About New Brunswick - Symbols
The shield on our coat of arms , linking us with England, through the lion and celebrating our maritime location and shipbuilding prominence, was assigned by Queen Victoria in 1868. The other features were assigned by Queen Elizabeth II on Sept. 25, 1984, during a visit to Fredericton.
Our provincial flag, based on the coat of arms, was adopted by proclamation on Feb. 24, 1965. The symbols depicted on the flag are taken from the Coat of Arms assigned in 1868. They are a gold lion on a red field across the top and an ancient galley with its oars in action across the base. The province takes its name from the Duchy of Brunswick in Germany, which in 1784, the year the province was established, was in the possession of King George III.
The arms of Brunswick consist of two gold lions on a red field, and the arms of the King contained the three gold lions of England. The gold lion in the flag therefore reflects New Brunswick's relationship both to the Duchy of Brunswick and England. The galley is the conventional heraldic representation of a ship and reflects the two principal economic activities, shipping and shipbuilding, carried on in New Brunswick when the coat of arms was assigned.
The balsam fir (Abies balsamea) was proclaimed to be an official symbol of New Brunswick on May 1, 1987. The balsam fir's narrow, flat needles are shiny dark green above and white below. Important today in the lumbering and pulp and paper industries, the balsam fir is one of the best Christmas trees on the market and adapts easily to a wide range of growing conditions. It thrives in almost any situation and can grow to a height of 20 metres. Its particularly long fibres produce a better quality paper product. The balsam fir accounts for 97 % of the New Brunswick Christmas tree industry.
The black-capped chickadee was proclaimed as the official bird of New Brunswick in August 1983, following a contest conducted by the provincial Federation of Naturalists. A small, tame acrobatic bird, the chickadee is distinctly patterned with a combination of a black cap and bib, white cheeks and buff sides. Its distinctive "chickadee-dee-dee" is heard throughout the year. Its clear high-whistled "phe-be, phe-be-be" is a signal spring has arrived.
The purple violet (Viola cucullata) is a perennial which flowers from May through July. It is stemless, with leaves and flower stocks growing directly from rootstocks. The flowers of the purple violet have been used in jams and syrups, and are supposed to have properties to soothe the digestive tract and suppress a cough. The flower was adopted as the New Brunswick floral emblem in 1936, at the request of the provincial Women's Institute.
The tartan was designed by the Loomcrofters of Gagetown, N.B., and officially adopted in 1959. It is registeredat the Court of The Lord Lyon, King of Arms in Scotland. Represented in the design are the forest green of lumbering, the meadow green of agriculture, the blue of coastal and inland waters, all interwoven with gold, a symbol of the province's potential wealth. The red blocks represent the loyalty and devotion of the early Loyalist settlers and the Royal New Brunswick Regiment.
The Holmesville Soil Series is the most prevalent soil type in New Brunswick. It is a sandy loam to loamy soil with less than 20 per cent clay, and 15-30 per cent coarse fragments. The parent material of the soil is a moderately compact glacial till.
Holmesville is located in Carleton County near Florenceville. The Holmesville Soil is a fertile soil that provides high yields of both agriculture and forest crops. Soil is important to any location as it is the one place on this planet where the rocks and minerals are in contact with the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere, and where the nutrients that enter the food chain are produced and/or recycled.
The Holmesville Soil Series was proclaimed the New Brunswick provincial soil on Feb. 13, 1997.