THE RATIONALE TO USE SPF
The magnitude of economic loss caused by
shrimp diseases, and the speed with which various viruses have
been transmitted among geographically distinct regions have
alarmed everyone who depend on the shrimp industry for their
livelihood. These diseases are transmitted from parents to
offspring during reproduction.
Most broodstock, traditionally collected from nature, now
carry diseases and therefore offer poor promise for producing
the healthy seed needed for farming.
Hatcheries that use contaminated broodstock
produce contaminated seed and transfer negative economic
consequences to farms. Regions
with long histories in shrimp aquaculture have been hit very
hard by disease over the last several years.
While the research community pursues
long-term solutions to shrimp diseases, it is critical that
those in the industry find immediate and economical ways to
avoid contamination and protect their businesses from the
financial impacts caused by these diseases.
With this objective in mind, we discuss below the
principal causes for disease problems, and offer a remedy that
is near-term, practical, and economical.
There are two principal stages where
disease contamination occurs, during growout in the farming
operation and during seed production in the hatchery.
During growout, disease transmission arises from the
introduction of water and animals from nature, or from the use
of contaminated seed that is used to stock farms.
Frequently, the natural environment surrounding shrimp
farming areas is contaminated with the shrimp viruses that cause
problems for farms, but the removal of contaminants from
incoming water is technically difficult and prohibitively
expensive. The shipment of contaminated shrimp from one area of
production to another for processing is now thought to be a key
factor in the speed with these virus have been transmitted
around the world
Most of the important shrimp viruses are
passed from parent to offspring during the reproduction process
in the hatchery. Hatcheries that do not practice the necessary
sanitation protocols are at great risk to become contaminated.
Hatcheries that use contaminated broodstock can only
produce and sell contaminated seed to their clients.
To provide high quality seed to farming operations,
hatcheries must use only broodstock that do not contain any of
the known shrimp pathogens (i.e., Specific Pathogen Free), and
the must keep their operation from becoming infected from the
hatcheries operate under strict rules covering the source of
their broodstock and the operational protocols under which these
animals will be maintained during reproduction.
Unfortunately, hatcheries sometimes allow
themselves to purchase broodstock animals from unproven sources
that cannot guarantee that the animals are free of viral
that come from areas where shrimp farming is actively practiced
carry an especially high probability of being infected.
The purchase of such animals may occur because these
animals are often marketed at very low prices, which seem very
the broodstock-purchase decision that chooses low cost rather
than reliable health quality brings serious economic
consequences to the hatchery, the farms purchasing infected
seed, as well as the brokers which ship the product.
Occasionally, hatcheries can follow the
rule of using only SPF broodstock, and still become infected
when neighboring operations (over which they have no control)
bring contamination into their area.
This can be mitigated by operators in a given area
agreeing to use only certified SPF broodstock from a source free
from any pathogen contamination.
To protect their reputation, the best hatchery operators
promote the quality of seed they produce and distribute.
This is supported by the exclusive use of SPF broodstock
and a commitment to safeguards to prevent contamination.
The use of specially bred, high health
animals to produce the highest quality seed is a time-proven
principal employed for decades in all forms of modern
new capability, now being offered by Ceatech USA, Inc., is set to
change forever the way the shrimp aquaculture operates.
CEATECH is a biotech company in aquaculture. In
addition to its modern, high yield farming operation, CEATECH
offers Specific Pathogen Free broodstock to commercial
hatcheries worldwide. CEATECH’s broodstock are guaranteed to
be free of important shrimp pathogens.
These animals also have been selectively bred over many
generations to promote desirable characteristics such as high
growth rates, disease resistance, or fecundity. These broodstock
are available for sale year round.
The highest quality broodstock insure robust postlarvae
for highest farm profits. There has been increasing reliance in
major shrimp farming regions on SPF broodstock.
Access to uncontaminated broodstock creates business
opportunities for brokers, hatcheries, and farms that are
interested in increasing their profits.
CEATECH HHGI Breeding Corporation supports
this goal by providing of SPF broodstock to the industry.
The accompanying documents describe the SPF broodstock
and postlarvae products that are available from the CEATECH HHGI
Breeding Corporation in Kaua‘i, Hawai‘i, USA.
Also described are the rigorous procedures to insure the
SPF status of these animals. These animals are available
throughout the year, and can be shipped to any location within
36 hours of Hawai‘i