process.

The main legal acts which have enabled the UK to ratify the Charter are:

The British Nationality Act 1981

This established that a knowledge of Scottish Gaelic, English, or Welsh satisfies one of the conditions for naturalisation as a British citizen.

WELSH

a) The 1967 Welsh Language Act

This established the right to use Welsh in the Courts and also provided for Ministers to prescribe Welsh versions of statutory forms. This provided the means to give the language validity in public administration. This Act was substantially amended and its provisions extended by the Welsh Language Act 1993 described below.

b) The 1993 Welsh Language Act

The main provisions of this Act were to establish the Welsh Language Board, a body with the specific function of promoting and facilitating the Welsh Language, and to provide for the preparation by public bodies of schemes giving effect to the principle that in the conduct of public business and the administration of justice in Wales, the English and Welsh languages should be treated on a basis of equality. Over 180 public sector Welsh language schemes have now received the approval of the Welsh Language Board.

A number of categories of bodies are named in paragraph 6 of the Welsh Language Act 1993, as being public bodies for the purposes of the Act. The National Assembly for Wales can, through introducing subordinate legislation under Section 6(1)(o) of the Welsh Language Act 1993, name further organisations as being public bodies for the purposes of the Act. Four such pieces of legislation have been made to date, in 1996, 1999 , 2001 and 2002. The naming of public bodies in this way opens the way for the Welsh Language Board to require that the organisation prepares a Welsh language scheme setting out how it will give effect to the principle that, as far as is appropriate in the circumstances and is reasonably practicable, the Welsh and English languages will be treated on a basis of equality.

c) The Government of Wales Act 1998

Section 32 states that the National Assembly may do anything it considers appropriate to support the Welsh language.

SCOTTISH GAELIC

a) The Education (Scotland) Act 1980

Under the Education (Scotland) Act 1980, education authorities have a duty to secure adequate and efficient provision of school education and further education and both of these include the teaching of Gaelic in Gaelic-speaking areas.

Under the Grants for Gaelic Language Education (Scotland) Regulations 1986, made under Section 73 of the Education (Scotland) Act 1980, the Scottish Office and local authorities have operated a scheme of specific grants for Gaelic education since 1986.

b) The Standards in Scotland’s Schools etc Act 2000

The Standards in Scotland's Schools etc Act 2000 requires education authorities to report on their plans for Gaelic provision in their annual Improvement Objectives Report. Gaelic-medium education has been incorporated in the National Priorities framework under the heading: "To promote equality and help every pupil benefit from education, with particular regard paid to … Gaelic and other lesser used languages".

c) The Broadcasting Acts 1990 and 1996

The Broadcasting Acts of 1990 and 1996 place a duty on the Secretary of State to make payments to a Gaelic Broadcasting Fund. Scottish Ministers now make these payments.

d) The Small Landholders (Scotland) Act 1911

The Small Landholders (Scotland) Act 1911 requires that one member of the Scottish Land Court (SLC) must be a Gaelic-speaker. The Crofters (Scotland) Act 1993 makes a similar requirement for the Crofters Commission. The 1911 Act implies that Gaelic may be used before the SLC although there have never been any written proceedings in Gaelic.

e) The Local Government (Gaelic Names)(Scotland) Act 1997

The Local Government (Gaelic Names) (Scotland) Act 1997 allows a local authority to adopt a Gaelic name. Comhairle nan Eilean Siar (formerly the Western Isles Council) changed its name under the Act with effect from 1 January 1998.

f) The Traffic Signs Regulations and General Directions 1981 Statutory Instrument, made under the Road Traffic Regulations Act 1984

Under Section 12(4), Scottish Ministers can authorise bilingual road signs. The Scottish Ministers have authorised bilingual (Gaelic and English) signs on the roads for which the Highland Council are responsible.

SCOTS

There is no legislation pertaining particularly to the Scots language.

IRISH AND ULSTER-SCOTS

a) The Education Order (Northern Ireland) 1989
This Order provides for the teaching of Irish as a modern language as an integral part of the curriculum.

b) The North/South Co-operation (Implementation Bodies) Northern Ireland Order 1999

This came into operation on 2 December 1999 and established The North/South Language Body. The Body has two separate agencies, Foras na Gaeilge (the Irish Language Agency) and Tha Boord o Ulstèr Scotch (the Ulster-Scots Agency).

c) The Belfast Agreement (Good Friday Agreement) - signed on  10 April 1998

In the Belfast Agreement (Good Friday Agreement) the Government of the United Kingdom committed itself jointly with Ireland to take positive action to support linguistic diversity.

d) The Education (Northern Ireland) Order 1998

Under this Order, the Department of Education for Northern Ireland has a duty to encourage and facilitate the development of Irish Medium Education.

A promotional body Comhairle na Gaelscolaíochta was established by the Department of Education in August 2000. Some of the objectives of this body are to promote, facilitate and encourage the development of Irish-medium education in Northern Ireland, to represent the sector, and to liaise with and provide the Department with advice on various issues relating to Irish-medium education.

e) The Local Government (Miscellaneous Provisions) (Northern Ireland) Order 1995

This introduced legislation empowering Councils to erect street names in any other language alongside the English name. This has enabled the erection of bilingual street names in English and Irish and in English and Ulster-Scots.

f) The Children’s (Northern Ireland) Order 1995

This places a duty on Health and Social Services Trusts when making any decision with respect to children or young people in care to give due consideration to their linguistic background.

2. Please indicate all regional or minority languages, as defined in paragraph (a) of Article 1 of the Charter which exist on your State’s territory. Indicate also the parts of the territory of your country where the speakers of such language(s) reside.

WELSH

There are Welsh speakers across the whole of Wales. The highest proportions of Welsh speakers are found in Gwynedd, the Isle of Anglesey and Ceredigion, where the proportion of speakers aged 3 or over is 74.3%, 62.6% and 60.9% respectively. The lowest concentrations of Welsh speakers are found in Blaenau Gwent and Monmouthshire, where the proportion of speakers is fewer than 7.5%. The percentage of Welsh speakers aged 3 or over in Cardiff, the capital city of Wales, is 9% according to the Household Interview survey 1997. However, the numbers of speakers in low density speech areas may still be substantial. For example, according to the 1991 Census there were 17,171 Welsh speakers aged 3+ in the City of Cardiff.

SCOTTISH GAELIC

The largest concentrations of Gaelic speakers are found in Na h-Eileanan an Iar (the Western Isles), the Highlands, and Argyll in Scotland. There are also significant concentrations of Gaelic speakers across the rest of Scotland: in the urban areas of Glasgow, Edinburgh, Aberdeen and Inverness.

SCOTS

There are Scots speakers throughout Scotland.

IRISH

The Irish language movement in Northern Ireland is essentially revivalist. The last native [historically] speakers of Irish died in the 70s but by then Irish-speaking families had appeared in different parts of Northern Ireland, including a small cluster in Belfast. Irish is being transmitted intergenerationally in these families. Irish speakers are spread throughout Northern Ireland with the largest concentration in the greater Belfast area.

ULSTER-SCOTS

Ulster-Scots is defined in legislation (The North/South Co-operation (Implementation Bodies) Northern Ireland Order 1999) as the variety of the Scots language which has traditionally been used in parts of Northern Ireland and in Donegal in Ireland. The Ulster-Scots language movement involves both native speakers and revivalists. The Ulster-Scots language is still actively spoken and transmitted intergenerationally in various parts of Northern Ireland.

3. Please indicate the number of speakers for each regional or minority language. Specify the criteria for the definition of “speaker of regional or minority language” that your country has retained for this purpose.

WELSH

Information from the Welsh House condition survey 1998 revealed that there are 570,000 Welsh speakers - 20.5% of the population aged three and over in Wales.

SCOTTISH GAELIC

The 1991 Census of population recorded 69,510 people aged three or over as being able to speak, read, or write Gaelic. This is 1.4% of the Scottish population.

SCOTS

The 1991 and 2001 Censuses did not include a question on Scots. However, surveys have indicated that 30% of respondents said they could speak Scots; a large proportion of the Scottish population speak Scots to a greater or lesser degree.
Scots is on a linguistic continuum with English. Many Scots literally switch between English and Scots in mid-sentence by using Scots words and Scottish grammar.

IRISH

The Northern Ireland 1991 census provided a breakdown of speakers by local Government districts. 142,000 people (9.4% of the population) claimed that they could either speak, read or write Irish. There was no information on the level of competence.

ULSTER-SCOTS

There was no question on Ulster-Scots in the 1991 census and there is no definitive baseline information on numbers.

As criteria for the definition of a regional or minority language, the United Kingdom applies the definition given in Article 1 of the Charter.

4. Please indicate the non-territorial languages, as defined in paragraph (c), Article 1 of the Charter, used on your State’s territory and provide statistical data concerning speakers.

Not applicable.

5. Please indicate if any body or organisation, legally established, exists in your State which furthers the protection and development of regional or minority languages. If so, please list the names and addresses of such organisations.

WELSH

The Welsh Language Body was established as a statutory body by the Welsh Language Act 1993, with the specific remit of promoting and facilitating the Welsh Language. The address of the language Board is:

Welsh Language Board
Market Chambers
5-7 St Mary's Street
Cardiff
CF10 1AT

www.bwrdd-yr-iaith.org.uk

The Welsh Language Board oversees the development and implementation of language schemes by public bodies. It grant aids organisations which promote the language, promotes the language through community initiatives (Mentrau Iaith) carries out positive marketing campaigns, and gives advice and information to the public on the use of Welsh. It works with the private and voluntary sectors to encourage the use of Welsh by those sectors. The Welsh Language Board currently employs 31 members of staff. The Welsh Assembly Government appoints a Board of Members. The current Board comprises 11 members.

The Welsh Language Board is a body sponsored by the Welsh Assembly Government and receives grant in aid to support its activities. Grant in aid for the 2001/02 financial year was set at almost £7million.

SCOTTISH GAELIC/SCOTS

Under Section 23 of the National Heritage (Scotland) Act, the Scottish Executive gives financial support to a number of Gaelic organisations involved in promoting the language and culture.

Comunn na Gaidhlig, the Gaelic development body, was set up in 1984 to promote and develop the Gaelic language and culture. It is the main advisory and executive body on Gaelic and its aim is the promotion of the Gaelic language in all sectors, at national, regional and local levels; and related project development and management. The address of Comunn na Gaidhlig is:

Comunn na Gaidhlig
5 Mitchell's Lane
Inverness
IV2 3HQ

Comunn na Gaidhlig's corporate policy evolves from national conference discussions at which all the main organisations involved with Gaelic development have been represented. Since 1995, CNAG has organised an annual Còmhdhail (Congress) to discuss and develop national policies for Gaelic.

Other Gaelic organisations funded by the Scottish Executive are:

· An Comunn Gaidhealach, which organises the annual Royal National Mod and has a world-wide membership:

Leverhulme House
Perceval Square
Stornoway
Isle of Lewis
HS1 2DD

· Comhairle nan Sgoiltean Araich, the Gaelic playgroups association:

53 Church Street
Inverness
IV1 1DR

· Proiseact nan Ealan, the Gaelic Arts Agency:

10 Shell Street
Stornoway
Isle of Lewis
HS1 2BS

· Cli, the Gaelic learners body:

North Tower
The Castle
Inverness
IV2 3EE

All these bodies are registered companies limited by guarantee.


IRISH/ULSTER-SCOTS

The North/South Language Implementation Body’s two separate agencies, Foras na Gaeilge (Irish Language Agency) and Tha Boord o Ulstèr Scotch (Ulster-Scots Agency) were established by the Governments of the UK and Ireland to promote Irish and Ulster-Scots. The addresses of the agencies are:

Tha Boord O Ulstèr Scotch
5th Floor
Franklin House
10-12 Brunswick Street
BELFAST
BT2 7GE
Foras na Gaeilge
7 Merrion Square
DUBLIN
Ireland

The North/South Language Implementation Body has a statutory responsibility for funding a range of organisations which promote Irish:

· Comhdháil Náisiúnta na Gaeilge
· Gael Linn
· Conradh na Gaeilge
· An tOireachtas
· An Comhlachas Náisiúnta Drámaíochta
· Cumann na bhFiann
· Comhluadar
· Iontaobhas Ultach

A promotional body ‘Comhairle na Gaelscolaíochta’ was established in August 2000 to promote and support the strategic development of, and provide guidance and advice to, the Irish medium sector.

As part of its statutory duty under the 1998 Education Order, the Department of Education worked with Comhairle na Gaelscolaíochta to establish the Irish-medium Trust Fund known as “Iontaobhas na Gaelscolaíochta”. The Trust Fund provides support for the development of Irish-medium sector by awarding grants to independent Irish-medium schools and helping with capital costs for Irish-medium schools which have been approved for recurrent grant aid but which are not yet eligible for capital costs.

The Northern Ireland Executive provides funding for a range of legally established community and voluntary groups which promote the use of Irish or Ulster-Scots.

6. Please indicate if any body or organisation has been consulted on the preparation of this periodical report. In the case of an affirmative answer, specify which one(s).

The Welsh Language Board has been consulted by the Welsh Assembly Government in the compilation of this response.

All Northern Ireland Departments and a range of associated bodies were consulted for this report .

7. Please indicate the measures taken (in accordance with Article 6 of the Charter) to make better known the rights and duties deriving from the application of the Charter.

Ministers within the Welsh Assembly Government have issued press notices drawing attention to the Charter. The Minister for Culture, Jenny Randerson issued a press notice in March 2001 welcoming the ratification of the Charter. Opportunities are taken to highlight the Charter in speeches given by Ministers.

The Welsh Language Board, the Assembly Government's Sponsored Body, publicised the Charter on its website and wrote to a large number of organisations (including Public Bodies, Broadcasters, Unitary, Education and Health Authorities and Trusts) enclosing details about the Charter following its entry into force on 1 July 2001.

The Minister of State for Scotland, George Foulkes, issued a press notice on 27 March 2001 welcoming ratification of the Charter. Opportunities are taken to highlight the Charter in speeches given by Ministers.

The Scottish Executive has written to local authorities and other public bodies in Scotland advising them on Gaelic under the terms of the Charter. The advice included details of the relevant paragraphs of the Charter, a summary of the Scottish Executive's support for Gaelic, and requested local authorities and other public bodies to review their policy on Gaelic or to consider drawing up such a policy.

An Interdepartmental Charter Group with representatives from all Northern Ireland (NI) Departments, the Northern Ireland Office, NI Court Service, Inland Revenue and Customs and Excise was set up to monitor implementation of the Charter, provide advice on the preparation of annual Departmental and Executive implementation reports, advise on resource implications and develop guidance for Departments.

The NI administrative divisions regularly respond to requests for information from the media, academics and community and voluntary organisations. In addition ministers and officials take appropriate opportunities to publicise at conferences, meetings, etc.

The Interdepartmental Charter Group has undertaken to convene a meeting of all interested organisations and persons to inform and discuss the implementation of the Charter.

PART TWO 

1. Please indicate what measures your State has taken to apply Article 7 of the Charter to the regional or minority languages referred to in paragraphs 2 and 4 of part I above, specifying the different levels of government responsible.

Article 7: Objectives and principles

1. In respect of regional or minority languages, within the territories in which such languages are used and according to the situation of each language, the Parties shall base their policies, legislation and practice on the following objectives and principles:

a) the recognition of the regional or minority language as an expression of cultural wealth;

WELSH

Welsh occupies a central position in the National Curriculum for Wales. All pupils of statutory school age (5-16) in maintained schools are, apart from very limited statutory exemptions, required to study Welsh either as a first or second language. In addition, it is a common requirement of the National Curriculum for Wales that pupils should be given opportunities, where appropriate, in their study of a subject to develop and apply knowledge and understanding of the cultural, economic, environmental, historical and linguistic characteristics of Wales. This is known as the Cwricwlwm Cymreig.

Welsh is widely used as a medium of instruction in schools. Some 32% of primary schools either has Welsh as the sole or main medium of instruction or use Welsh as a medium of teaching for part of the curriculum. In the secondary sector, about 22% of schools meet the statutory definition of a Welsh speaking school which is one where more than half of the foundation subjects of the National Curriculum, other than English, Welsh and Religious Education, are taught wholly or partly in Welsh.

SCOTTISH GAELIC

Scottish Gaelic now features at all levels of education in Scotland: pre-school, primary, secondary, further and higher education, including teacher training. Education through the medium of Gaelic is offered in 60 primary schools and in some subjects in 14 secondary schools. In addition, Gaelic as a subject is taught in 39 secondary schools and a number of primary schools.

SCOTS

National Guidelines on the education of 5-14 year-olds advocate the inclusion of Scots literature in the Scottish curriculum, and the teaching of a proper awareness and appreciation of the language. The Scottish Consultative Council on the Curriculum produces teaching materials in support of this inclusive policy.

IRISH/ULSTER-SCOTS

The Belfast Agreement commits all participants to “recognise the importance of respect, understanding and tolerance in relation to linguistic diversity including in Northern Ireland the Irish language, Ulster Scots and the languages of the various ethnic communities, all of which are part of the cultural wealth of the island of Ireland”.

GENERAL MEASURES IN ENGLAND

The programme of study for Citizenship in secondary schools, to be introduced as part of the English National Curriculum from September 2002 will ensure that for the first time all pupils will be taught about the diversity of national, religious and ethnic identities in the UK and the need for mutual respect and understanding. Furthermore, within the new national framework for Personal, Social and Health Education, pupils will be taught from an early age to respect the differences between people, to appreciate each other’s feelings and points of view, to recognise the effects of stereo typing, prejudice, discrimination and racism and to develop skills to challenge them assertively.

b) the respect of the geographical area of each regional or minority language in order to ensure that existing or new administrative divisions do not constitute an obstacle to the promotion of the regional or minority language in question.

WALES

Within Wales, local government is divided into 22 principal councils as provided for in The Local Government (Wales) Act 1994. The Local Government Boundary Commission for Wales has a responsibility to keep the boundaries of the authorities under review and may recommend changes to boundaries, including the merger of two or more authorities into one, if it feels that this is in the interests of "effective and convenient local government".

In operational terms, one of the issues they take into account is the "sense of community". In parts of Wales, that "sense of community" is one which may be connected to the main first language of that community. In that case, the Commission might well take this into account in any proposal to divide or move a community in administrative terms. It would, of course, be weighed against other pertinent factors.

SCOTLAND

In Scotland the Scottish Executive provides specific grants to education authorities for up to 75% of the cost of providing Gaelic Medium Education. The scheme is advertised to local authorities every year. Education authorities are expected to offer Gaelic Medium Education where there is a reasonable level of demand from parents of children to be taught through the medium of Gaelic.

NORTHERN IRELAND

The UK government and the Northern Ireland Assembly are committed through the Belfast Agreement to “recognise the importance of respect, understanding and tolerance in relation to linguistic diversity including in Northern Ireland the Irish language and Ulster Scots”.

MEASURES IN ENGLAND

In England, changes to the structure or boundaries of local government (administrative areas) can only happen if the Secretary of State for the Department of Transport, Local Government and the Regions requests the independent Electoral Commission to make recommendations for change. When looking at boundaries the statute (the Local Government Act of 1992) requires, in carrying out this function, that "the Electoral Commission ... shall have regard to -

(a) the need to reflect the identities and interests of local communities,

(b) the need to secure effective and convenient local government,

Community identities - which are exemplified by many factors including language - are therefore taken into consideration when considering boundary change.

c) the need for resolute action to promote regional or minority languages in order to safeguard them

WELSH

The Welsh Assembly Government has a rolling programme of legislation under Section 6(1)(o) of the Welsh Language Act so as to ensure that coverage of the public sector is as comprehensive as possible. When new bodies are established which exercise functions of a public nature, the Welsh Assembly Government seeks to include them in subordinate legislation as quickly as possible. The Welsh Assembly Government introduced subordinate legislation in 2002 naming 17 additional bodies for the purposes of the Welsh Language Act.

The Welsh Language Board undertakes a programme of language promotion designed to raise the profile of the language across all sectors. The Welsh Language Board grant aids numerous organisations whose remit includes the promotion of the language. For example, it contributes funding for the Welsh language nursery education movement which runs almost 1000 community based pre school and mother and toddler groups (attended by 13,367 children daily).

SCOTTISH GAELIC/SCOTS



The Scottish Executive recognises that Gaelic is a valuable part of the heritage of Scotland and that Gaelic, like other minority languages in Europe, is endangered. It has a commitment to Gaelic under its Programme for Government. The Executive's expenditure in support of Gaelic is £13m a year, of which £8.5m is the grant to the Gaelic Broadcasting Committee, £2.8m is specific grant to Education Authorities, and the balance is support for Gaelic organisations and projects, including those in education. The Executive provided a further £1.1m on a non-recurrent basis in 2001-02, of which £450,000 was for Gaelic broadcasting.

The Sport, the Arts and Culture Division of the Scottish Executive Education Department is responsible for providing policy advice, support and guidance to Ministers, colleagues and others on issues relating to Scottish Gaelic and Scots.

IRISH/ULSTER-SCOTS

The establishment of the North/South Language Body with 2 separate agencies to promote Irish and Ulster-Scots is an example of resolute action to promote and safeguard these languages.

A new Linguistic Diversity Branch (LDB) was set up in 1999 in the Department of Culture, Arts and Leisure. The Branch is responsible for providing policy advice, support and guidance to Ministers, colleagues and others on linguistic diversity which includes Irish, Ulster-Scots, the languages of the ethnic minority communities and British and Irish Sign language. The LDB commissioned and published (in 2002) a research report entitled “Establishing the Demand for Services and Activities in the Irish Language”. A parallel report “Establishing the Demand for and Activities in the Ulster Scots Language” was commissioned and will be published later this year. The LDB has commissioned research into demand for early years care and education services in Irish and Ulster-Scots. The LDB also commissioned in 2000 the production for the Ulster-Scots Language Society of “A Strategic Plan for the Promotion of the Ulster-Scots language”.

There are opportunities for schools to introduce aspects of Ulster-Scots language, literature and culture in the curriculum as part of the Cultural Heritage and Education for Mutual Understanding (EMU) cross-curricular themes. There are no current demands from within the school system for Ulster-Scots to be taught as a language.

The Linenhall Library held in 2000 a programme of classes in Ulster-Scots language and literature. The Library in partnership with the Ultach Trust has organised Irish language classes at beginners, intermediate and advanced levels. Tha Boord o Ulster-Scots and the University of Ulster jointly fund the Institute of Ulster-Scots Studies set up in the University of Ulster.

Irish and Ulster-Scots were also represented in activities associated with the European Year of Languages.

d) The facilitation and/or encouragement of the use of regional or minority languages, in speech and writing, in public and private life

WELSH

The existence of television channel S4C (which is sponsored by the UK government Department of Culture, Media and Sport) and the extensive Welsh Language broadcasting provision of the BBC, both on radio, and especially via its internet fora facilitate and encourage the public use of Welsh, in speech and in writing.

Schemes such as the Language Sensitivity Training Scheme (Law yn Llaw) commissioned by the Welsh Language Board and the TWF Project (a programme to encourage new parents to transmit Welsh to their children) also commissioned by the Welsh Language Board target private use of Welsh. The Mentrau Iaith (community Language initiatives) mentioned above also do work in this area.

Menter & Busnes (agency to promote entrepreneurship amongst Welsh speakers) addresses economic life. The Welsh Language Board and the Welsh Development Agency are also in dialogue regarding holistic language planning strategies in the field of economic development.

The Arts Council for Wales provides funding for the Arts through the medium of Welsh as well as English. Funding from the Welsh Assembly Government also supports the Welsh Books Council in the publication of books in the Welsh language.

SCOTTISH GAELIC/SCOTS

Since 1990, the Gaelic Television Fund has been administered by Comataidh Teledhisien Gaidhlig (CTG), the Gaelic Television Committee. This has enabled it to fund extra hours of Gaelic television.

In 1996 the CTG became the Comataidh Croalaidh Gaidhlig (CCG), the Gaelic Broadcasting Committee, and was given the additional remit to fund Gaelic radio programmes. Radio na Gaidheal, Gaelic radio, is broadcast by BBC Scotland (BBC Alba).

The Scottish Arts Council (SAC) provides funding for the Arts through the medium of Gaelic, in particular through Proiseact nan Ealan (the Gaelic Arts Agency). SAC also supports Comhairle nan Leabhraichean (the Gaelic Books Council) in the publication of books in Scottish Gaelic.

The Scottish Executive has provided funding for associations which support/publish a Gaelic newspaper and magazine. There are regular articles in Scottish Gaelic in newspapers serving the Highlands and Islands. The Scottish Executive has written to all Public Bodies in Scotland asking them to review their policy on Scottish Gaelic.

Scottish Executive departments also accept correspondence in Scottish Gaelic and reply in Scottish Gaelic. An information leaflet accompanying the 2001 Census form was available to the public on request in Scottish Gaelic.

IRISH/ULSTER-SCOTS

A number of Northern Ireland government departments have translated key documents into Irish and Ulster-Scots. An information leaflet accompanying the 2001 Census form was available to the public on request in Irish or Ulster-Scots. Some government departments have advertised in newspapers in Irish and Ulster-Scots.

BBC Northern Ireland offers regular programmes in Irish on Radio Ulster and occasional programmes on Northern Ireland BBC TV. It has also broadcast various radio series and occasional TV programmes on Ulster-Scots.

Government departments are willing to accept correspondence in Irish and Ulster-Scots and a voicemail system has been set up for callers who wish to make their enquiry in Irish. Options for a voicemail system for Ulster-Scots are being considered.

e) The maintenance and development of links, in the fields covered by this Charter, between groups using a regional or minority language and other groups in the State employing a language used in identical or similar form, as well as the establishment of cultural relations with other groups in the State using different languages

WELSH

The Welsh Language Board, out of its grant in aid, gives support to the London Welsh Medium Junior School. The Welsh Language Board regularly replies to requests for information regarding the Welsh language from Welsh speakers living in England and maintains a list of Welsh tutors outside Wales.

Wales is represented on the UK committee of the European Bureau of Lesser Used languages. The Welsh Language Board co-operates with Irish and Scottish Gaelic-interest groups. This has taken the form of an international conference on marketing in lesser-used languages organised by the Welsh Language Board, the Board's membership of the European Bureau for Lesser-used languages partnership for Diversity Forum, and networking through participation in many academic and practitioners' conferences.

Individuals with digital satellite receivers can watch S4C transmissions UK wide.

SCOTTISH GAELIC/SCOTS

Scottish Gaelic and Scots are also represented on the UK Committee of the European Bureau for Lesser Used Languages. The Scottish Executive supports the Columba Initiative, which was launched in 1997 to develop links between the Gaelic communities of Scotland and Northern Ireland (and Ireland). The initiative embraces and celebrates the similarities between the two languages (Irish or Gaeilge, and Scottish Gaelic or Gaidhlig) and cultures and provides a channel for interaction, cultural exchange and relationship building.

IRISH/ULSTER-SCOTS

Iomairt Cholm Cille (ICC) (Columba Initiative) was launched in 1997 to foster support for the Gaelic Languages and to develop links between Gaelic Scotland and Northern Ireland (and Ireland). The initiative embraces and celebrates the similarities between the two languages (Irish and Scots Gaidhlig) and cultures and provides a channel for interaction cultural exchange and relationship building.

Tha Boord o Ulster-Scots (Ulster-Scots Agency) has developed links with Scotland.

Representatives from the Irish and Ulster-Scots language communities sit on the Board of Directors of the UK Committee of the European Bureau for Lesser Used Languages (EBLUL).

The European Bureau for Lesser Used Languages held a Partnership for Diversity Forum in Northern Ireland on 2 February 2001. Michael McGimpsey, the Northern Ireland Assembly Minister for Culture, Arts and Leisure made a speech on “Breaking the Moulds” – A New Future for Linguistic and Cultural Diversity in Northern Ireland”. MPs from Scotland, an MEP from Wales and representatives of countries across Europe attended the Forum which provided welcome exposure for what is being done to promote Irish and Ulster-Scots.



f) the provision of appropriate forms and means for the teaching and study of regional and minority languages at all appropriate stages


WELSH


As outlined in the answer to Article 7.1(a) above, the statutory programmes of study for Welsh make provision for the language to be studied either as a first language or as a second language according to pupils' linguistic backgrounds.

Welsh medium schools exist at both primary and secondary level.

SCOTTISH GAELIC/SCOTS

See the answer at 7.1(a)

IRISH/ULSTER-SCOTS

Irish language education is available at all levels of the education ladder from pre-school through to university.

There are opportunities for schools to introduce aspects of Ulster-Scots language, literature and culture in the curriculum as part of the Cultural Heritage and Education for Mutual Understanding (EMU) cross-curricular themes. There are no current demands from within the school system for Ulster-Scots to be taught as a language.

Funding is available through the North/South Language Body for projects to develop educational materials to support teaching of Irish and Ulster-Scots.



MEASURES IN ENGLAND

In England, where there are few speakers of the regional/minority languages specified in the UK’s instrument of ratification for the Charter, the National Curriculum requires secondary schools to offer one of the working languages of the European Union. After that requirement has been met other non-EU languages may be offered in accordance with individual school’s wishes. There is no policy to promote learning of the UK’s regional languages in England.

g) the provision of facilities enabling non-speakers of a regional or minority language living in the area where it is used to learn if they so desire

WELSH

The Welsh Assembly Government has been keen to develop lifelong learning structures and policies that reflect Wales’ specific needs and priorities. These include having regard to Wales as a bilingual nation.

The National Council for Education and Training for Wales was established in April 2001, inheriting the work of the Further Education Funding Council for Wales, the skills related work of the former Training and Enterprise Council’s (TECs) and responsibility for adult continuing education from Welsh local authorities. The National Council is now known, along with its sister Higher Education Funding Council, under the brand name ‘ELWa’. In setting the National Council – ELWa’s initial remit, the Welsh Assembly Government has indicated that it is to respond to the need for post-16 Welsh medium education, Welsh for Adults, work place Welsh and skills training opportunities through the medium of Welsh. The Welsh Language Board has received a £200,000 grant from the National Council - ELWa to develop a range of teaching and learning materials focusing on the workplace and for parents of children who attend Welsh medium schools.

To meet growing demand for Welsh language courses in the workplace, the Welsh Language Board, in partnership with BBC Cymru's Education Department, is to produce on-line visual and aural teaching materials to support workplace courses and for those interested in acquiring a working Welsh. On -line tutorials will cover elements such as vocabulary, pronunciation, dialects and place names which will also prove useful for those who lack the confidence or find it logistically difficult to attend Welsh courses.

SCOTTISH GAELIC/SCOTS

There are courses in Scottish Gaelic available at all levels, including at a number of Higher and Further Education Institutes in Scotland. The Scottish Qualifications Authority commissioned a survey in 2001 of Scottish Gaelic immersion course provision in order to inform future development and action.

IRISH/ULSTER-SCOTS

The education system provides adult education classes in Irish in most parts of Northern Ireland. The Northern Ireland Executive provides, through the North/South language Body, support for organisations which offer classes in Irish and Ulster-Scots.

The two universities in Northern Ireland have facilities for studying Irish at undergraduate and postgraduate levels. Queens University in Belfast offers undergraduates studying for a degree in English the opportunity to study the Ulster-Scots language as part of a module in Irish/English.

The Linenhall Library in Belfast has run a number of Ulster-Scots language courses.

The Ulster-Scots Language Society has organised a number of Ulster-Scots language classes and the Ulster-Scots Academy has produced an Ulster-Scots dictionary and a grammar, as well as various publications in Ulster-Scots.

h) the promotion of study and research on regional or minority languages at universities or equivalent institutions

WELSH

The Welsh Assembly, via the Higher Education Funding Council for Wales (HEFCW), funds the Centre for Advanced Welsh and Celtic Studies and the University of Wales Board of Celtic Studies. Among its other research work, the University of Wales Board of Celtic Studies is engaged in research work to produce an academic dictionary of the language. In addition, HEFCW also supports research into Celtic studies at the University of Wales in Aberystwyth, the University of Wales in Bangor, Cardiff University and the University of Wales in Swansea. Finally the Assembly via HEFCW supports the University of Wales Press, which publishes academic works on the Welsh language, history and literature – including some works in the medium of Welsh. The University of Wales also funds the post of Welsh Medium Development Officer to increase Welsh medium teaching provision at the constituent institutions of the University.

SCOTTISH GAELIC/SCOTS

Three Scottish Universities, Edinburgh, Glasgow and Aberdeen, have Departments of Celtic Studies with undergraduate and post-graduate students.

The colleges of the UHI Millennium Institute promote the study of and research into Gaelic.

The Scots language and literature may be studied at a number of universities in Scotland.

The Scottish Arts Council provides funding in support of the Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue, the Scottish National Dictionary Association and the Scots Language Resource Centre. The two dictionary bodies are merging into a new Scottish Language Dictionaries body with effect from 1 May 2002.

IRISH/ULSTER-SCOTS

Opportunities are also available at both local universities for research into Irish and Ulster-Scots.

Tha Boord o Ulstèr Scotch (The Ulster-Scots Agency) and the University of Ulster opened an Institute of Ulster-Scots Studies on 3 January 2001.

MEASURES IN ENGLAND

Six English Universities offer courses in Welsh and Irish. In England, Manchester University offers courses in Welsh. Liverpool University, the University of North London, Bath Spa University College and St Mary’s College all provide courses in Irish language studies.

i) the promotion of appropriate types of transnational exchanges, in the fields covered by this Charter, for regional or minority languages used in identical or similar form in two or more States

WELSH

The Welsh Assembly Government provides funding to support the teaching of Welsh in the Chubut province of Argentina. From 2000-2003, the term of the current project, annual funding provides for teachers from Wales to live and teach Welsh in the province and for students from Chubut to visit Wales for an intensive summer school. It also provides training for native teachers to increase the capacity to teach the language within the resident population. Almost 700 people in Chubut are currently involved in classes provided by the project.

The British Council is responsible for a project known as Dolen Ysgolion, which links Welsh medium schools in Wales and schools in Chubut via the internet.

SCOTTISH GAELIC

The Nova Scotia Initiative encourages cultural and economic links between the Gaelic communities in Scotland and Nova Scotia, Canada. The Initiative seeks to build on the unique connection that exists between the Gaelic-speaking areas of Scotland and Nova Scotia on the basis of:

· a common language
· a common culture
· family ties
· emigration and
· the example of entrepreneurship led by people of Gaelic descent

IRISH/ULSTER-SCOTS

Transnational co-operation is most evident in the North/South Language Implementation Body whose two Agencies promote both languages throughout the island of Ireland. The North/South Language Body is funded jointly by the Northern Ireland Executive and the Government of Ireland.

See also the ‘Columba initiative’ in (e) on transnational exchanges between the UK and Ireland.

2. The parties undertake to eliminate, if they have not yet done so, any unjustified distinction, exclusion, restriction or preference relating to the use of a regional or minority language and intended to discourage or endanger the maintenance or development of it. The adoption of special measures in favour of regional or minority languages aimed at promoting equality between the users of these languages and rest of the population or which take due account of their specific conditions is not considered to be an act of discrimination against the users of more widely used languages.

The Welsh Assembly Government is committed to promoting equality of opportunity for all people.

There is no legislation or public administration rule/practice in Scotland or Northern Ireland that supports any unjustified distinction, exclusion, restriction or preference relating to the use of regional or minority languages and intended to discourage or endanger the maintenance or development of such languages.

3. The parties undertake to promote by appropriate measures, mutual understanding between all the linguistic groups of the country and in particular the inclusion of respect, understanding and tolerance in relation to regional or minority languages among the objectives of education and training provided within their countries and encouragement of the mass media to pursue the same objective.

The Welsh Assembly Government recognises that the good will towards the language of the majority of the population of Wales which does not speak Welsh is necessary to its future well being. Full regard is given to this in the development of policy on the language.

The Scottish Executive's National Cultural Strategy states that: "A wide range of languages other than English, Scots and Gaelic is spoken in Scotland, representing the culturally diverse nature of the population and recent patterns of settlement. It is important that there are opportunities for all Scots to celebrate their language and traditions and to participate fully in the cultural life of their own community and of Scotland. The different languages and dialects spoken in Scotland provide clear links with the family and community traditions which enrich our culture."

This principle is also underpinned in the Belfast Agreement as the UK government and Northern Ireland Executive are committed to recognise the importance of respect, understanding and tolerance in relation to linguistic diversity including in Northern Ireland the Irish language and Ulster-Scots.

4. In determining their policy with regard to regional or minority languages, the Parties shall take into consideration the needs and wishes expressed by the groups which use such languages. They are encouraged to establish bodies, if necessary, for the purpose of advising the authorities on all matters pertaining to regional or minority languages.

WELSH

The Welsh Language Board gives advice to the Assembly on Welsh language issues when requested to do so and has a statutory duty under Section 3 of the Welsh Language Act 1993 to do so. The Welsh Language Board's views are sought on policies as they develop. The Welsh Language Board presents policy documents to the Welsh Assembly Government and has made formal submissions and given advice to the Assembly's policy reviews of the Welsh language and the Welsh Language in Education. The Welsh Language Board also has a monitoring role in relation to the Welsh Assembly Government's own Welsh Language Scheme, and that of other public and Crown Bodies.

SCOTTISH GAELIC

An Advisory Group on Gaelic was set up in December 2000 to advise Ministers on Gaelic policy. This Group consulted widely with the Gaelic community before providing Ministers with an interim report in December 2001 and a Strategic Plan for Gaelic in March 2002. The combined report will be published in May 2002.

IRISH/ULSTER-SCOTS

The Linguistic Diversity Branch of the Northern Ireland Executive’s Department of Culture, Arts and Leisure (DCAL) was established in February 1999. The Branch is responsible for providing policy advice on support and guidance to Ministers, colleagues and others on linguistic diversity which includes Irish and Ulster-Scots. This Branch liaises with the North/South Language Body and with Irish and Ulster-Scots groups.

The functions of the agencies of the North/South Language Body include advising both administrations, public bodies and other groups in the private and voluntary sectors.

DCAL has initiated a research exercise which will involve all relevant parties in articulating a vision for Ulster-Scots language and culture and developing an agreed strategy for putting it into effect. A draft strategy is anticipated by December 2002.

5. The parties undertake to apply, mutandis mutandis, the principles listed in paragraphs 1 to 4 above to non-territorial languages. However, as far as these languages are concerned, the nature and scope of the measures to be taken to give effect to this Charter shall be determined in a flexible manner, bearing in mind the needs and wishes, and respecting the traditions and characteristics, of the groups which use the languages concerned.




Not applicable.

PART THREE 

Language: WELSH

Article 8 - Education

The United Kingdom’s obligations for Welsh under Article 8 are:

1a (i) to make available pre-school education in Welsh;

Pre-school education is available to all parents/guardians through the medium of Welsh: there is a statutory entitlement to at least half-time provision from the child’s 3rd birthday. Voluntary sector provision for under-threes is available in 448 nursery groups throughout Wales and for 3+ age group in 580 groups. Local Education Authorities co-ordinate pre-school provision on a County Basis via Early Years Education and Childcare Partnerships.

1b (i) to make available primary education in Welsh;

Primary Welsh medium and bilingual models of provision are available to all parents or guardians who so desire it for their children in all 22 Local Authority Areas. Welsh medium provision is available in 440 schools where Welsh is the sole/main medium of instruction, and bilingual provision in 87 schools where Welsh medium provision is used for part of the curriculum. Welsh as a second language taught in the remainder of schools.

1c (i) to make available secondary education in Welsh;

Bilingual/Welsh medium secondary education is available throughout Wales to varying degrees. There are 52 “Welsh speaking Schools” in the secondary sector in Wales, but Local Authorities who do not provide such a school ensure provision via cross-county agreements and by paying transportation costs for pupils who desire Welsh medium/bilingual provision. Defining categories of bilingual provision is complex and considerable local variation exists in percentages of subjects delivered through the medium of Welsh. Welsh as a subject has been compulsory for all pupils up to the age of 16 since 1999.

1d (iv) Technical and vocational education:

to apply one of the measures provided for under (i) to (iii) above at least to those pupils who, or where appropriate whose families, so wish in a number considered sufficient;

Technical and Vocational qualifications may be delivered by Welsh speaking schools and Further Education Colleges. National Vocational Qualifications are being developed bilingually via a project funded by the National Assembly for Wales. All technical subjects may be externally assessed to GCSE level via the Welsh Joint Education Committee. Other awarding bodies and vocational qualifications assessed bilingually, or through the medium of Welsh, account for around 2.5% of 16+ provision. Some progress has been made to date in the use of information and communication technology to deliver Welsh medium provision, but work is at an early stage.

1e (iii) if, by reason of the role of the State in relation to higher education institutions, sub-paragraphs (i) and (ii) cannot be applied, to encourage and/or allow the provision of university or other forms of higher education in Welsh or of facilities for the study of Welsh as university or higher education subjects;

Welsh medium provision is allowed in Higher Education. It accounts for around 1.5% of the total provision.

1f (ii) to offer Welsh as a subject of adult and continuing education;

Welsh as a subject is taught in further and continuing education to advanced level. Welsh for Adults courses are available throughout Wales at several levels of learning, including beginners’ courses, workplace courses and immersion models.

1g to make arrangements to ensure the teaching of the history and the culture which is reflected by Welsh;

Welsh history and culture is reflected in the Curriculum for Wales at all levels via the “Cwricwlwm Cymreig”, which ensures a Welsh dimension and ethos for the National Programmes of Study. This includes other subject areas such as Music, Art and Design, Geography and Anglo-Welsh text in English as a taught subject.

1h to provide the basic and further training of the teachers required to implement paragraphs a to g;

In-house training is provided for Welsh for Adults tutors in further education and higher education institutions. A new national training pack and video that includes 26 training modules comprising 120 hours of tuition for new tutors and experienced staff are currently being developed by Cardiff University in conjunction with the University of Wales, Bangor. Once the pack is ready, ELWa (Education and Learning Wales) will be holding discussions with providers to discuss the possibility of modifying the pack to create TEFL-type qualifications for Welsh for Adults tutors. Some Welsh medium initial teacher training is also available in higher education colleges/Universities in Wales.

1i to set up a supervisory body or bodies responsible for monitoring the measures taken and progress achieved in establishing or developing the teaching of Welsh and for drawing up periodic reports of their findings, which will be made public.

The Welsh Language Board oversees the development of Welsh Language Schemes under the Welsh Language Act 1993. These strategy documents are produced by public bodies and outline steps to be taken to develop Welsh medium and bilingual provision. Local Education Authorities and the further and higher education system produce Schemes for approval by the Welsh Language Board. Scheme targets operate within three year implementation timescales. Other bodies have statutory roles in this context, including ELWA (Education and Learning Wales), ACCAC (the Curriculum and Qualifications Authority for Wales – Welsh acronym), GTCW (General Teaching Council for Wales), WJEC (Welsh Joint Education Committee) and the Welsh Assembly Government

Article 9 – Judicial authorities

The United Kingdom’s obligations for Welsh under Article 9 are:

1a in criminal proceedings:

ii. to guarantee the accused the right to use Welsh;

The right to speak Welsh in any criminal proceedings in Wales is given by Section 22(i) of the Welsh Language Act 1993. Documents in Welsh are permitted by rules of Court.

iii. to provide that requests and evidence, whether written or oral, shall not be considered inadmissible solely because they are formulated in Welsh;

Sections 22 – 24 of the Welsh Language Act guarantee the use of Welsh in courts in Wales. The use of Welsh in courts elsewhere in the UK is discretionary.

Responsibility for criminal proceedings is split. The Crown and Appeals Courts are covered by the Court Service’s Welsh Language Scheme. This provides that in the administration of justice in Wales the English and Welsh languages should be treated on the basis of equality. Magistrates Courts in Wales are the responsibility of four Magistrates Courts Committees, all of which have their own Welsh Language Scheme in place.

1b in civil proceedings:

ii. to allow, whenever a litigant has to appear in person before a court, that he or she may use Welsh without thereby incurring additional expense;

The right to speak Welsh in any civil proceedings in Wales is given by Section 22(i) of the Welsh Language Act 1993. Documents in Welsh are permitted by rules of Court.

iii. to allow documents and evidence to be produced in Welsh,
if necessary by the use of interpreters and translations;

Civil Courts are covered by the Court Service’s Welsh Language Scheme. As stated above, this provides that in the administration of justice in Wales the English and Welsh languages should be treated on the basis of equality. The Court Service’s Welsh Language Unit will meet the cost of translating documents from or to Welsh. If it is possible that the Welsh language may be used by any party or witness, the parties or their legal representatives must inform the court of the fact so that appropriate arrangements can be made for the management and listing of the case. If costs are incurred as a result of a party failing to comply with this direction, a costs order may be made against him or his legal representative. Hearings may be conducted entirely in Welsh on an ad hoc basis and without notice when all parties and witnesses directly involved at the time consent.

1c in proceedings before courts concerning administrative matters:

ii. to allow, whenever a litigant has to appear in person before a court, that he or she may use Welsh without thereby incurring additional expense;

iii. to allow documents and evidence to be produced in Welsh,

if necessary by the use of interpreters and translations;

The cost of translating documents and evidence for Court and Tribunal proceedings that come within the Lord Chancellor’s Department and the Court Service’s responsibility, is met through the Department’s Welsh Language Unit. As explained above, a litigant may use Welsh at a hearing in Wales, but if costs are incurred as a result of insufficient notice, a costs order may be made.

1d to take steps to ensure that the application of sub-paragraphs (i) and (iii) of paragraphs b and c above and any necessary use of interpreters and translations does not involve extra expense for the persons concerned.

As explained above, by virtue of the Welsh Language Schemes of the criminal courts, translation of oral evidence is provided at no extra expense to those giving evidence. Documents are also translated free of charge.

The budgets of the Civil Courts include provisions for translation. The Welsh Language Schemes of Tribunals and other legal proceedings require the provision of translation facilities at no extra cost to the persons concerned.

2b not to deny the validity, as between the parties, of legal documents drawn up within the country solely because they are drafted in Welsh, and to provide that they can be invoked against interested third parties who are not users of Welsh on condition that the contents of the document are made known to them by the person(s) who invoke(s) it;

Invoking a legal document against a third party would be covered by the Court Service’s Welsh Language Scheme as referred to in relation to civil proceedings.

Legislation drafted by the National Assembly for Wales is in bilingual form.

Article 10 – Administrative authorities and public services

The United Kingdom’s obligations for Welsh under Article 10 are:

1a (i) to ensure that the administrative authorities use Welsh;

The Welsh Language Act 1993 includes provisions requiring public bodies [but not voluntary and private bodies] to prepare and implement Welsh Language Schemes. These Schemes need to set out what services and activities are to be provided in Welsh, how they are to be provided, and by when. They also need to set out how the body concerned will ensure the Scheme is being implemented.

The process of preparing and implementing Schemes is overseen by the Welsh Language Board, a statutory body. The Board ensures Schemes comply with the Act. Where disputes occur between the Board and individual bodies, they may be referred to the National Assembly for Wales, who can give directions - empowered by court order if necessary.

The Welsh Assembly Government has developed a Welsh Language Scheme for the approval of the Welsh Language Board. The former Welsh Office implemented a full Welsh Language Scheme which received approval from the Welsh Language Board in 1996.

Some of the bodies are also regulators or supervisors of services which are provided by others, for example the Audit Commission, The Commission for Health Improvement, and ESTYN (Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education and Training in Wales), who monitor the quality of services in particular areas of public service. In their Schemes, these regulatory bodies need to set out how they will monitor the quality of service in Welsh as part of their function. In this manner, the provision of public services in Welsh, and the regulation of those services, is being normalised and integrated into orthodox administrative processes.

Although central government departments are not defined as public bodies for the purpose of the Welsh Language Act, the UK government gave an undertaking that departments who provide services to the public in Wales will prepare schemes and comply with the provisions of the Act. If a Crown body decides to develop a Welsh Language Scheme, the Welsh Language Board must approve it in the same way as for public bodies. Many central government departments and agencies do have an approved scheme (a list is at Annex A).

To date some 200 Schemes have been approved, and more are in the course of preparation. The National Assembly for Wales has powers to name further public bodies, thus ensuring the Act applies to new or reorganised administrative authorities.

The Board has introduced methods to measure whether bodies are complying with their Schemes. The Board reports considerable progress since the introduction of the Act, though not all bodies are performing to the same level.

1b to make available widely used administrative texts and forms for the population in Welsh or in bilingual versions;

This is a requirement of individual Welsh Language Schemes – see 1a(i) above. Items such as forms are of high priority within language schemes.

1c to allow the administrative authorities to draft documents in Welsh.

This is a requirement of individual Welsh Language Schemes – see a(i) above. Where previous legislation or regulation creates a barrier to the issuing of documents in Welsh, new legislation or regulation can correct this. The Regulatory Reform Act 2001 provides a mechanism to deal with areas which are otherwise unlikely to be given Parliamentary time. The areas where barriers remain are now very limited, and of those, some [e.g. the passport] stem from European law, not UK law.

2a the use of Welsh within the framework of the regional or local authority;

This is a requirement of individual Welsh Language Schemes.

2b the possibility for users of Welsh to submit oral or written applications in Welsh;

This is a requirement of individual Welsh Language Schemes.

2c the publication by regional authorities of their official documents also in Welsh;

This is a requirement of individual Welsh Language Schemes.

2d the publication by local authorities of their official documents also in Welsh;

This is a requirement of individual Welsh Language Schemes.

2e the use by regional authorities of Welsh in debates in their assemblies, without excluding, however, the use of the official language(s) of the State;

This is a requirement of individual Welsh Language Schemes.

2f the use by local authorities of Welsh in debates in their assemblies, without excluding, however, the use of the official language(s) of the State;

This is a requirement of individual Welsh Language Schemes.

2g the use or adoption, if necessary in conjunction with the name in the official language(s), of traditional and correct forms of place-names in Welsh;

This is a requirement of those Welsh Language Schemes where the body concerned is responsible for or uses place names in its work.

3a to ensure that Welsh is used in the provision of the service;

This is a requirement of individual Welsh Language Schemes. The requirement to provide services in Welsh needs to be passed on to any contractor or agent or partner who delivers the service on the administrative bodies’ behalf.

4a translation or interpretation as may be required;

This is a requirement of individual Welsh Language Schemes.

4b recruitment and, where necessary, training of the officials and other public service employees required;

This is a requirement of individual Welsh Language Schemes. This is a sensitive area, which needs to be taken forward gradually and strategically, avoiding discrimination.

5 to allow the use or adoption of family names in Welsh, at the request of those concerned.

This has long been the practice. The Registration of Births and Deaths Regulations 1987 enabled parents to specify a surname which was not necessarily the same as their own, in line with the customs of their own culture.

Article 11 – Media

The United Kingdom’s obligations for Welsh under Article 11 are:

1a to the extent that radio and television carry out a public service mission:

i. to ensure the creation of at least one radio station and one television channel in the regional or minority languages;

BBC Radio Cymru started broadcasting as an entirely Welsh language Radio station on 1 January 1977. Other regional and commercial stations also broadcast certain amounts of Welsh language programming, notably Radio Ceredigion, based in Aberystwyth. Radio Cymru broadcasts around 100 hours of Welsh language programming per week.

S4C (Sianel Pedwar Cymru), the Welsh language fourth television channel in Wales first broadcast on 1 November 1982. S4C has created 2 digital television channels, the first of which broadcasts around 14-15 hours of Welsh language programming per day, and the second, which provides coverage of the deliberations of the National Assembly for Wales, and certain Welsh cultural festivals. Viewers possessing correct digital reception apparatus may choose the language of soundtrack whilst viewing this second S4C channel.

1d to encourage and/or facilitate the production and distribution of audio and audiovisual works in Welsh;

Sgrîn, the Media Agency for Wales, is the primary organisation for film, television and new media in Wales, and is funded jointly by the Arts Council of Wales, BBC Wales, British Film Institute, Film Council, S4C, TAC (Teledwyr Annibynol Cymru - Welsh Independent Television Producers) and the Welsh Development Agency. It is responsible for the formulation of a strategic vision for the development of the industrial and cultural aspects of these industries to their full potential. It is responsible for awarding National Lottery film production funding for works which may be in Welsh or English. It also awards exhibition grant aid which is used to support or assist in exhibiting both Welsh and English-language films.

1e (i) to encourage and/or facilitate the creation and/or maintenance of at least one newspaper in Welsh;

There are a large number of news publications available in Welsh. ‘Y Cymro’ and ‘Golwg’ appear weekly, ‘Barn’, a current affairs magazine, monthly, and 61 local [mostly monthly] regional papers, or Papurau Bro.

1f (ii) to apply existing measures for financial assistance also to audiovisual productions in Welsh;

Sgrîn, the Media Agency for Wales, administers funding for audio-visual productions in Welsh and English. This includes the core funding from its funding bodies, and, in co-operation with Media Antenna Cymru Wales and the European Commission, the MEDIA programme, which has been used to support the development and distribution of audio-visual works in Welsh.

2 to guarantee freedom of direct reception of radio and television broadcasts from neighbouring countries in a language used in identical or similar form to Welsh, and not to oppose the retransmission of radio and television broadcasts from neighbouring countries in such a language; and to ensure that no restrictions will be placed on the freedom of expression and free circulation of information in the written press in a language used in identical or similar form to Welsh.

All these criteria are current practice. No legal obstructions exist to prevent reception of Welsh language media programming from neighbouring countries. In practice, in many areas, Welsh language programming can be heard and viewed in England and abroad. Radio Cymru is now streamed live on the internet and digital satellite, and S4C 1 & 2 are available in Wales and outside on digital satellite. BBC Wales provides an extensive interactive Welsh Language service on the internet, which contains many streaming audio and video broadcasts in Welsh.

3 to ensure that the interests of the users of Welsh are represented or taken into account within such bodies as may be established in accordance with the law with responsibility for guaranteeing the freedom and pluralism of the media.

Many bodies undertake pertinent activities in this field. Amongst them, the Press Complaints Commission and OFTEL (Office of Telecommunications), which is about to publish its statutory language scheme. The Radio Authority and Broadcasting Standards Commission have been named by the National Assembly under Section 6(i)0 of the Welsh language act to prepare a statutory Welsh language scheme. The Independent Broadcasting Commission also has responsibilities in this field. The UK government recently announced a Bill setting up OFCOM (Office of Communications) which is already in discussions with the Welsh Language Board regarding a statutory language scheme. OFCOM will draw many of the aforementioned bodies together.

Article 12 – Cultural activities and facilities

The United Kingdom’s obligations for Welsh under Article 12 are:

1a to encourage types of expression and initiative specific to Welsh and foster the different means of access to works produced in Welsh;

The Welsh Arts Council provides direct grant aid to many Welsh language cultural activities. The Welsh Books Council funds much of the Welsh language publishing industry, and independent publishing houses frequently publish works in Welsh on paper, and CD Rom. All public bodies mentioned in this paragraph are sponsored bodies of the National Assembly for Wales. Another Assembly project, Cymru’n Creu, will provide a bilingual portal site for all cultural activities in Wales.

1b to foster the different means of access in other languages to works produced in Welsh by aiding and developing translation, dubbing, post-synchronisation and subtitling activities;

The EU-funded Mercator Minority Language Network based in Aberystwyth, hosts the Welsh Literature Abroad project, which promotes literature produced in Welsh into other languages. Several publishing houses have also translated works composed in Welsh into English, for example Pestilence (William Owen Roberts, translation of Y Pla). S4C subtitles a large proportion of its Welsh language programming in English, and in simplified Welsh (for those learning Welsh) as a matter of course. S4C International exists to promote the Welsh language produce of S4C abroad.

1c to foster access in Welsh to works produced in other languages by aiding and developing translation, dubbing, post-synchronisation and subtitling activities;

The Mercator Project in Aberystwyth mentioned above carries out translation work. Many classic works of French Literature have been translated into Welsh. S4C regularly airs programmes dubbed from other languages into Welsh.

1d to ensure that the bodies responsible for organising or supporting cultural activities of various kinds make appropriate allowance for incorporating the knowledge and use of Welsh and cultures in the undertakings which they initiate or for which they provide backing;

When organising or supporting cultural activities, public bodies should comply with their statutory Welsh Language Schemes. When public bodies such as the Arts Council Wales provide financial backing or a grant for cultural activities, the applicants are asked how they will reflect the bilingual nature of the community in the event they wish to hold, thus forming part of the selection criteria.

1e to promote measures to ensure that the bodies responsible for organising or supporting cultural activities have at their disposal staff who have a full command of Welsh, as well as of the language(s) of the rest of the population;

Public bodies and third party contractors are bound by the staffing sections of the organisations' Welsh Language Schemes and therefore, must have an overview of their linguistic skills capacity to ensure that the service can be delivered in the service users preferred language. Linguistic capacity would also be a consideration within the grants allocation criteria of public bodies such as Arts Council Wales.

1f to encourage direct participation by representatives of the users of Welsh in providing facilities and planning cultural activities;

When organising public activities (including public meetings, conferences and cultural activities), Public bodies with language schemes are required to offer, establish and act upon the service user’s language choice. Direct participation by representatives of minority language users can be encouraged by ensuring a bilingual culture to the event in terms of the visual displays and by providing simultaneous translation facilities.


1g to encourage and/or facilitate the creation of a body or bodies responsible for collecting, keeping a copy of and presenting or publishing works produced in Welsh;

The National Library of Wales in Aberystwyth, one of 6 Copyright libraries in the UK, holds a copy of every book published in the UK. It also houses copies of all University Theses (of Research Masters and Doctorate Level), and copies of taught Masters’ theses relating to Wales in any way. The National Library also has an extensive collection of works in other Celtic languages, notably Breton. A high proportion of the Library’s staff speaks English and Welsh, and it is a thoroughly bilingual institution. The Cymru’n Creu project described above will also be working in this field.

1h if necessary, to create and/or promote and finance translation and terminological research services, particularly with a view to maintaining and developing appropriate administrative, commercial, economic, social, technical or legal terminology in Welsh.

The Welsh Language Board has been at the forefront of Corpus planning activities and terminological standardisation since its inception. It has co-ordinated the production of the following Welsh - English dictionaries, amongst others:

· A Dictionary of Procedural Terms for the National Assembly for Wales
· A Dictionary of Finance Terms
· A Dictionary of Educational Terms
· A Glossary of Bilingual Terms for Shops

It also convenes a panel of academic experts and practitioners for the standardisation of terms and place names. The University of Wales, Bangor, also has a pioneering terminological standardisation unit, within the Canolfan Bedwyr Centre. The Board has given substantial grant and project aid to the Centre to produce spellchecking and grammar checking software for Welsh, and a computerised dictionary, CySill, which serves as a plug-in to Word processing programs. Another similar CD Rom dictionary, the Termiadur Ysgol, was commissioned by ACCAC, the Curriculum and Qualifications Authority for Wales.

The Board is also active in the field of translation, and gives substantial funding to Cymdeithas Cyfieithwyr Cymru/The Association of Welsh Translators, and its website includes a list of accredited translators. Future developments include research into the widespread use of networked translation memory software.

Modern legal dictionaries of Welsh also exist, and the University of Wales has funded an undergraduate Welsh-medium module textbook (‘Cymraeg a’r Gyfraith’ – Welsh and the Law) to teach law students Law terminology and procedures through the medium of Welsh.

2 In respect of territories other than those in which Welsh is traditionally used, if the number of users of Welsh justifies it, to allow, encourage and/or provide appropriate cultural activities and facilities in accordance with the preceding paragraph.

The Welsh Language Board provided £25,000 in grant aid to the London Welsh Medium primary school during the present financial year. The National Assembly for Wales provides funding and the British Council, and Cardiff University jointly oversee and manage a project to teach Welsh in Chubut, Argentina, where a substantial Welsh-speaking community exists. There are several active Welsh language societies and networks in cities in the UK outside Wales, and the National Eisteddfod of Wales network Cymru a’r Byd (Wales and the World) is also relevant in this respect.

3 to make appropriate provision, in pursuing their cultural policy abroad, for Welsh and the cultures it reflects.

The Welsh language is acknowledged as a marketing tool as well as a medium within the tourism industry in Wales. The Welsh language is recognised as a distinctive ‘raw material’ within the Welsh Tourist Board’s Cultural Tourism Strategy and its ‘Sense of Place Toolkit’. The Welsh Language Board made a formal submission on ‘Promoting Wales Abroad’ to the Welsh Affairs Committee of the UK Parliament in November 2000.

Article 13 – Economic and social life

The United Kingdom’s obligations for Welsh under Article 13 are:

1a to eliminate from their legislation any provision prohibiting or limiting without justifiable reasons the use of Welsh in documents relating to economic or social life, particularly contracts of employment, and in technical documents such as instructions for the use of products or installations;

There are no legislative provisions preventing the use of Welsh in economic or social life other than a few outstanding areas where steps have yet to be taken to remove barriers stemming from historical legislation. [See 10 1.c above]. Barriers still remain in practice, however, because for instance, contracts of employment are provided in Welsh at the discretion of employers. Instructions for the use of products or installations, or information about them, also are rarely provided in Welsh – while there are no legislative barriers, there is no obligation on companies to do so.

1c to oppose practices designed to discourage the use of Welsh in connection with economic or social activities;

The main economic agencies in Wales, such as the Welsh Development Agency operate under a Welsh Language Scheme.

2b in the economic and social sectors directly under their control (public sector), to organise activities to promote the use of Welsh;

There are examples of such activities, such as the Wales Tourist Board’s Cultural Tourism Strategy (supported in some localities by a small grants scheme) and the Welsh Development Agency’s Taste of Wales project, where the use of Welsh is encouraged as part of a broader economic objective. The Welsh Language Board's Bilingual Design awards are a further example.

Indirectly, the provision of services in Welsh by bodies in the economic and social sectors is a form of passive promotion of the language.

2c to ensure that social care facilities such as hospitals, retirement homes and hostels offer the possibility of receiving and treating in their own language persons using Welsh who are in need of care on grounds of ill-health, old age or for other reasons;

In the public sector, this is a requirement of individual Welsh Language Schemes – see a(i) above. However, the Welsh Language Board reports that there is considerable scope for improvement by health and social care public bodies in implementing their Schemes. Private sector care or treatment in Welsh is minimal.

The Minister for Health and Social Care in the National Assembly for Wales has now established a Task Force to tackle these issues.

2e to arrange for information provided by the competent public authorities concerning the rights of consumers to be made available in Welsh.

This is a requirement of individual Welsh Language Schemes (such as that of the Welsh Consumer's Council).

ANNEX A

Central government departments and agencies which have an approved Welsh Language scheme:

National Savings
Office of National Statistics
OFWAT
Driver and Vehicle Licensing Authority
Companies House
Teacher Training Authority
Health and Safety Executive
Contributions Agency
Inland Revenue
HM Customs and Excise
Valuation Office
Employment Service
Benefits Agency
Child Support Agency
HM Land Registry
Department of Social Security
OFGEM
Forestry Commission
Defence Administration
Ministry of Defence
Crown Prosecution Service
Department for Education and Skills
Department for Trade and Industry
British Cattle Movement Service
Intervention Board
Ordnance Survey
Driving Standards Agency
Food Standards Agency
Home Office

Language: SCOTTISH GAELIC

Article 8 - Education

Under the Education (Scotland) Act 1980 education authorities in Scotland have a duty to provide teaching of Gaelic in Gaelic-speaking areas. Education authorities also have the power to provide nursery schools and nursery classes, which may include the teaching of Gaelic in Gaelic-speaking areas. The Grants for Gaelic Language Education (Scotland) Regulations 1986 empowered Ministers to provide grants to education authorities for the teaching of Gaelic or the teaching of other subjects in Gaelic.

The Standards in Scotland's Schools etc Act 2000 requires education authorities to report on their plans for Gaelic provision. Gaelic, which includes Gaelic-medium education, has also been incorporated in the National Priorities Framework for schools in Scotland.

The United Kingdom’s obligations for Scottish Gaelic under Article 8 are:

1a (iii) Pre-school education

to apply one of the measures provided for under (i) and (ii) above at least to those pupils whose families so request and whose number is considered sufficient;

There are currently 403 children in Gaelic-medium pre-school education in 36 registered nurseries in Scotland. Most, but not all, of these are linked to a primary school with a Gaelic-medium unit.

b (iv) Primary education

to apply one of the measures provided for under (i) and (iii) above at least to those pupils whose families so request and whose number is considered sufficient;

There is one dedicated Gaelic-medium primary school in Glasgow, and a further 58 Gaelic-medium units in primary schools in Scotland, with a total of 1859 pupils. Pupils in Gaelic-medium education receive most of their instruction in Gaelic. Every pupil is expected to be able to speak, read and write Gaelic when his or her primary education is completed.

c (iv) Secondary education

to apply one of the measures provided for under (i) and (iii) above at least to those pupils who, or where appropriate whose families, so wish in a number considered sufficient;

There are 14 secondary schools, mostly situated in the Highlands and Western Isles, offering Gaelic-medium education in some subjects, with a total of 302 pupils. In addition, there are 2131 pupils in Gaelic (Learners) Classes and 928 in Gàidhlig (Fluent Speakers) Classes across Scotland.

d (iv) Technical and vocational education

to apply one of the measures provided for under (i) and (iii) above at least to those pupils who, or where appropriate whose families, so wish in a number considered sufficient;

Technical and vocational training in Scottish Gaelic is available at Sabhal Mòr Ostaig, the Gaelic College on Skye, and at Lews Castle College in Stornoway.

e (iii) if, by reasons of the role of the State in relation to higher education institutions sub paragraphs (i) and (ii) cannot be applied, to encourage and/or allow the provision of university or other forms of higher education in Scottish Gaelic or of facilities for the study of Scottish Gaelic as university or higher education subjects;

Three universities in Scotland (the universities of Aberdeen, Edinburgh and Glasgow) have Departments of Celtic Studies with both undergraduate and post-graduate students. Furthermore, the colleges of the UHI Millennium Institute (UHIMI), particularly Lews Castle College, Stornoway, and Sabhal Mòr Ostaig, Skye, promote the study of and research into Gaelic.

f (iii) if the public authorities have no direct competence in the field of adult education, to favour and/or encourage the offering of Scottish Gaelic as a subject of adult and continuing education;

As well as the courses available at Lews Castle College and Sabhal Mòr Ostaig, there are Gaelic immersion courses at a number of colleges including Clydebank, Falkirk and Inverness Colleges.

g to make arrangements to ensure the teaching of the history and the culture which is reflected by Scottish Gaelic;

The ‘Curriculum and Assessment in Scotland National Guidelines - Gaelic 5-14’ recommend that as well as developing language skills it is "equally necessary to develop a parallel awareness and grasp of the richness and diversity of the culture and its significance to the pupils' own lives". The guidelines also stress that culture is more than language and literature, but "also, for example, history, music, the visual arts, dance, legend, drama, the mass media, architecture, ways of work, habits of thought and feeling and human relationships".

h to provide the basic and further training of teachers required to implement paragraphs (a) to (g);

The Scottish Higher Education Funding Council (SHEFC) is responsible for funding students at Teacher Education Institutions. The Scottish Executive has advised SHEFC that the supply of teachers able to teach in the medium of Gaelic is a priority for Scottish Ministers. Furthermore, the list of priority subjects at secondary school includes Gaelic and Gaelic-medium history and geography. The Ministerial Advisory Group on Gaelic recently estimated that there is a shortage of 15 primary school teachers.

i to set up a supervisory body or bodies responsible for monitoring the measures taken and progress achieved in establishing or developing the teaching of regional or minority languages and for drawing up periodic reports of their findings, which will be made public.

As part of its supervisory responsibility, the UK government’s Inspectors of Schools are required to monitor the development of Gaelic-medium education.

2 with regard to education and in respect of territories other than those in which Scottish Gaelic is traditionally used, to allow, encourage or provide teaching in or of the regional or minority language at all the appropriate stages of education

There are schools, at both primary and secondary level, in parts of Scotland other than the Highlands and Islands which provide Gaelic-medium education.

Gaelic immersion courses are available at Clydebank and Falkirk Colleges.

University education and research in Gaelic is available at Aberdeen, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Glasgow Caledonian and Stirling Universities.

Language and culture related research is undertaken at these universities and at the UHIMI institutions of Sabhal Mor Ostaig, Lews Castle College and Inverness College.

Article 9 - Judicial authorities

The United Kingdom’s obligations for Scottish Gaelic under Article 9 are:

1b in civil proceedings:

iii. to allow documents and evidence to be produced in Scottish Gaelic, if necessary by the use of interpreters and translators;

Provision has been made for the use of Gaelic in the civil courts in Lochmaddy, Portree and Stornoway, which cover the Western Isles and the Isle of Skye, areas where more than 40% of the population at the time of the 1991 Census was Gaelic-speaking. Explanatory leaflets are available from the sheriff clerk's office, and local solicitors were informed of the provision.

Article 10 - Administrative authorities and public services

The United Kingdom’s obligations for Scottish Gaelic under Article 10 are:

1c to allow administrative authorities to draft documents in Scottish Gaelic

Where appropriate, the Scottish Executive produces Gaelic versions of important national documents. These include:

· Revitalising Gaelic: a National Asset, 2000

· A Fresh Start for Gaelic, 2002

· New Laws on Racial Equality in Scotland, 2002

· Consultation Document on Community Budgeting, 2002

· The Scottish Parliament's Annual Report

· Various Inspector of Education Reports, where the council, school or college offers Gaelic-medium education.

The Local Government (Gaelic Names) (Scotland) Act 1997 allows a local authority to adopt a Gaelic name. Comhairle nan Eilean Siar (CNES) (formerly the Western Isles Council) changed its name under the Act with effect from 1998. CNES and Highland Council are the local authorities in the main traditional Gaelic-speaking area.

2. to allow and/or encourage:

a the use of Scottish Gaelic within the framework of regional or local authorities;

CNES and Highland Council operate a bilingual policy in its contacts with the public. They also have a policy for Gaelic development and each employs a Gaelic Development Officer.

b the possibility of users of Scottish Gaelic to submit oral or written applications in the language;

Members of the public wishing to conduct their business with CNES and Highland Council through the medium of Gaelic are encouraged to do so.

d the publication by local authorities of their official documents also in Scottish Gaelic;

Major documents, reports, agendas and minutes produced by CNES and Highland Council are produced in bilingual format where appropriate.

e the use by regional authorities of Scottish Gaelic in debates in their assemblies, without excluding, however, the use of the official language of the state;

Standing Orders for the Scottish Parliament state that: "The Parliament shall normally conduct its business in English but members may speak in Scots, Gaelic or in any other language with the agreement of the Presiding Officer". Four debates and five Committee meetings in 2001 have been conducted at least partly in Gaelic with simultaneous interpretation service provided for non-Gaelic speakers.

f the use by local authorities of Scottish Gaelic in debates in their assemblies, without excluding, however, the use of the official language of the state;

Members of CNES and of Highland Council are encouraged to use Gaelic at Committee and Council meetings with a simultaneous interpretation service provided for non-Gaelic speakers.

g the use or adoption, if necessary in conjunction with the name in the official language, of traditional and correct forms of place-names in Scottish Gaelic.

Under Section 12(4) of the Traffic Signs Regulations and General Directions 1981 Statutory Instrument, made under the Road Traffic Regulations Act 1984, Scottish Ministers can authorise bilingual road signs.

The Highland Council erects bilingual street and welcome signs in towns and villages within the Highland Council area. The Highland Council is also involved in liaising with private sector organisations, like Scotrail and Caledonian MacBrayne, to focus on the needs of the Gaelic language community.

5. to allow the use or adoption of family names in Scottish Gaelic, at the request of those concerned.

There is no restriction in Scotland on the use of the Gaelic version of family names.

Article 11 - Media

The United Kingdom’s obligations for Scottish Gaelic under Article 11 are:

1a to the extent that radio and television carry out a public service mission:

iii to make adequate provision so that broadcasters offer programmes in Scottish Gaelic;

The Independent Television Commission (ITC) has responsibility for ensuring compliance with the 1990 and 1996 Broadcasting Acts. The ITC requires Scottish Television to transmit not less than 90 minutes per week of Gaelic, including 30 minutes of repeats. The ITC requires Grampian Television to include at least 72 hours of Gaelic programming per annum. There is no statutory requirement on the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) to produce a specified quantity or genre of Gaelic programmes.

b (ii) to encourage and/or facilitate the broadcasting of radio programmes in Scottish Gaelic on a regular basis;

The 1996 Broadcasting Act gave the Comataidh Telebhisein Gaidhlig (CTG), the Gaelic Television Committee, the remit to fund Gaelic radio programmes from April 1997. Radio nan Gaidheal, Gaelic radio, with an output of approximately 45 hours per week, is broadcast by BBC Scotland (BBC Alba). The BBC is extending the coverage of Radio nan Gaidheal.

c (ii) to encourage and/or facilitate the broadcasting of television programmes in Scottish Gaelic on a regular basis;

The 1990 Broadcasting Act established the Gaelic Television Fund to be administered by CTG, enabling it to fund extra hours of Gaelic television.

The 1996 Broadcasting Act re-designated CTG as Comataidh Croalaidh Gaidhlig (CCG), the Gaelic Broadcasting Committee, and gave it the additional remit to fund Gaelic radio programmes. The Committee is appointed by the Independent Television Commission and has no powers to commission or schedule. Gaelic television programmes are broadcast primarily by the BBC, with some by the Scottish Media Group (known as SMG), which holds the ITV Scottish and Grampian licences.

Approximately 150 hours of Gaelic programmes are broadcast per year.

d to encourage and/or facilitate the production and distribution of audio and audiovisual works in Scottish Gaelic;

Proiseact nan Ealan, funded by the Scottish Arts Council and the Scottish Executive, is an arts development agency promoting Gaelic music, theatre and visual arts through initiatives such as exhibitions, publications, festivals, television programmes, CDs and training courses.

e (ii) to encourage and/or facilitate the publication of newspaper articles in Scottish Gaelic on a regular basis;

The Scottish Executive provides funding for ‘An Comunn Gaidhealach’ (a Gaelic membership organisation), which has supported a Gaelic newspaper, and ‘Cli’ (a Gaelic learners association), which publishes a quarterly magazine ‘Cothrom’ in both Gaelic and English. There are regular articles in Gaelic in newspapers serving the Highlands and Islands, such as the West Highland Free Press and the Stornoway Gazette. There is also a weekly Gaelic article in the ‘Scotsman’.

f (i) to cover the additional costs of those media which use Scottish Gaelic, wherever the law provides for financial assistance in general for the media; or

The Scottish Executive provides funding for the CCG, the Gaelic Television Committee, of £8.5m a year.

g support the training of journalists and other staff for media using Scottish Gaelic.

Sabhal Mòr Ostaig (Gaelic College on Skye), funded by the Scottish Higher Education Funding Council and the Scottish Executive, provides media courses in Gaelic (Gaelic and Communications, and TV and Multimedia). The courses are supported by the Comataidh Craolaidh Gaidhlig (CCG).

2. to guarantee freedom of the direct reception of radio and television broadcasts from neighbouring countries in a language used in identical or similar form to Scottish Gaelic, and not to oppose the retransmission of radio and television broadcasts from neighbouring countries in such a language; and to ensure that no restrictions will be placed on the freedom of expression and free circulation of information in the written press in a language used in identical or similar form to Scottish Gaelic.

There are no restrictions throughout the UK.

Article 12 - Cultural activities and facilities

The United Kingdom’s obligations for Scottish Gaelic under Article 12 are:

1a to encourage types of expression and initiative specific to Scottish Gaelic and foster the different means of access to works produced in the language;

A number of organisations have been set up to develop cultural activities and facilities in Gaelic:

· Proiseact nan Ealan (PnE) is an arts development agency promoting Gaelic music, theatre and visual arts through initiatives such as exhibitions, publications, festivals, television programmes, CDs and training courses. PnE receives funding from the Scottish Executive.

· Fèisean nan Gaidheal organises Gaelic arts tuition festivals for young people. These now take place throughout the Highlands & Islands and in some of Scotland’s cities (Aberdeen, Edinburgh and Glasgow). Comunn na Gaidhlig, the Gaelic development body, also receives funding from the Scottish Executive.
· Comunn na Gaidhlig (CnaG), the Gaelic development body, also receives funding from the Scottish Executive.
· An Comunn Gaidhealach organises the annual Royal National Mod, a competitive festival of Gaelic music and song.
· The Gaelic Books Council (Comhairle nan Leabhraichean), funded by the Scottish Arts Council, encourages the publication of works in Gaelic.

d to ensure that the bodies responsible for organising or supporting cultural activities of various kinds make appropriate allowance for incorporating the knowledge and use of the Scottish Gaelic language and culture in the undertakings which they initiate or for which they provide backing;

The Boards of Directors of PnE, Fèisean nan Gaidheal and CnaG contain members covering a wide range of Gaelic interests - broadcasting, education, local government, the arts, language development. CnaG holds an annual Comhdhail (Congress) in June, open to all organisations and individuals with an interest in Gaelic, where current issues and future development needs are discussed. Both An Comunn Gaidhealach and Fèisean nan Gaidheal are membership-led organisations.

e to promote measures to ensure that the bodies responsible for organising or supporting cultural activities have at their disposal staff who have a full command of Scottish Gaelic, as well as of the language(s) of the rest of the population;

The Chief Executives/Directors of the organisations listed in (1a) are all fluent Gaelic speakers. As a matter of course the organisations employ staff who are Gaelic speakers.

f to encourage direct participation by representatives of the users of Scottish Gaelic in providing facilities and planning cultural activities;

In line with the organisation’s role as a major advocate of traditional Gaelic arts in Scotland, and elsewhere, Fèisean nan Gàidheal maintains strong links with other key agencies in the sector. As well as this, they regard meaningful collaboration as an effective way of maximising development, and regard this approach as essential.

The links between the Fèis movement and Sradagan groups (Gaelic youth groups) throughout Scotland remained strong. In many communities, both are organised and attended by the same groups of parents and participants respectively.

Pròiseact nan Ealan, An Comunn Gàidhealach, Comhairle nan Leabhraichean, CCG (Gaelic Broadcasting Committee), Tosg (Gaelic Theatre Company) and Fèisean nan Gàidheal have also been collaborating in a new group: Gaelic Arts Strategic Development (GASD). Meetings have been held regularly since November 2000.

g to encourage and/or facilitate the creation of a body or bodies responsible for collecting and keeping a copy of and presenting or publishing works produced in Scottish Gaelic;

Comhairle nan Leabhraichean, or the Gaelic Books Council, is an organisation set up in 1968 to promote Gaelic books. It is a charitable company, and its main funding comes from the Scottish Arts Council. The Books Council has a small staff (three full-time, with additional occasional part-time help), responsible to a small board of Directors drawn from various areas of expertise. The Council provides publication grants for publishers to issue new books and commission grants for authors to write them. They also have an editorial and proofing service. On the sales side, they stock every Gaelic and Gaelic-related book in print in their Glasgow bookshop. They also go out to sell at special events throughout the country, as well as mailing books all over the world.

h if necessary, to create and/or promote and finance translation and terminological research services, particularly with a view to maintaining and developing administrative, commercial, economic, social, technical or legal terminology in Scottish Gaelic.

Fosglan (a Cultural Services Agency) at Lews Castle College provides a Gaelic translation service. Research into Gaelic language subjects is undertaken at post-graduate level in the Departments of Celtic Studies at Aberdeen, Edinburgh and Glasgow Universities.

2. In respect of territories other than those in which Scottish Gaelic is traditionally used, to allow, encourage and/or provide appropriate cultural activities and facilities in accordance with the preceding paragraph.

Cultural activities and facilities are available in Glasgow, such as the ‘Highlanders Institute’ and the ‘Glasgow Gaelic Choir’ and in Edinburgh, such as the ‘Edinburgh Gaelic Community Association’, the ‘Edinburgh Gaelic Choir’ and the ‘Gaelic Walking Club’. Both Glasgow and Edinburgh are outside the "Gaidhealtachd", the informally recognised Gaelic areas.

3. to make appropriate provision, in pursuing cultural policy abroad, for Scottish Gaelic and the culture it reflects.

Cultural links have been established through the Columba Initiative with Ireland, and through the Nova Scotia Initiative with that area in Canada. Information on these two initiatives is found in paragraphs (e) and (i) (of Article 7) in part II of this report.

Article 13 - Economic and social life

The United Kingdom’s obligations for Scottish Gaelic under Article 13 are:

1a to eliminate from legislation any provision prohibiting or limiting without justifiable reasons the use of Scottish Gaelic in documents relating to economic or social life;

There are no provisions prohibiting or limiting without justifiable reasons the use of regional or minority languages in documents relating to economic or social life, particularly contracts of employment, or in technical documents such as instructions for the use of products or installations.

c to oppose practices designed to discourage the use of regional or minority languages in connection with economic or social activities;

There are no practices designed to discourage the use of regional or minority languages in connection with economic or social activities.

Article 14 - Transfrontier exchanges

The United Kingdom’s obligations for Scottish Gaelic under Article 14 are:

1a to apply existing bilateral and multilateral agreements with States in which Scottish Gaelic is used in identical or similar form, or if necessary to seek to conclude such agreements, in such a way as to foster contacts between users of the language;

The Columba Initiative is one such agreement with Ireland (see Article 12, paragraph 3).

b to facilitate and/or promote co-operation across borders, in particular between regional or local authorities in whose territory Scottish Gaelic is used in identical or similar form.

The Columba Initiative links Scotland, Northern Ireland and Ireland.

Language: IRISH

Article 8 - Education

The United Kingdom’s obligations for Irish under Article 8 are:

1a (iii) Pre-school education

to apply one of the measures provided for under 1a (i) and (ii) at least to those pupils whose families so request and whose number is considered sufficient;

Irish-medium pre-school settings are eligible for funding under the ‘Pre-school Education Expansion Programme’ in the same way as other voluntary and private pre-school playgroups that meet the requirements of the programme. 468 places were funded in 2001/2002.

Irish-medium nursery units are eligible for full grant-aided nursery status where there is evidence of sufficient demand to ensure the viability and effectiveness of the unit.

Foras na Gaeilge (the Irish language agency) has provided core funding for Altram and for Forbairt Naonrai Teo (voluntary Irish-medium pre-school organisations).

1b (iv) Primary education

to apply one of the measures provided for under 1b(i)-(iii) at least to those pupils whose families so request and whose number is considered sufficient;

Grant-aided status has been approved for several Irish-medium primary schools: to qualify for grant-maintained status a school must meet certain viability and other criteria. The viability criteria for Irish-medium (and integrated) primary schools were reduced in December 2000. Initial thresholds were reduced to intakes of 15 for new schools in Belfast and Derry and 12 for developments elsewhere. These initial thresholds will be the key to recurrent funding for schools, but will not bring immediate entitlement to capital funding. Instead, it was decided to set medium-term targets - intake levels of 20 in Belfast and Derry and 15 elsewhere - and to link capital funding to these medium-term targets.

Foras na Gaeilge has provided grant-in-aid to Gaeloiliúint (a voluntary support organisation for Irish-medium primary education), interim grant-in-aid to Irish medium primary schools awaiting departmental recognition and grant-in-aid to Irish medium teaching/learning resources for Irish medium primary schools.

1c (iv) Secondary education

to apply one of the measures provided for under 1c(i)-(iii) at least to those pupils who, or where appropriate whose families, so wish in a number considered sufficient;

Meanscoil Feirste (an Irish-medium secondary school based in Belfast) is a grant-maintained Irish-medium school. In addition, an Irish-medium secondary unit Coláiste Bhríde, attached to St Brigid’s High School, Carnhill, is also grant-aided by the Department of Education. It is anticipated that a second unit at St Catherine’s College, Armagh, will receive grant-aid from September 2002.

Foras na Gaeilge has provided grant-in aid to Gaeloiliúint and grant-in-aid to Gael Eagras Um Shainriachtanais Oideachais (GESO) (a voluntary organisation for special needs in Irish-medium education) to develop special education resources for Irish medium secondary schools. The agency has also provided grant-in-aid to Áisaonad (a resource centre for teaching materials in Irish-medium education) for the provision of Irish medium teaching/learning resources for Irish medium post primary schools.

1d (iv) Technical and vocational education

to apply one of the measures provided for under 1d(i)-(iii) at least to those pupils who, or where appropriate whose families, so wish in a number considered sufficient;

In Northern Ireland the Further Education (FE) colleges are key players in the delivery of vocational training. The FE colleges offer Irish language courses at various levels.

During the 2001/02 academic year the Department for Education and Learning (DEL) provided funding, on a one-off basis and as a pilot, for a Jobskills-based Irish language vocational training programme delivered by Forbairt Feirste and funded through the Belfast Institute of Further and Higher Education. The aim is to address the training needs of pupils who leave Irish-medium secondary schools at age 16. DEL is now considering whether an extension to this pilot should be supported.

In addition, the North West Institute of Further and Higher Education and other training organisations which deliver DEL programmes have provision and support for the Irish language.

In 2001 DEL funded research carried out by Gairm (a voluntary organisation focussed on Irish-medium vocational training) on the demand for Irish medium vocational training. Gairm recently presented its findings to the Department.

DEL is now preparing a scoping paper as the basis of an initial consultation with interested groups on future policy on Irish language vocational training. The Minister responsible expects to issue a policy statement on this in the near future.

1e (iii) if, by reason of the role of the State in relation to higher education institutions, sub-paragraphs 1e(i) and (ii) cannot be applied, to encourage and/or allow the provision of university or other forms of higher education in Irish or of facilities for the study of Irish as a university or higher education subject;

Facilities are already provided for the study of Irish as a university and higher education subject at the University of Ulster & Queen’s University of Belfast.

In addition, DEL provides targeted financial support to students in higher and further education, including students of Irish.

1f (ii) to offer Irish as a subject of adult and continuing education;

Irish language classes are delivered at 2 levels (Beginners and Intermediate) in The Ulster People’s College (a voluntary organisation established in 1982 as a residential cross community education centre).

The Workers’ Education Association is an adult education body which offers an Irish language course for beginners.

Foras na Gaeilge provides grant aid for adult education initiatives, e.g. Ogmios, An Gaeláras, Comhaltas Uladh etc. (voluntary organisations)

1g to make arrangements to ensure the teaching of the history and the culture which is reflected by Irish;

The statutory Northern Irish Curriculum includes the cross-curricular scheme of cultural heritage and a common programme of study for the teaching of history. The theme of cultural heritage is concerned with enabling young people to understand the common, diverse and distinctive aspects of their culture.

1h to provide the basic and further training of the teachers required to implement those of paragraphs a to g accepted by the Party;

Initial training is provided for aspiring teachers of the Irish language and for those who will be employed in schools which teach through the medium of Irish. The Education and Library Boards provide in-service training courses in conjunction with Gael Linn and also run summer school courses for serving teachers of Irish and for those who teach in Irish medium schools. The Education and Training Inspectorate inspect all teacher training.

Foras nas Gaeilge has funded a language laboratory for Coláiste Mhuire (St Mary’s University College, Queen’s University, Belfast).

2 With regard to education and in respect of territories other than those in which Irish is traditionally used, the Parties undertake, if the number of users of Irish justifies it, to allow, encourage or provide teaching in or of Irish at all the appropriate stages of education.

The Irish language is included in the National Curriculum in England. Irish is available as an optional GCSE subject and Irish exams are available to be taken at GCSE and “A” level. Irish is also available as a subject at University level in Britain.

Article 9 – Judicial authorities

The United Kingdom’s obligations for Irish under Article 9 are:

3 The Parties undertake to make available in Irish the most important national statutory texts and those relating particularly to users of this language, unless they are otherwise provided.

The following national statutory texts have been translated and are available in Irish:

· The Education (Northern Ireland) Order 1998 No 1759

· The North South Co-operation (Implementation Bodies) (Northern Ireland) Order 1999 No 589 (Part)

· The Northern Ireland Act 1998 – Chapter 47

Article 10 – Administrative authorities and public services

The United Kingdom’s obligations for Irish under Article 10 are:

1a (iv) to ensure that users of Irish may submit oral or written applications in Irish;

Departments of the Northern Ireland Executive and their associated bodies facilitate customers who wish to conduct their business in Irish either orally or in writing. A telephone voicemail facility has been set up for members of the public who wish to conduct their business in Irish.

Similar procedures apply within the Northern Ireland Office (NIO). The NIO has some internal translation services, allowing letters to be received in Irish, and can call upon assistance from the Executive’s Department of Culture, Arts and Leisure if required (see 4a below).

The Northern Ireland Court Service facilitates customers who wish to conduct their business in Irish either orally or in writing. A telephone answering arrangement allows callers to conduct their business in Irish. A system has also been established for the handling and translation of correspondence. The central provision offered by DCAL can be called upon if required.

1c to allow the administrative authorities to draft documents in Irish;

Government departments and their associated bodies have produced a range of key documents in Irish ranging from ‘The Programme for Government’ and the Good Friday (Belfast) Agreement to equality schemes (eg. of the Police Service for Northern Ireland), consultative documents, executive summaries and a customer care guide.

The Northern Ireland Court Service translated its draft Equality Scheme into Irish.

2 In respect of local and regional authorities, to allow and/or encourage:

b the possibility for users of Irish to submit oral or written applications in Irish;

Government policy does not prohibit local (District councils) or Regional (Assembly) authorities accepting oral or written applications in Irish. The Local Government Division of the Department of Environment has issued some initial information to District Councils on the Charter. A further guidance circular is due to issue shortly.

2e the use of Irish by regional authorities in debates in their assemblies, without excluding, however, the use of the official language(s) of the State;

The regional authority in this case is the Northern Ireland Assembly which permits and has made provision for the use of Irish in debates. An Irish language speaker is employed as a full-time official in the Assembly for Irish language translation and interpretation.

Foras na Gaeilge has compiled a dictionary of parliamentary terms, launched by the Speaker of the Northern Ireland Legislative Assembly, Lord Alderdice on 27 May 2002.

2f the use by local authorities of Irish in debates in their assemblies, without excluding, however, the use of the official language(s) of the State;

Newry & Mourne District Council provides a bilingual translation system for use by all members in all council committees and has appointed a development officer to promote its policy of promoting the Irish Language in internal administration. Other Councils have asked Newry and Mourne Council to provide advice and guidance on Irish language issues and discussions will be arranged soon.

2g the use or adoption, if necessary in conjunction with the name in the official language(s), of traditional and correct forms of place-names in Irish.

District Councils have the power under Article 11 of the Local Government (Miscellaneous Provision) (NI) (Order) 1995 to erect street names in English and in any other language. In doing so Councils must have regard to the views of the residents living in the premises of that street. There are no restrictions on using Irish versions of other parts of an address, eg townland, town, county.

The Ordnance Survey of Northern Ireland’s cultural map and gazetteer of Ireland North includes settlement names in English and the authenticated Irish form. The Irish versions of approved street names are shown on the Ordnance Survey of Northern Ireland’s large scale maps and will be included in the Common Address file which is currently being developed.

The latest editions of the Ordnance Survey of Northern Ireland’s street maps include the Irish street name in the gazetteer. The Road Atlas of Ireland, a joint production with Ordnance Survey Ireland, includes the main settlement names in Irish as well as English.

The Northern Ireland Place Names Project in Queens University is focussed on preserving the Townland Heritage and re-instating townlands in the Post Office address database.

3 Public services provided by the administrative authorities

c to allow users of Irish to submit a request in Irish.

The administrative authorities accept requests in Irish. A telephone voicemail facility has been set up for members of the public who wish to conduct their business in Irish.

The Northern Ireland Court Service also accepts requests in Irish.

4 With a view to putting into effect those provisions accepted in 1,2 and 3, to undertake:

a translation or interpretation as may be required;

The Linguistic Diversity Branch in the Department of Culture, Arts and Leisure (DCAL) facilitates translation requests for other government departments and their associated bodies. DCAL arranged for a review of Irish language translation /interpreting requirements in the Northern Ireland Civil Service to be carried out by the Business Development Service. DCAL has bid for funds to establish a Central Translation Service. In the short term DCAL has contracted the services of two Irish language translators and an editor to address the needs of Departments and their associated bodies. An Advisory Committee of language experts comprising academics, officials and experienced translators has been set up to develop a house style for use in public sector translations in Northern Ireland.

The Northern Ireland Office has some internal services and has access to DCAL’s facilities if required. The Police Service for Northern Ireland trains a number of officers each year in the Irish language. There are Irish speaking officers who visit and address children in Irish in Irish speaking schools. The Police Service for Northern Ireland also seeks to ensure that all relevant forms of Irish are deployed and a recent training video had an Irish sign language translation.

The Northern Ireland Court Service will arrange translations and interpreters as and when requested. The Service has access to a number of providers as well as to DCAL’s facilities if required.

5 to undertake to allow the use or adoption of family names in Irish, at the request of those concerned.

There is no statutory prohibition on a person’s use of the Irish version of their name.

The Northern Ireland Court Service accepts the use of a person’s name in Irish.

Article 11 – Media

The United Kingdom’s obligations for Irish under Article 11 are:

1a to the extent that radio and television carry out a public service mission:

iii to make adequate provision so that broadcasters offer programmes in Irish;

BBC Northern Ireland offers regular programmes in Irish on Radio Ulster and occasional programmes on TV.

1b (ii) to encourage and/or facilitate the broadcasting of radio programmes in Irish on a regular basis;

BBC Radio Ulster transmits Irish programmes on a daily basis.

1d to encourage and/or facilitate the production and distribution of audio and audiovisual works in Irish;

The principle source of production funding is the Northern Ireland Film and Television Commission (NIFTC). The NIFTC has been delegated responsibility by the Arts Council for the distribution of the film and moving image element of Northern Ireland’s share of National Lottery proceeds for the Arts. There are currently no special discrete measures for Irish language production/distribution although such productions are eligible for assistance from the limited funds currently available for production.

1e (i) to encourage and/or facilitate the creation and/or maintenance of at least one newspaper in Irish;

The UK government funded ‘Lá’, an Irish language newspaper, for a number of years. It is now funded by Foras na Gaeilge.

1f (ii) to apply existing measures for financial assistance also to audiovisual productions in Irish;

Irish language productions are eligible for assistance under the Northern Ireland Film and Television Commission Lottery Scheme. Only one Irish script has been received in the last five years – and that was financed by the NIFTC. The NIFTC’s Operating Plan for 2002-2003 contains a commitment to offering support for minority language production proposals and an aim to achieve some Irish language short productions during the year”.

1g to support the training of journalists and other staff for media using Irish.

The BBC recruited Irish speakers and provided them with in-house training for their role as current affairs journalist/presenters of Irish language programmes. The Department for Culture, Arts and Leisure has funded a pilot training course in Irish language TV and Film Production – the course with 14 trainees started in February 2002. The Department for Education and Learning has assisted the participants on this course.

It is open to ‘Lá’ to recruit New Deal employees to train in-house, with one day per week subsidised training. In 1997 the Training and Employment Agency, which has since been integrated into the Department for Employment and Learning, provided support for an Irish medium course for media technicians at Springvale, Belfast.

2 to guarantee freedom of the direct reception of radio and television broadcasts from neighbouring countries in a language used in identical or similar form to Irish, and not to oppose the retransmission of radio and television broadcasts from neighbouring countries in such a language; and to ensure that no restrictions will be placed on the freedom of expression and free circulation of information in the written press in a language used in identical or similar form to Irish.

Irish language radio and television broadcasts from Ireland (RTE and TG4) are widely available in Northern Ireland. As a result of new transmission arrangements the coverage of RTE and TG4 has been increased from 30% to between 65 and 70% of the population of Northern Ireland. Irish language publications circulate freely and are not subject to censorship.

Article 12 – Cultural activities and facilities

The United Kingdom’s obligations for Irish under Article 12 are:

1a to encourage types of expression and initiative specific to Irish and foster the different means of access to works produced in Irish;

The Belfast and Education Library Board offers free public access to a range of websites, two of which have links to Irish language newspapers ‘Lá’ and ‘Beo’ and are available in four libraries.

Belfast Central Library has a substantial collection of Irish language material and a range of periodicals and tapes at selected libraries in the Belfast area. Irish stock is selected in response to direct contact with teaching staff from local schools. All selection is made using the expertise of Irish speaking library staff, Irish speakers in local bookshops and bilingual bibliographical information. Belfast Central Library has staged several events in partnership with the University of Ulster and Foras na Gaeilge involving Irish speaking writers talking about their work.

The Southern Board’s Library Service records Irish language material output by local broadcasters and records Telefis na Gaeilge (TG4) broadcasts. It has an agreement with RTE (Rádió Teilifís Eireann – Irish-medium broadcasting station based in Ireland) to record and broadcast on subjects relating to the school curriculum in Northern Ireland. This material, while not available to the general public for copyright reasons, is however accessible to any educational establishment in Northern Ireland that holds a licence from the Educational Recording Agency.

The Southern Board’s Irish and Local Studies Library has since its inception maintained a wide-ranging collection of material in the Irish language, including journals and newspapers. Its value is recognised both in academic circles and by those organizations, such as Ti Chulainn, engaged in the promotion of the Irish language.

The South Eastern Education & Library Board (SEELB) adopted a policy on ‘Library Provision for Minority Languages’ in February 2000. Welcome information packs in Irish are available in Irish giving details of membership, services and guidance on completing forms. As part of the policy in the year 02/03 the SEELB will move on its plans for pilot schemes for Ulster Scots and Chinese language provision. The SEELB purchases Irish language stock in various formats: books, newspapers, periodicals, tapes, videos and CR-ROM for children and for adults. Collections are in Castlewellan, Dairy Farm, Downpatrick and Poleglass libraries. In the last year over £2,000 was spent on Irish language books, tapes and CD-ROMs. A weekly Irish language newspaper is taken in Dairy Farm library, where there is a weekly programme of class visits for the local Irish language school (nursery to Primary 7 level). Until very recently the same happened in Poleglass library but the school has closed there. A class visit booklet on using the library was developed and made available in Irish. Shelf guiding in Irish is also a feature in Dairy Farm Library. Staff bookmark good Irish language sites on the Internet for users. Irish language and culture is featured in the SEELB library programmes for culture and arts, eg the SEELB ‘Library Beyond Words’ festival. The SEELB has developed links with Irish language, Ulster-Scots, Chinese and Indian groups.

The Western Education and Library Board (WELB) provides books and tapes through the medium of Irish, and Irish newspapers in some libraries. From time to time Irish schools visit the libraries and story telling takes place. The WELB also organises an Irish language day. There is also a video in Irish in the Central Library in Derry and bookmarks and leaflets are available in Irish.

The North-Eastern Education and Library Board (NEELB) offers free public access to a range of websites in 23 libraries. Work is in hand to identify appropriate websites in a number of minority languages for the Northern Ireland Libraries portal, which will be accessible to all libraries in Northern Ireland. The North-Eastern Education and Library Board also buys Irish language material in various formats on request and to meet local demand. Specific questions were asked in the CIPFA PLUS user survey in 1999-2000 about the range of languages required by library users and this information was used to inform purchasing policies. A separate budget has now been established for minority languages and arrangements are currently in hand to identify and provide improved resources, in consultation with Irish language speakers. The team of Young People’s librarians have provided class visit material in Irish for classes taught through the medium of Irish for use in NEELB libraries. Irish speaking schools are encouraged to visit local libraries and these visits are facilitated by library staff.

The Arts Council has encouraged writing in Irish by assisting the publication of books and magazines; instituting the first Writer-in-Residency in Irish in the island, supporting Irish language arts centres in Armagh and Belfast; and promoting literacy readings with traditional music. Two years ago it launched a statement “Scrievens, Language, Traidisium” setting out its position in relation to Irish language and Ulster Scots. The Arts Council has also supported individual artists working through the medium of Irish (the Individual Artist programme) and will continue to consider applications from artists working through Irish or Ulster-Scots.

The National Museums and Galleries of Northern Ireland (MAGNI) are in the process of developing a Linguistic Diversity Policy. MAGNI provides and has provided a range of materials and services through Irish, for example, the sound archive at the Ulster Folk and Transport Museum has significant Irish content. The archive which also holds material relevant to the study of Ulster Scots is open to the public five days a week during office hours. Most of the material is available for reference. MAGNI have provided occasional tours for Irish speakers and the curator of music regularly lectures in Irish.

The Public Record Office of Northern Ireland has among its holdings a manuscript version of the ‘Rathlin Island Catechism’ c.1720 which was later published in 1722 and which contains details of the island inhabitants who received Irish catechisms, an unsigned letter relating to the translation of the Book of Common Prayer into Irish and two pages of Irish-English vocabulary.

Foras na Gaeilge supports and sponsors a wide range of community events and cultural festivals. It has also conducted a series of training workshops for writers and dramatists.

1d to ensure that the bodies responsible for organising or supporting cultural activities of various kinds make appropriate allowance for incorporating the knowledge and use of Irish and cultures in the undertakings which they initiate or for which they provide backing;

The Arts Council has established administrative and decision making structures that enables it to work in tandem with such bodies as the Ultach Trust, POBAL, Ti Chulainn, Conradh na Gaeilge (Derry) and An Culturlann McAdam-O Fiaich. (DCAL)

The Public Records Office of Northern Ireland welcomes documentary/historical material relating to the use of Irish or material in Irish.

Foras na Gaeilge provides core and project funding for a range of Irish language activities for bodies including the Ultach Trust, POBAL, Conradh na Gaeilge (Derry) and An Culturlann McAdam-O Fiaich.

1e to promote measures to ensure that the bodies responsible for organising or supporting cultural activities have at their disposal staff who have a full command of Irish as well as of the language(s) of the rest of the population;

Belfast Central Library has two Irish speaking staff and bilingual bibliographic information is available. These two staff are available for translations of conversation if a library client wishes to converse in Irish. In the South Eastern Education & Library Board, two staff, one in Poleglass and one in Dairy Farm, are fluent Irish speakers and work with local children and adults in the language. Local staff in these two libraries have been trained to greet and work with users.

The head of the Linguistic Diversity Branch in the Department of Culture Arts and Leisure has some competence in Irish.

The Arts Council of Northern Ireland (ACNI) employs two staff with some proficiency in Irish. ACNI has a working group on its approach to language issues which has conducted an internal review of the Council’s use of minority languages. With respect to Irish, the group is progressing the following agenda: procure a redesigned corporate brand using Irish on all stationery, publications, business cards, signage, etc; initiate training for all staff in the use of simple greetings, the elements of pronunciation, etc.; conduct a benchmarking exercise with respect to POBAL’s Cairt na Gaeilge, or Irish Language charter, with a view to adopting its action guidelines with respect to publications, publicity, correspondence, public presentations, administrative practice, etc.

1f to encourage direct participation by representatives of the users of Irish in providing facilities and planning cultural activities;

The Arts Council’s grant support programmes have assisted the development of facilities and artistic programmes: Culturlann McAdam-O Fiaich, Ti Chulainn, Conradh na Gaeilge (Derry), Comchoiste Na Gaeilge, Aisling Gear. Funded projects include: education programmes and outreach, workshops, performances, script development and the construction of facilities. The Arts Council of Northern Ireland has commissioned a comprehensive review of the Arts of Irish and Ulster Scots. The aim of the study is to provide the Arts Council with comprehensive and strategic knowledge of the existing situation. The study will also make a comparative analysis of activities, audiences, boundaries, developmental needs and the financial implications for the sector in order to inform its future policy making.

1h if necessary, to create and/or promote and finance translation and terminological research services, particularly with a view to maintaining and developing appropriate administrative, commercial, economic, social, technical or legal terminology in Irish.

The Government has given support, in conjunction with the ROI Government for Teli (The European Language Initiative) to the production of a Dictionary of Administrative Terminology. Coiste Tearmaíochta (Terminology Committee) is funded by Foras na Gaeilge, the Irish Language Agency of the NS Language Implementation Body.

Schemes to support translators have been devised by Foras na Gaeilge, and two agencies, one in Belfast and one in Derry, have been grant aided.

Foras na Gaeilge is compiling a comprehensive and fully revised English/Irish dictionary. The previous dictionary was published in 1959.

2 In respect of territories other than those in which Irish are traditionally used, if the number of users of Irish justifies it, to allow, encourage and/or provide appropriate cultural activities and facilities in accordance with the preceding paragraph.

Comhaltas Ceoltoirí Éireann (an all-Ireland cultural organisation) has branches in England in London, Luton, Middlesex, Cambridge, Coventry, Nottingham, Telford, Ashton-in-Makerfield, Leeds, Merseyside, and Preston. It promotes the culture of Ireland in music, song, dance, and language. Conradh na Gaeilge promotes Irish language and culture through Language classes and social events. It has branches in Birmingham, Liverpool, and Manchester.

3 The Parties undertake to make appropriate provision, in pursuing their cultural policy abroad, for Irish and the cultures it reflects.

Through travel awards and international residency schemes, the Arts Council in conjunction with the British Council and An Chomhairle Ealaion (Arts Council of Ireland) promote abroad the arts from Ireland including Irish language arts.

Article 13 – Economic and social life

The United Kingdom’s obligations for Irish under Article 13 are:

1d to facilitate and/or encourage the use of Irish by means other than those specified in the sub-paragraphs 1a-c.

Throughout the UK, the use of Irish in the private/non-governmental sector is facilitated on the same basis as any English-using private sector enterprise or non-Governmental organisation, and such enterprises/NGOs are open to apply for public sector support on the same basis as any other enterprise/NGO.

Article 14 – Transfrontier exchanges

The United Kingdom’s obligations for Irish under Article 14 are:

a to apply existing bilateral and multilateral agreements which bind them with the States in which the same language is used in identical or similar form, or if necessary to seek to conclude such agreements, in such a way as to foster contacts between the users of the same language in the States concerned in the fields of culture, education, information, vocational training and permanent education;

The North/South Language Implementation Body, the cross border co-operation provisions of the EU Peace and Reconciliation Programme, and ‘Interreg’ (a European programme designed to help border counties) are examples of multilateral agreements and cross border co-operation

b for the benefit of Irish, to facilitate and/or promote co-operation across borders, in particular between regional or local authorities in whose territory the same language is used in identical or similar form.

The Department of Education is supporting the production of teaching materials in the Irish medium (Ulster dialect).

Regarding District Councils, there is some material cross border activity including Fermanagh District Council. There is also more general District Council support for cultural traditions projects.

Within the UK, there are strong links between Newry and Mourne District Councils and Comhairle Nan Eilean Siar (Western Isles Council) in Scotland.