The first mentions about the population on territory of modern Donetsk refer to the end of XVІІ century.
In this period there were zymovnyky (winter houses) of Zaporozhian cossacks, which guarded the way from Don to Zaporozhje and were engaged in cattle breeding and agriculture. Such settlements were not permanent and changed often.
In 1779 the first writing mention about permanent settlement of population on the territory of modern city appeared.
Foundation of Aleksandrovka settlement is also mentioned in Feodosii Makarjevskii’s "Materials for historical-statistical description of the Ekaterynoslav diocese" (Ekaterynoslav, 1880.-p.-2.-p. 38-39) by this date.

After liquidation of Zaporozhskaya Sech in 1775, lands which are now the part of Donetsk, were given to the descendant of Yzyum colonel, lieutenant Evdokym Shydlovskii.
In 1779 Shydlovskyy "set" Aleksandrovka on these lands (north-eastern part of the Kiev district of Donetsk) and Krutoyarovka suburb (larger part of Voroshylovskii district). The first got this name in the eve of his eldest son Alexander, the second is from gill that divided the settlement (its tailings frame eastern part of the Leninist komsomol park nowadays). Thus, Shydlovskii’s lands in the modern city borders stretched from Putylovskii park to the Donetsk metallurgical plant.
According to the fourth all-russian population census in 1782 206 men and 135 women lived in Aleksandrovka.

At the end of XVІІІ and beginning of XІХ centuries on the territory of modern Donetsk the following settlements appeared: Alekseevka, Katerynovka, Lyubymovka, Grygoryevka.

In the first half of XIX century Donetsk region rapidly developed — beds of anthracite coal were found on its territory.
The small mines also appeared on the territory of city. General governor of Novorossyysk Vorontsov rented land and built the first mine on territory of Donetsk - Aleksandrovskaya, where 76 civilian worked. In the middle of 50th XIX centuries gave 400-500 thousand poods of coal were mined there in a year.
Development of mining required more workers. There were not any lack of them. Tsar"s reform 1861 brought to ruin peasants completely. With no land and future they moved from the central part of Russia to south one, where they work on coal mines.

By this time on territory of future city there have been already Aleksandrovka, Grygoryevka, Semenovka suburbs and Ovechiy farm, founded by zaporozhian cossacks in 17 century. Having advantageously purchased and rented land, Englishman technician-metallurgist John Yuz concluded with the ministers committee of Russia “Treaty to form Novorossyysk association of coal, ferrous and rail production and association of rail line from Kharkov-Azov one”. In April 1869 tsar"s government signed an agreement to begin works on mining and metallurgical plant building. John Yuz was appointed by founders of Novorossyysk association as ing director.

In summer 1869 Yuz settled in Ovechiy farm on Kalmyus river and built a smithy in the yard. It was an example of the first subsidiary workshop. From England to Taganrog and Mariupol materials and equipment arrived on ships. All these were delivered by a carting transport.

A new settlement was named Yuzovka. The neighbour settlements were Ovechii farm, Avdotiyno, Alekseevka, Grygoryevka and Aleksandrovka.
On 24 January1872 the first cast-iron was given. At the beginning of 1873 the factory worked on a complete metallurgical cycle. Steel furnaces and mill production entered into a line-up. In 1874 Novorossyysk association had more than 1800 workers. The plant set the first place in a country on metal production. It led off heavy metallurgy of south industrial district.

Enlarging of metallurgical manufacturing was accompanied by sharp growth of coal industry.
To provide equipment in 1889 machine-building and cast iron plant Bosse and Gennefelda was built (now it is large machine-building plant in Donetsk).

Population of Yuzovka was increased. In 1884 there were 5494 people, and in 1897 more than 23 thousand people lived here.
The settlement was divided in two parts: south — factory — and north. In south part there were industrial buildings, depots, telegraph, a small hospital, school, comfortable houses of English masters, management residence. Northern part of settlement with workers places, market, pubs and alehouses was dirty and smoky.
Railway line Konstantynovka — Yasynovataya — Elenovka (and then to Mariypol) railed in 1872 through Yuzovka made the settlement growth.
It put together factory and mines with working Donbass highway, that caused industrial production jump. Large repair shops, bakeries, soap-works, printing-houses were built. Shops and public houses were opened. At the beginning of 1917 when about 70 thousand people lived there it became a city. At that time there were only two three-storeyed buildings in Yuzovka. They are hotel “Great Britain” and Brotherly school.

In 1924 the building of hoising estate «Standard» for workers of metallurgical factory and also dwelling-houses for miners started.
Schools, medical, cultural and educational establishments were opened, public utility companies were created.

In 1927 the first tram linking the city center with the railway station started working.
In 1926 Institute of mining (nowadays Donetsk technical university) was founded on the base of mining secondary school. Donetsk medical institute was opened in 1930 (Donetsk medical university nowadays). In 1928 dramatic theatre was created. In 1932 The Central park of culture and rest was founded. In 1936 opera and ballet theater was founded. It was opened on the eve of World War II. The first trolley bus started in 1939.
In 1923 the city became a district center, from 1932 – the center of Donetsk region.
By 1941 there were 223 enterprises of federal and republican subordination, 54 - local and co-operative industry. Mines produced 7 percents of the all-union mining, factories produced 5% of steel and 11% of coke. In 1940 miners worked 10,2 million tons of coal, metallurgists produced 300 000 tons of cast-iron, 500 000 tons of steel, about 40 000 tons of mill products.
By 1941 507 000 people lived in Donetsk. But attack of fascist invaders stopped rapid development of the city.
The Great Patriotic war deeply affected habitants and city economy. 383th miner"s division was formed from townspeople. In city and around the network of underground groups and guerrillas was formed. They struggled with enemy during Hitler occupation period which lasted about 700 days. After war capital of Donbass began renewal of ruined mines and factories. War damage was huge, however during more than a year many enterprises began to turn out products. By the end of 1946 the industrial infrastructure of the city was renewed. In 1961 city got a new name — Donetsk.

Опубликовано: 19.11.2004

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