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Systematic Compendium

From arthropods and annelid worms of old-growth and late successional conifer forests, mature riparian woods, and of coarse woody debris associated arthropods within the range of the northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina).


Phylum Annelida

Class Oligochaeta

Order Haplotaxida

Family Megascolecidae

*Arctiostrotus perieri
Type locality:
Distribution:
Habitat:
Food habits and behavior:
References:

  • Lattin and Moldenke 1992

Megascolides macelfreshi Smith, Oregon earthworm
Type locality: Salem, Oregon.
Distribution: Willamette Valley, Oregon. Recent collections are from ORE: Linn Co., Calapooya River near Tangent; Marion Co., Aurora; Polk Co., Helmick State Park; and Yamhill Co., Palmer Creek.
Habitat: Deep, little-disturbed soils in moist forest, usually a mixture of Douglas-fir, grand fir, and bigleaf maple, but also pure Douglas-fir woodlot or oak-ash woodland on occasion.
Food habits and behavior: The food supply consists of nearly pure organic residues with only a slight admixture of soil. Most activity is near the surface but summer inactive periods can be spent at 3-5 meters depth.
References:

  • Wells, S.M., R.M. Pyle, and N.M. Collins, compilers. 1983. The IUCN Invertebrate red data book. International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Gland Switzerland, pp. 213-215.

Phylum Arthropoda

Class Malacostraca (crustaceans)

Order Isopoda

Family Ligidiidae

Ligidium gracile
Type locality:
Distribution:
Habitat:
Food habits and behavior: Prime converter of Class IV logs into soil.
References:

  • Franklin, J.F. (1990)
  • Lattin and Moldenke 1992

Order Decapoda (shrimp and crayfish)

Family Astacidae

Pacifastacus fortis (Faxon), Shasta Crayfish
Type locality: Hat Creek and Fall River Mills, Shasta County, California.
Distribution: Pit River drainage just east of Cascades in Shasta County, California. Specific locations include: CALIF:Shasta Co., Fall River, Hat Creek, and small tributary spring of Pit River at Pit Power House III.
Habitat: The species prefers lentic and slow to moderate flowing waters, especially spring-fed habitats.
Food habits and behavior:
Comment: The Shasta Crayfish was listed as an endangered species in 1990. The principal threat to its existence is competition from two introduced crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus and Orconectes virilis.
References:

  • Bouchard, R.W. 1977. Distribution, systematic status and ecological notes on five poorly known species of crayfishes in western North America (Decapoda: Astacidae and Cambaridae). Freshwater Crayfish 3: 409-423.
  • Erman, D.C.; Light, T.; Myrick, C. 1993. Survey of the status of the Shasta crayfish (Pacifastacus fortis) in northeastern California (1991 study year). Contract report (FG9515) to California Department of Fish and Game, Sacramento, California, 56 p.
  • USDI. U.S. Department of the Interior. 1988. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants. Determination of endangered status for the Shasta crayfish. Federal Register 53 (190): 38460-38465.

Syncaris pacifica (Holmes), California freshwater shrimp
Type locality:
Distribution: Marin, Napa, and Sonoma counties, California. Specific locations include: CALIF: Marin Co., Lagunitas Creek; Napa Co., Huichica Creek; Sonoma Co., East Austin Creek; Salmon Creek; Sonoma Creek.
Habitat: The species occurs in streams less than 65 m. in elevation with a gradient of less than 1 per cent. Most populations occur where the riparian canopy over the stream isa moderate to nearly complete and where the stream substrate is sand and gravel with some mud, silt, and organic debris. Shrimp usually occur in pools with undercut banks and exposed root systems away from mainstream flow.
Food habits and behavior:
Comment: The species was listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in 1988. The principal threats to the species' continued existence are urban development, highway construction, gravel dams, pollution and fire control.
References:

  • Eng, L.L. 1981. Distribution, life history, and status of the California freshwater shrimp, Syncaris pacifica (Holmes). California Department of Fish and Game, Inland Fisheries Endangered Species Program, Special Publication 81-1, 27 p.
  • Serpa, L. 1991. California freshwater shrimp (Syncaris pacifica). Contract report to U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Sacramento, California, 44 p.
  • USDI. U.S. Department of the Interior. 1988. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants. Determination of endangered status for the California freshwater shrimp. Federal Register 53 FR 43889.

Class Diplopoda (millipedes)

Order Chordeumatida

Family Caseyidae

Caseya benedictae Gardner and Shelley
Type locality: Charleston Woods, Marine Biological Institute, Coos County, Oregon.
Distribution: Known only from the type locality.
Habitat: Not described.
Food habits and behavior: Not reported
References:

  • Gardner, M.R.; Shelley, R.M. 1989. New records, species, and genera of caseyid millipeds from the Pacific coast of North America (Diplopoda: Chordeumatida: Caseyidae). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 65(2): 177-268.

Caseya bryophila Gardner and Shelley
Type locality: 15 miles southwest of Ruch, Josephine County, Oregon.
Distribution: Southwest Oregon in Jackson and Josephine counties. Known localities other than the type locality are: ORE: Jackson Co., French gulch, 3 miles north of Copper; Josephine Co., 0.3 mile south of Elk Creek on U.S. highway 199.
Habitat: Litter layer in late successional or old- growth conifer forests.
Food habits and behavior: Millipedes feed on organic debris and detritus on forest floor.
References:

  • Gardner, M.R.; Shelley, R.M. 1989. New records, species, and genera of caseyid millipedes from the Pacific Coast of North America (Diplopoda: Choreumatida: Caseyidae). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 65: 177-268.

Caseya bucketti Gardner and Shelley
Type locality: 22 miles west of Red Bluff, Tehama County, California.
Distribution: Known only from northern California in Tehama and Shasta counties. In addition to the type locality the species is known from CALIF: Shasta Co.: 6 miles west of Redding; Inwood, 4 miles northwest of Shingletown.
Habitat: Not described.
Food habits and behavior: Not reported
References:

  • Gardner, M.R.; Shelley, R.M. 1989. New records, species, and genera of caseyid millipeds from the Pacific coast of North America (Diplopoda: Chordeumatida: Caseyidae). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 65(2): 177-268.

Caseya longiloba Buckett and Shelley
Type locality: 1.5 miles southwest of Douglas City, Trinity County, California.
Distribution: Known only from Trinity County, California. In addition to the type locality the species is known from CALIF: Trinity Co., 2.5 miles northwest of Weaverville.
Habitat: Thick duff above a stream in oak woods and oak- pine association.
Food habits and behavior: Not reported
References:

  • Gardner, M.R.; Shelley, R.M. 1989. New records, species, and genera of caseyid millipeds from the Pacific coast of North America (Diplopoda: Chordeumatida: Caseyidae). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 65(2): 177-268.

Caseya megasoma Gardner and Shelley
Type locality: Oregon state highway 34 at Benton-- Lincoln county line.
Distribution: Oregon coast ranges in Benton, Lincoln, and Tilamook counties. In addition to the type lcality, the species is known from ORE: Benton Co., 2.3 miles northwest of Glenbrook; 8 miles southwest of Philomath; 10 miles north of Philomath; Lincoln Co., Oregon state highway 34 between Tidewater and Waldport; Tilamook Co., 4 miles southeast of Blaine.
Habitat: Not described.
Food habits and behavior: Not reported
References:

  • Gardner, M.R.; Shelley, R.M. 1989. New records, species, and genera of caseyid millipeds from the Pacific coast of North America (Diplopoda: Chordeumatida: Caseyidae). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 65(2): 177-268.

Caseya shastensis Gardner and Shelley
Type locality: 18 miles west of Redding, Shasta County, California.
Distribution: Known only from the type locality.
Habitat: Not described.
Food habits and behavior: Not reported
References:

  • Gardner, M.R.; Shelley, R.M. 1989. New records, species, and genera of caseyid millipeds from the Pacific coast of North America (Diplopoda: Chordeumatida: Caseyidae). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 65(2): 177-268.

Family Eurydesmidae

Harpaphe haydeniana (Wood)
Type locality: Oregon.
Distribution: Vancouver Island, British Columbia south to Oregon, mainly west of the Cascades.
Habitat: Litter layer in mature conifer forests. Adults are found in the upper layer, immature stages deeper in the litter.
Food habits and behavior: Shreds organic debris and litter on forest floor.
Comments: 1. This species is a major comminutor of litter on the forest floor, and therefore an important component of nutrient cycling in forested systems. 2. The species produces cyanide gas that provides protection against some predators. 3. A least one ground beetle, Promecognathus laevissimus LeConte (Carabidae) is a specialized predator of this species.
References:

  • Chamberlin, R.V.; Hoffman, R.L. 1958. Checklist of the millipedes of North America. United States National Museum, Bulletin 212, 236 pp.
  • Wood, H.C. 1864. Descriptions of new species of Polydesmidae. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 16: 6-10.

Metopiona sheari Gardner and Shelley
Type locality: Bishop Road, 2 miles north of Helvetia, Washington County, Oregon.
Distribution: Known only from the type locality.
Habitat: Mixed deciduous and conifer duff.
Food habits and behavior: Not reported
References:

  • Gardner, M.R.; Shelley, R.M. 1989. New records, species, and genera of caseyid millipeds from the Pacific coast of North America (Diplopoda: Chordeumatida: Caseyidae). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 65(2): 177-268.

Order Polydesmida

Family Nearctodesmidae

Nearctodesmus olympus Causey, 1954
Type locality: Olympic Hot Springs, Olympic Nat. Park, Clallam Co., Washington (Causey 1954).
Distribution: Olympic Peninsula of Washington. Some specific localities: WASH.: Clallam Co., type locality; Ozette River (Burke Museum).
Habitat: The type locality is in old growth and the other locality is believed to have contained old growth at the time of the collection (1936). This species could be a lowland old growth obligate (category 1) or one which occurs in other habitats on the coast (category 3). Much more should be known about its distribution and habitat when a revision of the group by Rowland Shelley, now in preparation, is published. Microhabitats are not recorded.
Food habits and behavior: Nothing is known. Millipedes in this group are largely scavengers and fungivores, and some have been noted browsing on mold; they belong to the decomposer community.
Collections: American Museum of Natural History (types); Burke Museum.
References:

  • Causey, N.B. 1954a. The millipeds collected in the Pacific Northwest by Dr. M.H. Hatch. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 47(1): 81-86.

Ochrogramma heterogona
Type locality: Cape Lookout State Park, Tilamook County, Oregon.
Distribution: Tilamook County, Oregon. In addition to the type locality, the species is known from ORE: Tilamook Co., 7 miles east of Blaine.
Habitat: Red cedar, spruce, huckleberry, and salmonberry litter.
Food habits and behavior: Not reported
References:

  • Gardner, M.R.; Shelley, R.M. 1989. New records, species, and genera of caseyid millipeds from the Pacific coast of North America (Diplopoda: Chordeumatida: Caseyidae). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 65(2): 177-268.

Ochrogramma formulosa Gardner and Shelley
Type locality: 2 miles southeast of Gates, Linn County, Oregon.
Distribution: Eastern sloope of the Willamette Valley in northern Oregon. In addition to the type locality the species is known from : ORE:Lane Co., 4 miles north, 10 miles east of Lowell; Marion Co., 2 miles west of Mehama; 1.5 miles south of Mill City; Multnomah Co., 3 miles east of Troutdale.
Habitat: Not described.
Food habits and behavior: Not reported
References:

  • Gardner, M.R.; Shelley, R.M. 1989. New records, species, and genera of caseyid millipeds from the Pacific coast of North America (Diplopoda: Chordeumatida: Caseyidae). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 65(2): 177-268.

Ochrogramma haigi Gardner and Shelley
Type locality: Along California state highway 199, 5 miles southwest of Gasquet, Del Norte County, California.
Distribution: Extreme northwestern California and southwestern Oregon. In addition to the type locality the species is known from: CALIF:Del Norte Co., 2 miles north of fort Dick; ORE: Curry Co., 5 miles north of Brookings; 4 miles south of Pistol River.
Habitat: Not described.
Food habits and behavior: Not reported
References:

  • Gardner, M.R.; Shelley, R.M. 1989. New records, species, and genera of caseyid millipeds from the Pacific coast of North America (Diplopoda: Chordeumatida: Caseyidae). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 65(2): 177-268.

Opiona bifurcata Gardner and Shelley
Type locality: Russian Gulch State Park, 2 miles north of Mendocino, Mendocino County, California.
Distribution: Known only from a small area of coastal Mendocino County, California. In addition to the type locality, the species is known from CALIF:Mendocino Co., 4 miles south of Fort Bragg.
Habitat: Not described.
Food habits and behavior: Not reported
References:

  • Gardner, M.R.; Shelley, R.M. 1989. New records, species, and genera of caseyid millipeds from the Pacific coast of North America (Diplopoda: Chordeumatida: Caseyidae). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 65(2): 177-268.

Opiona casualis
Type locality: 2 miles east of Valsetz, Polk County, Oregon.
Distribution: Known only from the Oregon Coast Range. In addition to the type locality, the species is known from: ORE:Lincoln Co., 1.4 miles north of Nashville.
Habitat: Not described.
Food habits and behavior: Not reported
References:

  • Gardner, M.R.; Shelley, R.M. 1989. New records, species, and genera of caseyid millipeds from the Pacific coast of North America (Diplopoda: Chordeumatida: Caseyidae). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 65(2): 177-268.

Opiona communis angusta Gardner and Shelley
Type locality: Along Bennett Valley Road, 6 miles southsoutheast of Santa Rosa, Sonoma County, California.
Distribution: Coastal California north of the San Francisco Bay area. In addition to the type locality: CALIF: Marin Co., 1 mile south of Inverness; Sonoma Co., 6 miles north of Cloverdale; 2 miles east of Santa Rosa.
Habitat: Not described.
Food habits and behavior: Not reported
References:

  • Gardner, M.R.; Shelley, R.M. 1989. New records, species, and genera of caseyid millipeds from the Pacific coast of North America (Diplopoda: Chordeumatida: Caseyidae). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 65(2): 177-268.

Opiona confusa Gardner and Shelley
Type locality: 12 miles southeast of Kernville, Lincoln County, Oregon.
Distribution: Known only from the type locality.
Habitat: Not described.
Food habits and behavior: Not reported
References:

  • Gardner, M.R.; Shelley, R.M. 1989. New records, species, and genera of caseyid millipeds from the Pacific coast of North America (Diplopoda: Chordeumatida: Caseyidae). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 65(2): 177-268.

Opiona distincta Gardner and Shelley
Type locality: 2.5 miles southeast of Guerneville, Sonoma County, California.
Distribution: Known only from the type locality.
Habitat: Not described.
Food habits and behavior: Not reported
References:

  • Gardner, M.R.; Shelley, R.M. 1989. New records, species, and genera of caseyid millipeds from the Pacific coast of North America (Diplopoda: Chordeumatida: Caseyidae). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 65(2): 177-268.

Opiona exigua Gardner and Shelley
Type locality: Russian Gulch State Park, Mendocino County, California.
Distribution: Coastal northern California in Mendocino and Sonoma counties. In addition to the type locality: CALIF: Sonoma Co., Mark West Reserve.
Habitat: Coast redwood forests in deep litter.
Food habits and behavior: Not reported
References:

  • Gardner, M.R.; Shelley, R.M. 1989. New records, species, and genera of caseyid millipeds from the Pacific coast of North America (Diplopoda: Chordeumatida: Caseyidae). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 65(2): 177-268.

Opiona facetia Gardner and Shelley
Type locality: Outlook, Clackamas County, Oregon.
Distribution: East slope of Cascades in northern Willamette Valley, Oregon. In addition to the type locality: ORE:Marion Co., 9 miles south, 6 miles east of Silverton.
Habitat: Not described.
Food habits and behavior: Not reported
References:

  • Gardner, M.R.; Shelley, R.M. 1989. New records, species, and genera of caseyid millipeds from the Pacific coast of North America (Diplopoda: Chordeumatida: Caseyidae). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 65(2): 177-268.

Opiona fisheri Gardner and Shelley
Type locality: Neptune State Park, Lane County, Oregon.
Distribution: Northern coastal Oregon in Lincoln and Lane counties. In addition to the type locality: ORE:Lincoln Co., along the Yaquina River, 0.6 mile northwest of Elk City.
Habitat: Not described.
Food habits and behavior: Not reported
References:

  • Gardner, M.R.; Shelley, R.M. 1989. New records, species, and genera of caseyid millipeds from the Pacific coast of North America (Diplopoda: Chordeumatida: Caseyidae). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 65(2): 177-268.

Opiona goedeni Gardner and Shelley
Type locality: 1.7 miles southwest of Timber, Washington County, Oregon.
Distribution: Northern coast ranges in Oregon. In addition to type locality: ORE: Clatsop Co., 5 miles north, 7 miles west of Elsie; 3 miles southeast of Olney; Saddle Mountain State Park; Polk Co., 4.7 miles east of Valsetz; Washington Co., 2 miles south of Timber.
Habitat: Not described.
Food habits and behavior: Not reported
References:

  • Gardner, M.R.; Shelley, R.M. 1989. New records, species, and genera of caseyid millipeds from the Pacific coast of North America (Diplopoda: Chordeumatida: Caseyidae). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 65(2): 177-268.

Opiona scytonotoides Gardner and Shelley
Type locality: Along Oregon state highway 227 at Canyonville Park, 2 miles east of Canyonville, Douglas County, Oregon.
Distribution: Known only from the type locality.
Habitat: Not described.
Food habits and behavior: Not reported
References:

  • Gardner, M.R.; Shelley, R.M. 1989. New records, species, and genera of caseyid millipeds from the Pacific coast of North America (Diplopoda: Chordeumatida: Caseyidae). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 65(2): 177-268.

Opiona siliquae Causey
Type locality: Fault Rock Cave, near Spy Rock in section 32, T24N, R14W, Mendocino County, California.
Distribution: Known only from the type locality.
Habitat: Cave inhabitant.
Food habits and behavior: Not reported
References:

  • Gardner, M.R.; Shelley, R.M. 1989. New records, species, and genera of caseyid millipeds from the Pacific coast of North America (Diplopoda: Chordeumatida: Caseyidae). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 65(2): 177-268.

Tubaphe levii Causey
Type locality: Graves Creek Campground, Olympic National Forest, Jefferson County, Washington.
Distribution: Known only from the type locality.
Habitat: Litter on ground in late successional or old-growth conifer forests.
Food habits and behavior: This species feeds on fallen plant litter on forest floor.
References:

  • Causey, N.B. 1954b. New records and species of millipedes from the western United States. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 30: 221-227.
  • Chamberlin, R.V.; Hoffman, R.L. 1958. Checklist of the millipedes of North America. United States National Museum Bulletin 212: 236 pp.

Class Chilopoda (centipedes)

Order Lithobiomorpha

Family Ethopolidae

Zygethopolys pugetensis Chamberlin, 1928
Type locality: "region of Puget Sound, Washington" (Chamberlin 1928).
Distribution: Some specific localities: WASH: King Co., Seattle, U.W. Campus, former old growth stand in NE corner (Burke Museum, coll. in 1939-40); Snoqualmie (vicinity) (Burke Museum).Snohomish Co., Marysville, Turk property old growth stand (Burke Museum).
Habitat: The known localities are old growth, so far as anything can be determined about them; except for one taken recently by me in a relict, lowland old growth stand, the species has not been taken since 1940. It is probably a lowland old growth obligate (category 1). The former relict old growth stand on the U.W. campus was replaced by some new dormitories in the 1960s. Microhabitats are largely not recorded, but ethopolids are chiefly found in association with dead and rotten wood; the recent specimen was found in a stump.
Food habits and behavior: Nothing is known; centipedes are predators. Specimens have been taken mainly in fall and winter.
Collections: Burke Museum; types at University of Utah.
References:

  • Chamberlin, R.V. 1928. Three new lithobiomorphous chilopods from Washington and Oregon. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 5(2): 85-86.

Class Arachnida

Order Araneida (spiders)

Family Agelenidae (sensu lato), Funnel Web Weavers

Cybaeina minuta (Banks, 1906)
Type locality: Olympia, Washington (precise site not specified).
Distribution: Southwest British Columbia to western Oregon. The genus, with several additional species, also occurs in northern California, but it is uncertain whether C. minuta extends into California. Specific localities include: B.C.: Victoria (vicinity); Kyuquot (vicinity) (West et al. 1984). ORE: Tillamook Co., Bay City (vicinity) (Chamberlin & Ivie 1932). WASH: Thurston Co., Olympia (vicinity), type (Chamberlin & Ivie 1932) and additional specimens reported by Exline (1938); Wahkiakum Co., Grays River Valley, 46.361�N 123.574�W (RLC, Burke Museum); Hendrickson Canyon, 46.367�N 123.666�W (RLC, Burke Museum).
Habitat: None of the published specimen records gives any habitat data; all are in lowlands and most are from before 1930 when there could have been old growth in the areas cited. The two sites represented in the Burke Museum collection are both lowland old growth (one is a continuous old growth stand and the other is an old partial cut with some old growth trees). The species also occurs in an unpublished list of Oregon old growth spiders (P. Opler, pers. comm.). Pending further information, it may be considered a lowland old growth obligate (category 1). Microhabitats (Burke Museum specimens); "under rotting bark or wood or in fallen rotten logs, in moss, loose duff, and under rocks" (Roth & Brame 1972, for entire genus).
Food habits and behavior: Nothing is published. Only one of the published records includes a date (August 1929, male & female). The Burke Museum specimens, all females, are from October. Judging from the relatively small size (3.5-4.5 mm) and habitat, this species probably preys mainly on small decomposer arthropods and perhaps oligochaetes. It is unknown whether the species makes a web (some cybaeines do not).
Collections: Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard (type); American Museum of Natural History; Burke Museum; B.C. Provincial Museum. Additional unpublished specimens are believed to be at Oregon State University; those records are not included here.
References:

  • Chamberlin, R.V.; Ivie, W. 1932. North American spiders of the genera Cybaeus and Cybaeina. Bulletin of the University of Utah, 23(2), Biological Series 2(1): 1-43.
  • Exline, H. 1938. The Araneida of Washington: Agelenidae and Hahniidae. University of Washington Publications in Biology 9(1): 1-44.
  • Roth, V.D.; Brame, P.L. 1972. Nearctic genera of the spider family Agelenidae (Arachnida, Araneida). American Museum Novitates 2505: 1-52.
  • West, R., Dondale, C.D.; Ring, R.A. 1984. A revised checklist of the spiders (Araneae) of British Columbia. Journal of the Entomological Society of British Columbia 81: 80-98.

Cybaeus perditus Chamberlin and Ivie, 1932
Type locality: Sol Duc Hot Springs, Olympic National Park, Wash.
Distribution: Olympic Peninsula of Washington. Some specific localities: WASH: Clallam Co., Sol Duc Hot Springs, Olympic National Park (type) (Chamberlin & Ivie 1932); Cape Alava Trail, Olympic National Park, 48.159�N 124.722�W (RLC, Burke Museum); Grays Harbor Co., Connor Creek, 47.065�N 124.136�W (RLC, Burke Museum); "North Fork of Satsop River" (Exline l938) (note: the Satsop River, in Grays Harbor and Mason counties, actually consists of East and West forks).
Habitat: The older published collections are in areas which presumably consisted of old growth habitat at the time. The more recent collections are from second growth habitats within 1-3 miles of the Pacific Ocean. This species probably belongs in category 3 (multi-habitat along coast, old growth associated inland). Microhabitat is recorded only for one specimen, taken in alder-salmonberry leaf litter. Other Cybaeus spp. are frequently found in rotting logs and similar habitats.
Food habits and behavior: Nothing is published. A female was collected in February, 2 males in July. The size is relatively small (4-5 mm) and the species presumably preys on small decomposer arthropods and perhaps oligochaetes. At least some Cybaeus are wandering predators and make no web (RLC, unpublished ms.).
Collections: American Museum of Natural History (type); Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard; Burke Museum; California Academy of Sciences (probably location of Exline specimens).
References:

  • Chamberlin, R.V.; Ivie, W. 1932. North American spiders of the genera Cybaeus and Cybaeina. Bulletin of the University of Utah, 23(2), Biological Series 2(1): 1-43.
  • Exline, H. 1938. The Araneida of Washington: Agelenidae and Hahniidae. University of Washington Publications in Biology 9(1): 1-44.

Cybaeota munda Chamberlin and Ivie 1937
Type locality: La Honda (vicinity), San Mateo Co., California.
Distribution: Olympia, Washington south to central California. Some specific localities: CALIF: San Benito Co., Pinnacles Nat. Mon. (specific site not stated) (Bennett 1988); San Mateo Co., La Honda (type) (Chamberlin & Ivie 1937). ORE: Douglas Co., 5 mi. W of Drain (Bennett 1988); Josephine Co., Grave Cr., 10 mi. E of Placer (Bennett 1988). WASH: Thurston Co., Evergreen State College shoreline natural area, 47.085�N 122.975�W (Burke Museum); Wahkiakum Co., Duck Creek Road (Elochoman River valley), 47.258�N 123.316�W (Burke Museum).
Habitat: Nothing is stated in the literature about the habitats at previous published localities; all but one of the cited collections is before 1950. The two Washington localities are from a shoreline nature preserve stated to contain old growth Douglas-fir forest (Chilcote et al. 1976), and a mixed, partially second growth forest with a number of large, old cedar and hemlock trees. I place this species in category 6 (old growth association likely but not certain). Microhabitats are not discussed in published literature. The two Burke Museum collections are from a rotten log and a mixed sample of leaf litter, moss, and rotting wood.
Food habits and behavior: Nothing is published. The habitat and small size (2.5 mm) would indicate that this species preys on small decomposer arthropods. Females have been taken in May, July, and October.
Collections: American Museum of Natural History (type and others); California Academy of Sciences; Burke Museum.
References:

  • Bennett, R.G. 1988. The spider genus Cybaeota (Araneae, Agelenidae). Journal of Arachnology 16(1): 103-
  • Chamberlin, R.V.; Ivie, W. 1937. New spiders of the family Agelenidae from western North America. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 30(2): 211-241.
  • Chilcote, R.; Juday, G.P.; Fonda, R.W.; Sawyer, J.O.; Wiedemann, A.W. 1976. A survey of the potential natural landmarks, biotic themes, of the North Pacific border region. U.S. National Park Service, open-file report, 727 pp. Deposited at University of Washington Forest Resources Library.

Family Araneidae, Orbweavers

Araneus nordmanni (Thorell, 1870)
Type locality: Uppland, Sweden.
Distribution: Found rarely in mountains of northern Europe; one record from Siberia; northeastern North America, Rocky Mountains, and British Columbia to central California (Levi 1971). It is likely that this variable species should be divided into subspecies, or even into separate species, but that has not been done yet. Some specific localities: B.C.: Kyuquot (vicinity); Manning Park; Wellington; Langford; Steward Island; Trinity Valley (West et al. 1984). ORE: 7 localities in western Oregon shown as dots on distribution map (Levi 1971) but localities not listed separately. WASH:Clallam Co., Olympic Hot Spring, 47.98�N 123.69�W (Burke Museum); Waterhole Camp, 47.944�N 123.425�W (Burke Museum); King Co., Pratt Mountain, 47.427�N 121.533�W (Burke Museum); Pierce Co., Mowich Lake, 46.93�N 121.86�W (Burke Museum); Skagit Co., Springsteen Lake, 48.627�N 121.849�W (Burke Museum), Coney Pass, 48.329�N 121.736�W (Burke Museum); Skamania Co., Placid Lake Trail, 46.045�N 121.817�W (Burke Museum). Thurston Co., Olympia (Worley 1932); Whatcom Co., Ridge N of Canyon Creek, 48.96�N 121.80�W (Burke Museum).
Habitat: According to Levi (1971), A. nordmanni is "found on trees or, sometimes, boulders, often in dark coniferous forests, and often at high elevations in mountains." Of 16 collections of this species from western Washington at the Burke Museum, 11 (69%) are from old growth coniferous forest (whereas only 2.3% of the sites represented in the collection are old growth). Of the remaining five, 2 are from second growth and 3 from probable second growth. Records from eastern North America and elsewhere probably belong to different subspecies, or even different species, whose habitat requirements may differ. This species (Pacific Northwest form) is placed in category 5, highly characteristic of old growth but sometimes found in second growth. Microhabitats:Most specimens are from webs (often high) stretched between tree trunks; some were found on trunks and branches; some are from boulders, shrubs, or meadow vegetation.
Food habits and behavior: Orbweavers are predators on flying insects; no study has been made of the prey of this particular species. The spiders (which would make good food for birds) do not sit exposed in their webs, but in a patch of lichen on the tree, with which they blend in very well (Nielsen 1932). This tendency may explain in part the preference for old growth, where lichen-encrusted trees are more common. In Washington, mature specimens occur from the end of July into November.
Collections: Canadian National Collection (Ottawa); B.C. Provincial Museum; Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard; Burke Museum. There are undoubtedly also specimens at Oregon State University and the California Academy of Sciences, though the records are not published.
References:

  • Levi, H.W. 1971. The Diadematus group of the orb-weaver genus Araneus north of Mexico (Araneae: Araneidae). Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 141(4): 131-179.
  • Nielsen, E. 1932. The biology of spiders. Vol. 1. Levin and Munksgaard, Copenhagen, 248 pp., 32 plates.
  • West, R.; Dondale, C.D.; Ring, R.A. 1984. A revised checklist of the spiders (Araneae) of British Columbia. Journal of the Entomological Society of British Columbia 81: 80-98.
  • Worley, L.G. 1932. The spiders of Washington with special reference to those of the San Juan Islands. University of Washington Publications in Biology, 1(1): 1-63

Araneus saevus (L.Koch 1872)
Type locality: Bad Ratzes, Austria.
Distribution: Found rarely in mountains of northern Europe and in Siberia; Newfoundland to New York, Rocky Mountains, Alaska to Oregon. Some specific localities: B.C.: Merritt; Trinity Valley; Wells Grey Park; Salmon Arm (West et al. 1984). ORE: a map dot from somewhere west of Salem is shown by Levi (1971). WASH: Clark Co., Battle Ground Lake State Park, 45.802�N 122.490�W (Burke Museum); King Co., Findley Lake, 47.321�N 121.586�W (Burke Museum); Lewis Co., Rainbow Falls State Park, 46.629�N 123.230�W (Burke Museum); Lewis & Clark State Park, 46.522�N 122.816�W (Burke Museum); Pierce Co., McNeil Island (Burke Museum); San Juan Co., Mt. Constitution (Worley 1932); Thurston Co., Olympia (Worley 1932).
Habitat: "Found in forests on trees" (Levi 1971); Worley (1932) gave the habitat as "webs in trees in old coniferous forest." Out of 5 Burke Museum collections from western Washington, 3 are from old growth, one from a campground, and one from an unknown habitat. Evidently this species is characteristic of old growth in this region, though sometimes found in second growth (category 5). Microhabitats are tree trunks; camp buildings and other artificial structures in dense forest; one specimen was taken on floating wood in a lake.
Food habits and behavior: Orbweavers are predators on flying insects; no study has been made of the prey of this particular species. As with the preceding species, there is clearly a preference for tree trunks as web sites. Washington specimens were collected from September into November.
Collections: Burke Museum; Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard; B.C. Provincial Museum; Canadian National Collection (Ottawa).
References:

  • Levi, H.W. 1971. The Diadematus group of the orb-weaver genus Araneus north of Mexico (Araneae: Araneidae). Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 141(4): 131-179.
  • West, R.; Dondale, C.D.; Ring, R.A. 1984. A revised checklist of the spiders (Araneae) of British Columbia. Journal of the Entomological Society of British Columbia 81: 80-98.
  • Worley, L.G. 1932. The spiders of Washington with special reference to those of the San Juan Islands. University of Washington Publications in Biology, 1(1): 1-63

Family Dipluridae, Funnel Web Mygalomorph Spiders

Microhexura idahoana Chamberlin and Ivie 1945
Type locality: 4 miles NE of McCall, Idaho.
Distribution: Typical form, northern Idaho and adjacent forested parts of Washington and Oregon; form rainieri, Washington and Oregon Cascades. Some specific localities: [See Coyle (1981) for records east of Cascades]. ORE: Linn Co., Santiam Pass (Coyle 1981). WASH: Lewis Co., Tongue Mountain Trail, 46.426�N 121.78�W (Burke Museum); Pierce Co., White River, Emmons Trail, Carbon River (all Mt. Rainier National Park) (Coyle 1981), Cayuse Pass, 46.87�N 121.54�W (Burke Museum), Paradise Park, MRNP, 46.78�N 121.73�W (Burke Museum), Nisqually Glacier Bridge, 46.783�N 121.761�W, MRNP (Burke Museum), Laughingwater Creek, 46.753�N 121.548�W, MRNP (Burke Museum); Skamania Co., Meadow on F.S. Rd 23, 46.275�N 121.606�W (Burke Museum), Ape Cave, 46.109�N 122.210�W (Burke Museum).
Habitat: "In a thick grove of evergreen trees, where the spiders were found only under pieces of decaying wood or bark which rested on a base of decayed wood" (Chamberlin & Ivie 1945); "At elevations of 2000-7500 ft. in conifer forests of the Pacific Northwest ... requires constant high humidity" (Coyle 1981). Of 21 collections of this species from Washington at the Burke Museum, 13 are from old growth and 8 from second growth in which considerable dead wood was left on the ground when logged. The proportion of old growth localities for this species is so much higher than for the collection as a whole, that the species must be considered characteristic of old growth but not wholly confined to it; it is therefore placed in category 5. Microhabitats are under dead wood (Chamberlin and Ivie 1945); in or on duff or duff and moss, which is under wood, bark, rocks, or the edges of decaying logs (Coyle 1981). Burke Museum specimens are from inside rotten logs, under rocks, in moss and leaf litter, and active on tree trunks. It is evident that the habitat of this species is not as highly restricted as that of its eastern relative Microhexura montivaga, the "spruce-fir moss spider," which has recently been proposed for endangered status (Fridell 1994). Nevertheless, it is generally associated with montane old growth and modern clearcut logging would likely exterminate any population in the sale units, due to the species' intolerance for dryness.
Food habits and behavior: Chamberlin and Ivie (1945) kept some live specimens in vials "and were fed Drosophila flies, about three per week. They had to be supplied with moisture at all times; even a few hours dryness caused death. In the vials, as in their native habitat, they built small webs, mainly in the form of tubular runways, with a number of openings, and with connecting strands and sheets." Both Chamberlin & Ivie, and Coyle (1981), have reported the females' behavior of carrying their egg sacs about with their fangs. I have observed this also; it seems to occur especially when the spiders are disturbed. Prey have not been recorded for this species, but probably consist of small decomposer arthropods. Mature females have been found year around; males only in winter. Tree trunk activity traps took specimens only from November to April.
Collections: American Museum of Natural History (types), Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard, Burke Museum.
References:

  • Chamberlin, R.V.; Ivie, W. 1945. On some nearctic Mygalomorph spiders. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 38(4): 549-558.
  • Coyle, F.A. 1981. The mygalomorph spider genus Microhexura (Araneae, Dipluridae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 170(1): 64-110.
  • Fridell, J.A. 1994. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants; proposal to list the Spruce-Fir Moss Spider as an endangered species. Federal Register (online, Internet version), Fish and Wildlife Service, Jan. 27 1994, 50 CFR part 17/RIN 1018- AC25.

Family Gnaphosidae, Ground Spiders

Orodrassus canadensis Platnick and Shadab 1975
Type locality: Lake Opeongo, Algonquin Provincial Park, Ontario, Canada.
Distribution: Across southern Canada to Vancouver Island; Montana (1 record); Washington (Platnick & Dondale 1992). Some specific localities: B.C.: Atlin; Terrace; Forbidden Plateau (West et al. 1984). ORE: No Oregon records have been published, but the species probably occurs in Oregon. WASH: Clallam Co., Hurricane Ridge, Olympic National Park (P&S 1975); Waterhole Camp, 47.944�N 123.425�W (Burke Museum); Deer Park, 47.949�N 123.259�W (Burke Musuem); Cowlitz Co., Kalama Spring Camp, 46.144�N 122.253�W (Burke Museum). Jefferson Co., Bogerhill Park, Olympic National Park (P&S 1975); Pierce Co., Longmire, Mt.Rainier National Park (P&S 1975); Lewis Co., Laughingwater Creek, 46.753�N 121.548�W (Burke Museum); San Juan Co., Mt. Constitution (P&S 1975);
Habitat: Published records are from coniferous forests (Platnick & Shadab 1975, Platnick & Dondale 1992), but do not specify whether old growth or younger forests. The wide distribution indicates a variety of forest types. The Burke Museum has 16 collections of this species from western Washington, of which 100% are from old growth or old growth/treeline coniferous forest; all but one of these are in national parks. The lowest elevation for any Burke Museum specimen is 2600'; Platnick & Shadab (1975) had none from below 3000'. Clearly, in Washington this is a montane old growth obligate (category 2). Microhabitats are active on tree trunks (most Burke Museum specimens), in tree crowns, under loose bark, in cabins, active on ground, under logs, under rocks, and under a moss mat on rock.
Food habits and behavior: This species actively forages for its prey at night and rests during the day in a silken cell, the retreat. Relatively large (up to 13 mm), it probably takes a wide range of prey including forest pest insects. In a comparative study (unpublished), 72 specimens were taken on the deeply fissured bark of old growth Douglas-fir trees in Mt. Rainier National Park, and 0 on the trees of a comparable young stand outside the park. Mature specimens have been taken throughout its range from mid-April to September (Platnick & Shadab 1975); in Washington, March to October (Burke Museum specimens).
Collections: Burke Museum; Canadian National Collection, Ottawa; American Museum of Natural History.
References:

  • Platnick, N.I.; Dondale, C.D. 1992. The ground spiders of Canada and Alaska (Araneae: Gnaphosidae). Insects and Arachnids of Canada, 19 (Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, Publication 1875), 297 pp.
  • Platnick, N.I.; Shadab, M.U. 1975. A revision of the spider genus Haplodrassus and Orodrassus (Araneae, Gnaphosidae) in North America. American Museum Novitates 2583: 1- 40.
  • West, R.; Dondale, C.D.; Ring, R.A. 1984. A revised checklist of the spiders (Araneae) of British Columbia. Journal of the Entomological Society of British Columbia 8

Family Linyphiidae, Sheet-web Weavers

Bathyphantes alascensis (Banks, 1900)
Type locality: Yakutat, Alaska.
Distribution: Coastal SE Alaska (forest) to northern California (caves only), always west of Cascades. Some specific localities: ALAS: Yakutat (type); SE of Wrangell (Ivie 1969); Lituya Bay, Glacier Bay Nat.Mon., (Burke Museum). B.C.: Kyuquot; Wellington (Ivie l969); Brooks Peninsula (West et al. 1969); Chipmunk Cave #4, Chilliwack Valley (Burke Museum). WASH: Clallam Co., Lake Sutherland (Ivie 1969), Sol Duc Hot Spring, Olympic National Park (Burke Museum); Clark Co., Battle Ground Lake State Park, 45.802�N 122.494�W (Burke Museum). Grays Harbor Co., S of Cook Creek, 47.353�N 123.915�W (Burke Museum); King Co., Maloney's Grove (nr. North Bend) (Ivie 1969), Schmitz Park, Seattle, 47.574�N 122.398�W (Burke Museum); Mason Co., S Fork Skokomish River, 47.427�N 123.352�W (Burke Museum); Pacific Co., Beards Hollow (in cave), 46.306�N 124.068�W (Burke Museum); Skagit Co., Washington Monument, 48.638�N 121.833�W (Burke Museum); Samish River, 48.552�N 122.295�W (Burke Museum); Skamania Co., recorded from numerous caves (Burke Museum); Snohomish Co., S of Index, 47.805�N 121.547�W (Burke Museum); Wahkiakum Co., Duck Creek Road in Elochoman Valley, 46.258�N 123.316�W (Burke Museum).OREGON: [all records from Ivie 1969] Lincoln Co., Nelscott; Lane Co., Glenada; Douglas Co., Reedsport; Benton Co., 9 miles W of Philomath; Deschutes Co., Skyline Trail, Three Sisters area. CALIF.: Trinity Co., Hall City Cave.
Habitat: Of 36 collections of this species from Washington at the Burke Museum, 26 are from caves, where the species makes small webs in the twilight zone. Of the 10 surface collections, 6 are from old growth and 4 are not. It would seem that this species favors a situation protected from climatic extremes, and that when caves are not available, old growth is a more favorable habitat. It therefore belongs in category 5. Microhabitats are under rocks, under bark, leaf litter, under boards and cement slabs, in fern understory of dense dark forest, in stump debris and rotten logs. Specimens in caves are found 5-65' inside but mostly about 20' in, mostly on walls or under rocks but a few on ceilings or among logs (Senger & Crawford 1984).
Food habits and behavior: This species makes a small sheet-web some 10 cm in diameter, trapping primarily gnats (Diptera, Nematocera) and other small flying insects; it appears to mature in the fall and survive through the following spring, overlapping the next generation (Senger & Crawford 1984).
Collections: Smithsonian (type), American Museum of Natural History, Burke Museum, Canadian National Collection, California Academy of Sciences.
References:

  • Ivie, Wilton. 1969. North American spiders of the genus Bathyphantes (Araneae, Linyphiidae). American Museum Novitates 2364: 1-70.
  • Senger, Clyde M., and Rodney L. Crawford. 1984. Biological inventory, Mt.St. Helens Cave Basalt Flow Area, Final Report. Contract report for Mt. St. Helens National Volcanic Monument, 526 pp.

Bathyphantes sp. #2
Type locality: Undescribed species, no type locality. Referred to under this designation by Crawford (1988).
Distribution: Southwestern Washington. Some specific localities: WASH.: King Co., pond nr. Snoqualmie River, 47.569�N 121.881�W (Burke Museum); Wahkiakum Co., Hendrickson Canyon, 46.366�N 123.666�W (Burke Museum).
Habitat: Of the two known localities, the second is old growth and the macrohabitat of the first was not recorded. This species can be regarded as a potential old growth endemic whose status is uncertain (category 6). Microhabitats are grass litter at a pond margin; conifer foliage.
Food habits and behavior: Nothing is known. Females were taken in April and October, males in October; most likely the species overwinters as an adult.
Collections: Burke Museum only, so far as known.
References:

  • Crawford, Rodney L. 1988. An annotated checklist of the spiders of Washington. Burke Museum Contributions in Anthropology and Natural History 5: 1-48.

"Collinsia" wilburi Levi and Levi, 1955
Type locality: Iceberg Lake, Glacier National Park, Montana. Note: This species does not belong in Collinsia, but in a new genus yet to be named (Crawford 1988).
Distribution: Montana (type record only), British Columbia, Washington. Some specific localities: B.C.: Manning Park (West et al. 1984). WASH.: [all Burke Museum] Whatcom Co., Blue Lake Trail, 48.652�N 121.788�W; Skagit Co., Washington Monument, 48.636�N 121.835�W; Hidden Lake Trail, 48.512�N 121.195�W; Clallam Co., Waterhole Camp, Olympic National Park, 47.944�N 123.425�W; Pierce Co., Beljica Meadows, 46.789�N 121.936�W; Skamania Co., N of Butte Camp, Mt. St. Helens, 46.175�N 122.225�W. OREGON: Not yet recorded but almost certainly occurs.
Habitat: All the collections are from comparatively high elevations (only one is below 4000'). The non- Washington records do not specify macrohabitat. Of 15 collections from western Washington, 5 are from old growth, 9 are from treeline or subalpine habitats, and 1 is from volcanically altered landscape at Mt. St. Helens. This species clearly belongs to category 4, montane old growth species which are also subalpine.
Microhabitats are under rocks, under dead wood on ground, under bark of standing dead trees, in rotten logs, in leaf litter (especially of Alnus sinuata), and ground surface active.
Food habits and behavior: Nothing is published. The very small spiders of this group (this species is 2.1 mm long) feed mainly on Collembola and small Diptera, which are caught in their postage-stamp sized webs chiefly at ground level. Mature specimens have been taken from mid-June to early October.
Collections: American Museum of Natural History (type), Canadian National Collection, Burke Museum.
References:

  • Crawford, Rodney L. 1988. An annotated checklist of the spiders of Washington. Burke Museum Contributions in Anthropology and Natural History 5: 1-48.
  • Levi, Lorna R., and Herbert W. Levi. 1955. Spiders and harvestmen from Waterton and Glacier National Parks. Canadian Field- Naturalist 69: 32-40.
  • West, R., C.D. Dondale, and R.A. Ring. 1984. A revised checklist of the spiders (Araneae) of British Columbia. Journal of the Entomological Society of British Columbia 81: 80-98.

Lepthyphantes rainieri Emerton, 1926
Type locality: Paradise Park, Mt. Rainier, Washington.
Distribution: Rocky Mountains (Alberta to Colorado), Washington. Some specific localities: [The Alberta record is from D.J. Buckle, personal comm.; Montana and Wyoming records from Levi and Levi (1951, 1955); Colorado record from Zorsch (1937). WASH.: [4 localities in Okanogan Co., eastern Wash. (Burke Museum)]; Waterhole Camp, Olympic National Park, 47.944�N 123.425�W (Burke Museum); Pierce County, Beljica Meadows, 46.789�N 121.936�W (Burke Museum); Paradise Park (type). OREGON: Not recorded but may occur.
Habitat: The lowest recorded elevation is 3560'. All the western Washington specimens are from old growth, but some records from elsewhere are in subalpine habitats. This species probably belongs to category 4, montane old growth species which are also subalpine. Microhabitats are "on vegetation" (Levi & Levi 1955); under rocks, under dead wood on ground, in rotting logs, under bark of standing dead trees (Burke Museum data).
Food habits and behavior: Nothing is known. The small body length (2.7 mm) and habitat indicate predation on small decomposer arthropods. Members of this genus make small sheet webs 2-5 cm in diameter. Washington specimens were taken in late July through August.
Collections: American Museum of Natural History; Burke Museum; Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard (type); D.J. Buckle private collection.
References:

  • Levi, Herbert W., and Lorna R. Levi. 1951. Report on a collection of spiders and harvestmen from Wyoming and neighboring states. Zoologica 36: 219-237.
  • Levi, Lorna R., and Herbert W. Levi. 1955. Spiders and harvestmen from Waterton and Glacier National Parks. Canadian Field- Naturalist 69: 32-40.
  • Zorsch, Helen M. 1937. The spider genus Lepthyphantes in the United States. American Midland Naturalist 18(5): 856-898.

NOTE: The above references mistakenly list the female of another species as the female of L. rainieri (which was described from males), and list the true female of L. rainieri under the name L. chamberlini.

Linyphantes anacortes Chamberlin and Ivie, 1942
Type locality: Larrabee State Park, Whatcom Co., Washington.
Distribution: British Columbia to California, west of Cascades. Some specific localities: B.C.: [unpublished record from D.J. Buckle, pers. comm.]. WASH.:Whatcom Co., Larrabee State Park (type); Clallam Co., Pillar Point, 48.220�N 124.130�W (Burke Museum), Cape Alava, 48.159�n 124.728�W (Burke Museum); Island Co., Fort Ebey State Park, 48.219�N 122.756�W (Burke Museum); King Co., Schmitz Park (Seattle), 47.575�N 122.400�W (Burke Museum); Grays Harbor Co., Pacific Beach, 47.219�N 124.207�W (Burke Museum); Pacific Co., Sandy Point, 46.603�N 123.951�W (Burke Museum); Wahkiakum Co., Duck Creek Road in Elochoman Valley, 46.258�N 123.316�W (Burke Museum). OREGON: No records published, but undoubtedly occurs. CALIF.: Humboldt Co., Eureka (vicinity) (Chamberlin & Ivie 1942); Monterey Co., Pacific Grove (vicinity) (Chamberlin & Ivie 1942).
Habitat: Most records of this species are within a mile or so of the coast, where it is found in a variety of habitats, mostly understory of coastal forests many of which are second-growth. However, the only two records in the Burke Museum collection which are inland from the coast, are in old growth or borderline habitats with at least some old growth trees. It appears likely that, away from the constant supply of moisture in its primary coastal habitats, this species needs old growth to survive. It therefore belongs in category 3. Microhabitats are not recorded in literature; Burke Museum specimens are chiefly from coastal forest understory vegetation (especially salal), but also from forest floor moss and litter, conifer foliage, a lichen-covered bare branch, and beach meadow herbage.
Food habits and behavior: Nothing is known. The size (2-2.5 mm) and habitat would indicate that the species preys on small flies and herbivorous insects such as winged aphids. Mature specimens have been taken in all seasons.
Collections: American Museum of Natural History; Burke Museum; D.J. Buckle private collection.
References:

  • Chamberlin, Ralph V., and Wilton Ivie. 1942. A hundred new species of American spiders. Bulletin of the University of Utah, 32(13), Biological Series 7(1): 1-117.

Mythoplastoides erectus (Emerton, 1916)
Type locality: Tackakaw Falls, Yoho Valley, B.C.
Distribution: Wyoming, Alberta, coastal SE Alaska to Washington. Some specific localities: [Wyoming and Alberta records in Crosby and Bishop (1933)]. Alaska: Lituya Bay, Glacier Bay National Monument (Burke Museum); B.C.: type locality; Courtenay, Manning Park, Heather Mountain (West et al. 1984). WASH.: [all Burke Museum] Skagit Co., Washington Monument, 48.636�N 121.835�W; Hidden Lake Trail, 48.515�N 121.201�W; Clallam Co., Heart o the Hills Rd, Olympic National Park, 47.987�N 123.437�W; Jefferson Co., Tunnel Cr. Ridge, 47.757�N 123.089�W; Tunnel Creek Shelter, 47.763�N 123.095�W; King Co., Old Stevens Pass Road, 47.748�N 121.093�W; Pierce Co., nr. White River, Mt. Rainier Nat. Park, 46.954�N 121.528�W; Nisqually Glacier Bridge, Mt. Rainier Nat. Park, 46.783�N 121.761�W; Skamania Co., N. of Butte Camp, Mt. St. Helens, 46.174�N 122.226�W. It is not known whether the species occurs in Oregon.
Habitat: Of 10 collections from Washington, 6 are from old growth and 4 are from more open subalpine habitats. All of these collections are in the elevation range 3000-5000'. The species is clearly a montane old growth - subalpine form, category 4. Microhabitats: Washington specimens are from rotten wood, under dead wood on ground, on heather foliage, in moss, and especially in Alnus sinuata leaf litter. Specimens reported by Crosby and Bishop (1933) were sifted from moss.
Food habits and behavior: Nothing is known. The small size, 1.5-2 mm, and habitat suggest that this species is primarily a Collembola predator. Mature specimens have been taken from April to October.
Collections: American Museum of Natural History, Canadian National Collection (Ottawa), Burke Museum.
References:

  • Crosby, Cyrus R., and Sherman C. Bishop. 1933. American spiders: Erigoneae, males with cephalic pits. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 26(1): 105-182.
  • West, R., C.D. Dondale, and R.A. Ring. 1984. A revised checklist of the spiders (Araneae) of British Columbia. Journal of the Entomological Society of British Columbia 81: 80-98.

Scotinotylus sp. #6
Type locality: Undescribed species, no type locality.
Distribution: Known only from the following locality: WASH.: Lewis Co., Laughingwater Creek, Mt. Rainier National Park, 46.753�N 121.548�W (Burke Museum).
Habitat: Both collections were from tree trunk activity traps in an old growth stand. Though we have too little information to be certain, it is possible that this species belongs in category 2, montane old growth obligate. Microhabitats: the only known microhabitat is the deeply fissured bark of old growth coniferous trees.
Food habits and behavior: Nothing is known. The two specimens were taken at the end of May and in October.
Collections: Burke Museum only.
References:

  • Crawford, R., unpublished records, Burke Museum.

Tachygyna exilis Millidge, 1984
Type locality: British Columbia, Manning Provincial Park, 11 mi. W of Allison Pass.
Distribution: B.C. to Washington. Some specific localities: B.C.: type locality. WASH.: [all Burke Museum] Skamania Co., N of Butte Camp, Mt.St. Helens, 46.174�N 122.226�W; Yakima Co., Scatter Creek, 46.578�N 121.357�W.
Habitat: Both Washington localities are in or adjacent to old growth; the elevations are 3360' and 4550'. An apparent third Washington locality was shown on a map by Millidge (1984), but he did not list this locality in text. It seems likely that this is a montane old growth obligate, category 2. Microhabitats are moss on forest floor and ground surface active (Burke Museum specimens), and moss, leaf litter, and conifer needle litter (Millidge 1984).
Food habits and behavior: Nothing is known. The small size, 1.3 mm, and habitat indicate that the species probably feeds on Collembola, possibly small Diptera, and perhaps even mites. Most adults were taken in June and July, some in September.
Collections: Canadian National Collection (Ottawa), types and others; Burke Museum.
References:

  • Millidge, A.F. 1984. The erigonine spiders of North America. Part 7. Miscellaneous genera. Journal of Arachnology 12(2): 121- 169.

Wubana suprema Chamberlin and Ivie, 1936
Type locality: Weed (vicnity), Siskiyou Co., California.
Distribution: North edge of California to Washington, in and west of the Cascades. Some specific localities: WASH.: [all Burke Museum] Lewis Co., Laughingwater Creek, Mt. Rainier National Park, 46.753�N 121.548�W; Skagit Co., Washington Monument, 48.636�N 121.835�W; Thurston Co., Evergreen Shoreline Nature Reserve, 47.085�N 122.975�W. OREGON: No known records but must occur. CALIF.: type locality.
Habitat: All known localities are in old growth; this is the only species found in both lowland and montane old growth (categories 1 & 2). Microhabitats are "under a rotten pine log near a stream" (Chamberlin and Ivie 1936); Burke Museum specimens are from under dead wood on ground, active on old growth tree trunk, and from a mixed sample of leaf litter, moss, and rotting wood.
Food habits and behavior: Nothing is known. The size, 2.5 mm, and habitat make it likely that this species preys on small decomposer arthropods. Mature specimens were taken July to October.
Collections: American Museum of Natural History, Burke Museum.
References:

  • Chamberlin, Ralph V., and Wilton Ivie. 1936. Nearctic spiders of the genus Wubana. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 29(1): 85-98.

Family Mecicobothriidae, Funnel-web mygalomorph spiders (note: this common name, the only one available, is shared with Dipluridae, to which Mecicobothriidae is not otherwise related).

Hexura picea Simon, 1884
Type locality: "Washington Territory."
Distribution: Western Washington and Oregon, known from numerous localities. Some specific localities (selected; these are about 30% of the known localities): WASH.: Grays Harbor Co., Graves Creek on Quinault River, Olympic National Park (Gertsch & Platnick 1979), Canyon River, 47.262�N 123.526�W (Burke Museum); Jefferson Co., Big Creek, Olympic National Park, 47.545�N 123.720�W (Burke Museum), Irely Lake Trail, Olympic Nat. Park, 47.569�N 123.674�W (Burke Museum); Mason Co., Staircase Rapids, Olympic National Park, 47.520�N 123.333�W (Burke Museum), S Fork Skokomish River, 47.428�N 123.352�W (Burke Museum); King Co., Raging River, 47.540�N 121.906�W (Burke Museum), Cedar River, 47.40�N 121.82�W (Burke Museum); Pierce Co., S of Forest Lake, 47.044�n 122.193�W (Burke Museum), nr. Kautz Creek, Mt. Rainier National Park (Gertsch & Platnick 1979); Thurston Co., 1 mi W of Rainier, 46.886�N 122.715�W (Burke Museum); Lewis Co., Little Nisqually River, 46.725�N 122.310�W (Burke Museum), Lewis & Clark State Park, 46.519�N 122.815�W (Burke Museum); Wahkiakum Co., Hendrickson Canyon, 46.366�N 123.666�W (Burke Museum), Duck Cr. Road in Elochoman Valley, 46.258�N 123.316�W (Burke Museum); Cowlitz Co., above Kalama River, 46.093�N 122.383�W (Burke Museum). OREGON: (all records from Gertsch & Platnick 1979) Benton Co., Mary's Peak, 5 mi W of Philomath, 7.5 mi N of Philomath; Clatsop Co., 5 mi N & 7 mi W of Elsie, 3 mi SE of Olney; Lane Co., 3 mi E of Blue River, 3 mi E of Tiernan, Triangle Lake; Lincoln Co., Nelscott, 4.7 mi E of Tidewater, Yaquina River.; Washington Co., Forest Grove.
Habitat: In forested areas of Oregon and Washington under the usually abundant pine or coniferous duff (Gertsch & Platnick 1979). Of 51 collections of this species at the Burke Museum, about 20 are from old growth sites; most of the rest are from relatively near the coast. Evidently this species is one of those which requires constant moisture availability, which is present in many habitats near the coast, but renders them unable to live in cut-over forests inland (category 3). Microhabitats are leaf litter, moss, under rocks, under dead wood on ground, and in rotten logs and stumps.
Food habits and behavior: "Although they are active animals they spend most of their lives within the confines of a sheet web. From their retreat funnel they spin out a flat sheet a few inches wide and run upright over the surface. Older webs soon become a complex of tubes and supporting sheets beside, above, or beneath the principal sheet. Typically, the webs are mostly hidden from view by covering objects or detritus." (Gertsch and Platnick 1979). Females have been found mainly in late summer or fall; males only in October and November (Chamberlin and Ivie 1945). These relatively large spiders (often 1 cm long) with their extensive webs prey on many forest floor inhabitants, including beetles and isopods (personal observation).
Collections: American Museum of Natural History; Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard; Burke Museum. The types are at the Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France.
NOTE: Hexura rothi, described from Oregon by Gertsch and Platnick (1979), may also be an old growth obligate, but no habitat information was recorded for any of the published localities in this paper, so further research must be done to evaluate this species.
References:

  • Chamberlin, Ralph V., and Wilton Ivie. 1945. On some nearctic Mygalomorph spiders. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 38(4): 549-558.
  • Gertsch, Willis J., and Norman I. Platnick. 1979. A revision of the spider family Mecicobothriidae (Araneae, Mygalomorphae). American Museum Novitates 2687: 1-

Family Salticidae, Jumping Spiders

Pseudicius sp. #1
Type locality: Undescribed species, no type locality.
Distribution: Washington Cascades, possibly south to California. Note: Wayne Maddison, salticid expert from the University of Arizona, examined my specimens in 1993 and told me they were a new species related to P. monticola, of which he had seen specimens from farther south, but without specifying any localities. We have been waiting nearly 10 years for his paper describing species in this group to appear. Some specific localities: WASH.: Chelan Co., Fish Lake, 47.825�N 120.720�W (Burke Museum); Lewis Co., Laughingwater Creek, Mt. Rainier Nat. Park, 46.753�N 121.548�W (Burke Museum).
Habitat: Both known Washington localities are relatively dry old growth Douglas-fir forest; at the Chelan Co. site some ponderosa pine is present, but the spider was on a Douglas-fir. Microhabitats: both specimens were active on the trunks of large trees.
Food habits and behavior: Nothing is known; all local jumping spiders are diurnal, active predators that hunt by sight. The specimens, both males, were taken in June and September.
Collections: Burke Museum; probably Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard or University of Arizona.
References:

  • Unpublished data, R. Crawford and W. Maddison.

Sitticus finschii (L. Koch, 1879)
Type locality: Obdorsk, Siberia, Russia.
Distribution: Siberia; Alberta, Wyoming, Montana, Minnesota (Proszynski 1968; Levi and Levi 1951, 1955); British Columbia, Washington. Some specific localities: [see the above cited references for specific records in the Rocky Mountains area] B.C.: Terrace (vicinity) (West et al. 1984). WASH.: (all Burke Museum) Kittitas Co., Tripod Flat, 47.010�N 120.975�W; Lewis Co., Laughingwater Creek, Mt. Rainier National Park, 46.753�N 121.548�W.
Habitat: None of the published references (including those discussing the occurrence in Siberia) say anything about macrohabitat. Both of the Washington localities are montane old growth; from the second, there are 6 separate collections. The species is likely a montane old growth obligate (category 2). Microhabitats are active on bark of logs and tree trunks (Burke Museum specimens); under stones (Levi and Levi 1955).
Food habits and behavior: Nothing is known; all local jumping spiders are diurnal, active predators that hunt by sight. Females have been found from May to September, males in June and July.
Collections: Canadian National Collection, Ottawa; Burke Museum; American Museum of Natural History; Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard.
References:

  • Levi, Herbert W., and Lorna R. Levi. 1951. Report on a collection of spiders and harvestmen from Wyoming and neighboring states. Zoologica 36: 219-237.
  • Levi, Lorna R., and Herbert W. Levi. 1955. Spiders and harvestmen from Waterton and Glacier National Parks. Canadian Field- Naturalist 69: 32-40.
  • Proszynski, Jerzy. 1968. Revision of the spider genus Sitticus Simon, 1901 (Araneida, Salticidae). I. The terebratus group. Annales Zoologici (Polska Akademia Nauk) 26(18); 391-407.
  • West, R., C.D. Dondale, and R.A. Ring. 1984. A revised checklist of the spiders (Araneae) of British Columbia. Journal of the Entomological Society of British Columbia 81: 80-98.

Order Chernetida, Pseudoscorpions

Family Pseudogarypidae

Pseudogarypus hesperus Chamberlin, 1931
Type locality: Puyallup, Pierce Co., Washington.
Distribution: Western Washington and Oregon and forested parts of eastern Oregon. Some specific localities: WASH.: only the type locality. OREGON: (all from Benedict & Malcolm 1978) Clackamas Co., SW of Government Camp, S of Government Camp, NE of Zig Zag; Jackson Co., summit of Mt. Ashland; Jefferson Co., Santiam Pass, SW of Camp Sherman; Lane Co., E of Oakridge, SE of Oakridge; Lincoln Co., Saddleback Mtn., 10 mi E of Lincoln City; Linn Co., 31 mi E of Sweet Home; Polk Co., 8 mi E of Valsetz; Umatilla Co., Woodward Camp, 33 mi N of La Grande.
Habitat: "This species has been collected most frequently from very flaky and well rotted bark still attached to very large and old living conifers. We attempted to recover it from near the type locality at Puyallup, Washington, but the area has few remaining old-growth trees. Despite more than 30 bark samples from stumps, 5 to 8 feet in diameter, and from older "seed" trees, no new Washington specimens were recovered by Berlese extraction. All but two Oregon specimens came from bark of Douglas-fir and Pacific Silver firs, western and mountain hemlock, Elgelmann spruce, and western red cedar. One specimen was recovered from beneath a rock and another captured alive in a spider web inside an outhouse in a forest camp. No specimens have been recorded from coniferous litter." (Benedict and Malcolm 1978). The species should be considered a lowland old growth obligate (category 1) (some Oregon localities may be montane). Microhabitats are as cited in the quote above.
Food habits and behavior: Nothing is published. Pseudoscorpions are predators on small insects.
Collections: Virtually all the specimens cited are in the J.C. Chamberlin and E.M. Benedict collections at Pacific University, Forest Grove, Oregon.
References:

  • Benedict, Ellen M., and David R. Malcolm. 1978. The family Pseudogarypidae (Pseudoscorpionida) in North America with comments on the genus Neopseudogarypus Morris from Tasmania. Journal of Arachnology 6(2): 81-104.

Order Acari (mites)

Family Trachytidae

Caminella peraphora Krantz and Ainscough
Type locality: Mary's Peak 17 miles west of Corvallis, Benton County, Oregon.
Distribution: Oregon west of the Cascade crest. The only other location known is: ORE: Lane Co., H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, near Blue River.
Habitat: Moist moss bordering stream in old-growth Douglas-fir --Western Hemlock forest.
Food habits and behavior: The species is predaceous, and has been raised on nematodes in the laboratory. The female, assisted by the male, produces an unusual spermatheca- like structure. The structure is unique among mites.
Comment: This is considered to be a primitive mite, the only included species in the genus Caminella Krantz and Ainscough, which in turn is the only included genus in the subfamily Caminellinae Krantz and Ainscough.
References:

  • *Compton, G.L.; Krantz, G.W. 1978. Mating behavior and related morphological specialization in the Uropodine mite, Caminella peraphora. Science 200: 1300-1301.
  • *Krantz, G.W.; Ainscough, B.D. 1960. Caminella peraphora, a new genus and species of mite from Oregon (Acarina: Trachytidae). Annals of the Entomologiocal Society of America 53: 27-34.

Camisia carrolli Andre
Oribatid mite most associated with old growth western hemlock at Andrews Experimental Forest.
References:

  • Schowalter (1989)

Epilohmannia undescribed species
Wood-eating mite in Old Growth
References:

  • Franklin, J.F. (1990)

Order Phalangida (harvestman)

Family Cladonychiidae

*Cryptomaster leviathan Briggs
Type locality: 4.5 miles south of Gold Beach, Curry Co., Oregon.
Distribution: Known only from ORE: Curry Co., 4.5 miles south of Gold Beach.
Habitat: Found under fallen bark and litter in primary Sitka spruce forest.
Food habits and behavior: Harvestmen are predatory. Prey species are unknown.
Comment: This monotypic genus is known only from a single site.
References:

  • Briggs, T.S. 1969. A new holarctic family of laniatorid phalangids. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 45: 35-50.

Family Pentanychidae (relict harvestmen)

*Isolachus spinosus Briggs
Type locality:1 mile south of Saddle Mountain State Park, Clatsop County, Oregon.
Distribution: Coastal Washington and coastal northern Oregon. Specific localities include: ORE: Clatsop Co., 1 mile south of Saddle Mountain State Park; Columbia Co., 5.5 miles south of Clatskanie; WASH: Grays Harbor Co., 6.8 miles south of Neilton; Lewis Co., Rainbow Falls State Park.
Habitat: In rotting wood or fallen litter of well-established spruce-fir forests.
Food habits and behavior: Harvestmen are predaceous. The prey of this species is unknown.
References:

  • Briggs, T.S. 1971. Relict harvestmen from the Pacific Northwest. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 47: 165-178.

Pentanychus clavatus
Type locality:7.7 miles northwest Eddyville, Lincoln County, Oregon.
Distribution: Coastal Oregon in Lincoln and Yamhill counties. Specific localities include: ORE: Lincoln Co., 0.5 mile north of Depoe Bay on U.S. highway 101; 7.7 miles northwest of Eddyville; 3 miles east of U.S. Highway 101 at Taft; Yamhill Co., 10.7 miles northwest of Valley Junction.
Habitat: In rotting wood or fallen litter of well-established spruce-fir forests.
Food habits and behavior: Harvestmen are predaceous. The prey of this species is unknown.
References:

  • Briggs, T.S. 1971. Relict harvestmen from the Pacific Northwest. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 47: 165-178.

Pentanychus hamatus Briggs
Type locality: Neptune State Park on U.S. Highway 101, Lane County, Oregon.
Distribution: Coastal Oregon in Lane and Lincoln counties. Specific localities include: ORE: Lane Co., 0.3 mile and 1.2 miles east Highway 101 on Cape Creek Road near Hecata Head; Neptune State Park on U.S. Highway 101; Lincoln Co., 0.5 mile east Cape Perpetua on U.S. Highway 101.
Habitat: In rotting wood or fallen litter of well-established spruce-fir forests.
Food habits and behavior: Harvestmen are predaceous. The prey of this species is unknown.
References:

  • Briggs, T.S. 1971. Relict harvestmen from the Pacific Northwest. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 47: 165- 178.

Pentanychus bilobatus Briggs
Type locality: Honeyman State Park, Lane Co.,Oregon.
Distribution: Coastal Oregon in Lane and Curry counties. Specific localities include: ORE: Curry Co., 4.5 miles south of Gold Beach; Lane Co., 0.3 and 1.2 miles east of U.S. Highway 101 on Cape Creek Road near Hecata Head; Honeyman State Park.
Habitat: In rotting wood or fallen litter in well-established spruce-fir forests.
Food habits and behavior: Harvestmen are predaceous. The prey of this species is unknown.
References:

  • Briggs, T.S. 1971. Relict harvestmen from the Pacific Northwest. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 47: 165-178.

Pentanychus flavescens Briggs
Type locality: 5.8 miles south of Clatskanie, Columbia County, Oregon.
Distribution: Vicinity of Clatskanie, Columbia County, Oregon. Specific localities are: ORE: Columbia Co., 5.5 miles south of Clatskanie; 5.8 miles south of Clatskanie.
Habitat: In rotting wood or fallen litter in well-established spruce-fir forests.
Food habits and behavior: Harvestmen are predaceous. The prey of this species is unknown.
Comment: Half of the specimens examined by Briggs (1971) lacked both retinae and are blind. This is the only blind North American harvestman in the superfamily Travunoidea.
References:

  • Briggs, T.S. 1971. Relict harvestmen from the Pacific Northwest. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 47: 165-178.

Pentanychus pacificus Briggs
Type locality: 5.9 miles east of Astoria Bridge near Knappton, Pacific County, Washington.
Distribution: Known only from 5.9 miles east of Astoria Bridge near Knappton, Pacific County, Washington.
Habitat: In rotting wood or fallen litter in well-established spruce-fir forests.
Food habits and behavior: Harvestmen are predaceous. The prey of this species is unknown.
References:

  • Briggs, T.S. 1971. Relict harvestmen from the Pacific Northwest. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 47: 165-178.

Pentanychus sp. nov.
Type locality: Undescribed species, no type locality.
Distribution: Only one specimen is known, from the south slope of the Olympic Mountains in Washington. Specific locality: WASH.: Grays Harbor Co., E fork Satsop River (Burke Museum).
Habitat: The specimen, which was collected in 1932, bears no habitat data, but it is likely that there was old growth in the area at that time. All described pentanychids are old growth endemics (Briggs 1971). Briggs examined this specimen and determined it to be new, but too damaged to describe a species from; no others have been found. It is likely that it is a lowland old growth obligate (category 1). Microhabitats are not known for this species. Others live primarily under dead wood (sometimes in deep layers) on the ground (Briggs 1971).
Food habits and behavior: Nothing is known; members of this group are predators and occasionally scavengers. The specimen, a female, was collected in late July.
Collections: Burke Museum.
References:

  • Briggs, Thomas S. 1971.Relict harvestmen from the Pacific Northwest (Opiliones). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 47(3): 165-178.

Taracus sp.
Type locality:
Distribution:
Habitat:
Food habits and behavior: Snail predator in Old Growth
References:

Family Triaenonychidae

Metanonychus nigricans nigricans Briggs
Type locality: 0.4 miles north of Del Norte Coast Redwoods State Park, Del Norte County, California.
Distribution: Coastal Del Norte and Humboldt counties, California.
Habitat: Under coarse woody debris in late successional or old-growth coast redwood forest.
Food habits and behavior: Harvestmen are predaceous. Specific food habits have not been observed and reported.
References:

  • Briggs, T.S. 1971. The harvestmen of family Triaenonychidae in North America (Opiliones). Occasional Papers of the California Academy of Sciences 90: 1-43.

Metanonychus nigricans oregonus Briggs
Type locality: 0.7 mile due west of Blodgett, Benton County, Oregon.
Distribution: Oregon coast and coast ranges. Specific localities include: ORE:Benton Co., 0.7 mile due west of Blodgett; Curry Co., 4.5 miles south of Gold Beach; Lincoln Co., 0.5 mile east of Cape Perpetua on U.S. Highway 101; 7.7 miles northwest of Eddyville.
Habitat: Coarse woody debris in late successional or old-growth conifer forests.
Food habits and behavior: Harvestmen are predaceous. Specific food habits have not been observed and reported.
References:

  • Briggs, T.S. 1971. The harvestmen of family Triaenonychidae in North America (Opiliones). Occasional Papers of the California Academy of Sciences 90: 1-43.

Metanonychus setulus setulus Briggs
Type locality: Honeyman State Park, Lane County, Oregon.
Distribution: Oregon coast and coast range. Specific localities include: ORE: Clatsop Co., Saddle Mountain State Park; 7 miles north of Nehalem (Tilamook Co.); Coos Co., Bridge, Camp Myrtlewood; Curry Co., 4.5 miles south of Gold Beach; Lane Co., 0.6 miles south of entrance to Honeyman State Park; 0.3 mile east of U.S. Highway 101 on Cape Creek Road, near Heceta Head; Lincoln Co., 7.7 miles northwest of Eddyville; 0.5 mile north of Depoe Bay.
Habitat: Coarse woody debris in late successional and old-growth conifer forests.
Food habits and behavior: Harvestmen are predaceous. The specific food habits of this species have not been observed and reported.
References:

  • Briggs, T.S. 1971. The harvestmen of family Triaenonychidae in North America (Opiliones). Occasional Papers of the California Academy of Sciences 90: 1-43.

Metanonychus setulus mazamus Briggs
Type locality: 1.9 miles east of junction of Interstate 5 and Speaker Road, Wolf Creek, Josephine County, Oregon.
Distribution: Southern Coast Range in Oregon. Specific localities in addition to type locality include: ORE: Douglas Co., 2.2 miles south of Canyonville; 6.6 miles south of Drew, along highway 227.
Habitat: Coarse woody debris in late successional or old-growth conifer forests.
Food habits and behavior: Harvestmen are predaceous. The specific food habits of this species have not been observed and reported.
References:

  • Briggs, T.S. 1971. The harvestmen of family Triaenonychidae in North America (Opiliones). Occasional Papers of the California Academy of Sciences 90: 1-43.

Metanonychus setulus navarrus Briggs
Type locality: 1.5 miles south of Little River, Mendocino County, California.
Distribution: Northern coast of California. Specific localities in addition to type locality include: CALIF:Del Norte Co., 15.8 miles north of county line (south boundary) on U.S. Highway 101.
Habitat: Coarse woody debris in late successional or old-growth conifer forests.
Food habits and behavior: Harvestmen are predaceous. The specific food habits of this species have not been observed and reported.
References:

  • Briggs, T.S. 1971. The harvestmen of family Triaenonychidae in North America (Opiliones). Occasional Papers of the California Academy of Sciences 90: 1-43.

Metanonychus setulus obrieni Briggs
Type locality: Fort Dick, Del Norte County, California.
Distribution: Known only from the type locality.
Habitat: Under coarse woody debris in late- successional or old growth coastal redwood forest.
Food habits and behavior: Harvestmen are predaceous. The specific food habits of this species have not been observed and reported.
References:

  • Briggs, T.S. 1971. The harvestmen of family Triaenonychidae in North America (Opiliones). Occasional Papers of the California Academy of Sciences 90: 1-43.

Metanonychus setulus cascadus Briggs
Type locality: 9.0 miles north of Marion Forks, 3000', Marion Co., Oregon.
Distribution: northwestern Oregon. Specific localities in addition to the type locality: ORE: Clackamas Co., 2.5 miles northwest of Brightwood.
Habitat: Under coarse woody debris in late- successional or old-growth conifer forests.
Food habits and behavior: Harvestmen are predaceous. The food habits of this species have not been observed and reported.
References:

  • Briggs, T.S. 1971. The harvestmen of family Triaenonychidae in North America (Opiliones). Occasional Papers of the California Academy of Sciences 90: 1-43.

Paronychus concolor Briggs
Type locality: 6.6 miles south of Drew along Highway 227, Douglas Co., Ore.
Distribution: Known only from the type locality.
Habitat: under coarse woody debris in late successional or old-growth conifer forests.
Food habits and behavior: Harvestmen are predaceous.
References:

  • Briggs, T.S. 1971. The harvestmen of family Triaenonychidae in North America (Opiliones). Occasional Papers of the California Academy of Sciences 90: 1-43.

Sclerobunus nondimorphicus Briggs
Type locality: 8.6 miles northwest of Easton on U.S. Highway 90, Kittitas County, Washington.
Distribution: Southern British Columbia south through Washington west of the Cascades to Clackamas and Clatsop counties, Oregon. Specific localities include: ORE: Clackamas Co., 3 miles southeast of Rhododendron; Clatsop Co., 1 mile south of Saddle Mountain State Park; Columbia Co., 5.5 mile south of Clatskanie; WASH:Grays Harbor Co., 6.8 miles south of Neilton; 20.8 miles east of Queets on Highway 101; Jefferson Co., 11.5 miles southwest of Hoh Rain Forest Road on Highway 101; 1.5 mile northeast of Maynard; King Co., 16.4 miles northwest of Hyak on U.S. Highway 90; Lewis Co., Chanapecosh, Mt. Rainier National Park.
Habitat: Coarse woody debris in late successional or old-growth conifer forest.
Food habits and behavior: Adults prey on small invertebrates.
References:

  • Briggs, T.S. 1971. The harvestmen of family Triaenonychidae in North America (Opiliones). Occasional Papers of the California Academy of Sciences 90: 1-43.

Class Insecta

Order Collembola (Springtails)

Family Entomobryidae

Pseudachorutes sp.
Predaceous in Old Growth

Order Thysanura (bristletails)

Family Lepidotrichidae

Tricholepidion gertschi Wygodzinsky
Type locality: 2 miles north of Piercy, Mendocino County, California.
Distribution: Southwestern Humbodlt County and northwestern Mendocino County, California within an irregular polygon bounded by Branscomb, Mendocino County; and Miranda and Ettersburg, Humboldt County.
Habitat: Redwood-mixed mesophytic forest of northern California coast range. Specific microhabitat is under decaying bark and in rotten logs of Douglas-fir that are found in the shade of surrounding trees. Almost all locations of T. gertschi are in association with colonies of red carpenter ants (Camponotus sp.).
Food habits and behavior: Stomach contents of wild-caught individuals contained vegetable matter and no animal parts. The species was reared without difficulty in the laboratory on oats, dry yeast, and algal covered wood. The species moves quickly when uncovered. Tricholepidion are tolerated by carpenter ants in their passageways and may well be myrmecophiles.
Comments: 1. The only other member of the family Lepidotrichidae is Lepidothrix pilifera Menge, a fossil species described from Baltic amber. 2. The family Lepidotrichidae is considered to be the most primitive known dicondylous insect. 3. Although not necessarily an old-growth obligate, logging practices observed within the range of Tricholepidion gertschi are not compatible with the habitat needs of the species.
References:

  • Atkinson, R. 1994. Letter of August 28, 1994, to P. Opler.
  • Wygodzinsky, P. 1961. On a surviving representative of the Lepidoptrichidae (Thysanura). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 54: 621-627.

Family Nicoletiidae

Trinemura sp.
Type locality: The species is probably undescribed, and, hence, has no type locality.
Distribution: Trinemura sp. is known only from a single site adjacent to Grizzly Creek Redwoods State Park, about 4 miles east of Carlotta, Humboldt County, California.
Habitat: Not described.
Food habits and behavior: Not described.
Comment: This is the only known occurrence of any member of this family in the United States. Specimens were sent to a specialist in South Africa by J.T. Doyen.
References:

  • Atkinson, R. 1994. Letter of August 28, 1994, to P. Opler.

Order Ephemeroptera (mayflies)

Family Ephemerellidae (xxx)

Drunella doddsi (Needham)

Ephemerella infrequens McDunnough, 1924

Order Odonata (damselflies and dragonflies)

    Suborder Anisoptera (dragonflies)

Family Petaluridae (graybacks)

Tanypteryx hageni (Selys)
Type locality:
Range: Southern British Columbia south to central California. Specific localities are CALIF: Napa Co., 0.6 mile northwest of Samuel Spring; above Pope Creek, 1 mile west of Lake Berryessa, 450'; Nevada Co., Willow Spring, 2 miles southeast of Graniteville, 6500'; Plumas Co., Butterfly Valley, 1 mile west of Keddie, 3400'; 1 mile north of Butterfly Valley, 1 mile west of Keddie, 4000'; Siskiyou-Trinity Co. line, water site at Big Flat Forest Camp, end of Coffee Creek Road, Salmon-Trinity Alps Primitive Area, 6000'; Caribou Lakes Trail, about 1/4 mile from Big Flat Forest Camp, 5000+', end of Coffee Creek Road, Salmon-Trinity Alps Primitive Area. ORE: Benton Co., Parker Creek, Mary's Peak, 3000'; Clackamas Co., picnic area, west side of Still Creek Campground, Mt. Hood National Forest, 3800'; near waterfall, 0.5 mile north of U.S. Highway 26, on Timberline Lodge Road, Mt. Hood National Forest, 4200'; Lane Co., South Fork McKenzie River at Frissell Crossing, 2600'.
Habitat: Water seeps with moss-covered rocks. Occurs in spring-fed bogs or seeps in old growth or riparian forest.
Food habits and behavior: Nymphs construct small burrows in water-logged substrates. Nymphs eat surface-inhabiting arthropods, mostly spiders. Adult dragonflies prey on flying insects, while nymphs feed on aquatic animals. No specific information is available on the prey of this species. Adults have been observed on feeding and mating flights over a cat-tail swale in Oregon. Males are territorial over bogs.
References:

  • Cannings, R.A. 1978. The distribution of Tanypteryx hageni (Odonata: Petaluridae) in British Columbia. Journal of the Entomological Society of British Columbia 75: 18-19.
  • Clement, S.L.; Meyer, R.P. 1980. Adult biology and behavior of the dragonfly Tanypteryx hageni (Odonata: Petaluridae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 53: 711-719.
  • Meyer, R.P.; Clement, S.L. 1978. Studies on the biology of Tanypteryx hageni in California. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 71: 667-669.
  • Needham, J.G.; Westfall, M.J., Jr. 1955. A manual of the dragonflies of North America (Anisoptera). University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, xi + 615 p. (p 70-72)
  • Paulson, D.R.; Garrison, R.W. 1977. A list and new distributional records of Pacific coast Odonata. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 53: 147- 160.
  • Usinger, R.L. 1956. Aquatic insects of California. University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, ix + 508 p.
  • Walker, E.M. 1958. The Odonata of Canada and Alaska. Volume 2. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, xi + 318 p. (134-135)

Family Gomphidae (clubtails)

Octogomphus specularis Hagen
Type locality:
Range: Southern British Columbia south through west slope of Cascades and Coast Ranges to northern Baja California. Specific locations in range of northern spotted owl include: CALIF:Lake Co., 1 mile west of Adams Springs near Hobergs; Siegler Canyon Creek, by Siegler Canyon Road, 2 miles southwest of junction with California highway 29; Marin Co., Lagunitas Creek at entrance to Samuel P. Taylor State Park, just west of Lagunitas; Napa Co., cattle tank and seepage area of Samuel Spring, south of Pope Creek and west of Lake Berryessa, 700'; 5.2 road miles south of Spanish Flat, by Berryessa-Knoxville Road, 660'; Shasta Co., Crystal Lake Fish Hatchery; Trinity Co., Hayfork; 5 miles southeast of Hayfork; Hayfork Ranger Station. ORE: Douglas Co., 3 miles southeast of Tiller.
Habitat: Headwaters of cool, fast-moving streams that drain mountain lakes. Pools along stream edges.
Food habits and behavior: Nymphs are predaceous and live in loose organic trash that accumulates in pools and eddies. About 3 years are necessary to complete development. Males are seen near water, usually in sunlit openings where they perch on driftwood, stones, or the foliage of surrounding alders. Females are found several hundred feet from the streams but return there to lay eggs. Both sexes readily fly through shaded areas.
Collections: E.O. Essig Museum, University of California, Berkeley.
References:

  • Needham, J.G., Westfall, M.J., Jr. 1955. A manual of the dragonflies of North America (Anisoptera). University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, xi + 615 p. (160-163)
  • Walker, E.M. 1958. The Odonata of Canada and Alaska. Volume 2. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, xi + 615 p. (182- 183)

Order Blattodea (cockroaches)

Family Cryptocercidae (wingless roaches)

Cryptocercus punctulatus Scudder
Type locality:
Distribution: Washington (?) south to northern California. Also a separate disjunct population found from New York south to northern Georgia.
Habitat: Found under bark in soggy fir logs in mature forests.
Food habits and behavior: Feeds on rotting wood. The gut contains intestinal flagellate protozoans similar to those found in some termites (Zootermopsis) to assist in wood digestion. The egg pod (ootheca) is depositied in rotting wood.
Comments: 1. This is considered to be one of the most primitive living roaches and is very closely related to primitive termites. 2. Although reported to occur in Washington, there is good evidence that the species now has a very restricted range, chiefly southwestern Oregon and northwestern California.
References:

  • *McKittrick, F.A. 1964. Evolutionary studies of cockroaches. Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station, Memoir 389, 197 pp.
  • *Thorne, B.L.; Carpenter, J.M. 1992. Phylogeny of the Dictyoptera. Systmeatic Entomology 17: 253-268.
  • Vickery, V.R.; Kevan, D.K. McE. 1985. The insects and arachnids of Canada. Part 14. The grasshoppers, crickets and related insects of Canada and adjacent regions. Biosystematics Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Publication 177.

Order Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets, and katydids)

Family Rhaphidophoridae (camel-crickets)

Tropidischia xanthostoma (Scudder)
Type locality:
Distribution: Coastal British Columbia west of Cascades in Washington and Oregon south to central California. Specific localities include: CALIF: Marin Co., no locality given; Mendocino Co., Mendocino.
Habitat: Dark areas under log bridges. Under logs and debris in old growth hemlock and silver fir forests, especially in riparian zones.
Food habits and behavior: Wingless and therefore flightless. Adults in July and August.
Collections: E.O. Essig Museum, University of California, Berkeley.
References:

  • Helfer, J.R. 1963. How to know the grasshoppers, cockroaches, and their allies. W.C. Brown Co., Dubuque, Iowa, 353 pp.
  • Lightfoot, D.C. 1986. Invertebrates of the H.J.Andrews Experimental Forest, Western Cascades, Oregon: III. The Orthoptera (grasshopppers and crickets). USDA, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Research Note PNW-443, 23 p.
  • Vickery, V.R.; Kevan, D.K. McE. 1985. Ther insects and arachnids of Canada. Part 14. The grasshoppers, crickets, and related insects of Canada and adjacent regions. Biosystematics Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Publication 177.
  • Scudder, S.H. 1861. Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History 8: 12.

Pristoceuthophilus celatus (Scudder)
Distribution: Southern British Columbia and southwestern Alberta south to California.
Habitat: Under logs and debris in old-growth hemlock and silver fir. Also found under tree bark or in damaged decayed sapwood.
Food habits and behavior: Adults are flightless. Adults in early July to late August.
References:

  • Vickery, V.R.; Kevan, D.K.McE. 1985. The insects and arachnids of Canada. Part 14. The grasshoppers, crickets, and related insects of Canada and adjacent regions. Biosystematics Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Publication 177.

Pristoceuthophilus cercialis Caudell
Type locality:
Distribution: Southeastern British Columbia and southwestern Alberta south to Oregon.
Habitat: Dense forests.
Food habits and behavior: Flightless. Found under boulders and logs.
References:

  • Vickery, V.R.; Kevan, D.K. McE. 1985. The insects and arachnids of Canada. Part 14. The grasshoppers, crickets, and related insects of Canada and adjacent regions. Biosystematics Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Publication 177.

Pristoceuthophilus sargentae Gurney
Type locality: Oregon Skyline Trail, Three Sisters Primitive Area, Lane County, Oregon.
Distribution: Known only from the type locality.
Habitat: Under loose bark of trees or under wood on ground.
Food habits and behavior: Some times found 35 meters above ground on tree trunks.
Comment: A flightless species found only in forests.
References:

  • Guerney, A.B. 1947. A new species of Pristroceuthophilus from Oregon, and remarks on certain special glands of Orthoptera (Gryllacrididae: Rhaphidophorinae). Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 37: 430-435.
  • Lightfoot, D.G. 1986. Inverterbates of the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Western Cascades, Oregon: III. The Orthoptera (Grasshoppers and crickets). U.S.D.A., Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. Research Note PNW 443, 23 pp.

Family Prophalangopsidae (hump-wing crickets)

Cyphoderris monstrosa Uhler
Distribution: Southern British Columbia and southwestern Alberta south to northern California, Idaho, and western Wyoming.
Habitat: Conifer forests, fruit orchards, outbuilding.
Food habits and behavior: Flightless. This apparently is an omnivore, since it has been observed feeding on fruit, staminate cones of pine, and insects. The insects hide under litter on the ground by day and climb trees to feed at night.
Comment: This species has been reported to cause minor damage to fruit orchards in British Columbia.
References:

  • Vickery, V.R.; Kevan, D.K.McE. 1985. The insects and arachnids of Canada. Part 14. The grasshoppers, crickets and related insects of Canada and adjacent regions. Biosystematics Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Publication 177.

Family Tettigoniidae (long-horned grasshoppers)

Neduba convexa (Caudell) (shield-backed katydid)
Distribution: Deschutes County, Oregon south to Marin and Plumas counties, California. Specific locations include: CALIF: Marin Co., Inverness; Plumas Co., 4 miles west of Quincy; Shasta Co., Hat Creek Ranger Station; Siskiyou Co., 12 miles west of Happy Camp; Trinity Co., Hayden Flat, Trinity National Forest; Sulfur Camp, 3 miles south of Shell Mountain. ORE: Deschutes Co., Sisters.
Habitat: Old Growth
Biology and Behavior: Flightless.
Collections: E.O. Essig Museum, University of California, Berkeley.
References:

  • Helfer, J. 1963. How to know the grasshoppers, crickets, cockroaches, and their allies. Dover Publications, New York, 363 p.
  • Rentz, D.C. 1972. Proc. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 124: 41-77.
  • Rentz, D.C. and D. Bircham. 1968. Memoirs of the Pacific Coast Entomological Society 3: 1-173.

Family Acrididae

Boonacris alticola Rehn and Randell
Type locality: Mary's Peak, 14 miles west of Corvallis, Benton County, Oregon.
Distribution: Isolated localities in Oregon west of the Cascade crest. Other localities in addition to the type locality are: ORE: Linn Co., Tombstone Prairie; Linn-Jefferson Co. boundary area, Mt. Jefferson; Line-Lane County boudary, H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest.
Habitat: Small meadows, grassy gaps in late successional or old-growth forests, grassy balds in forests.
Food habits and behavior: Phytophagous on living vegetation.
Comments: The members of this boreal genus are completely wingless and thus have limited dispersal capabilities, especially in forested settings occurring as they do in small, grassy meadows or gaps. A second species, B. polita (Scudder) is found at lower elevations in the Oregon Coast Range and the southern rim of the Willamette Valley.
References:

  • *Lightfoot, D.C. 1986. Invertebrates of the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Western Cascades, Oregon: III. The Orthoptera (grasshoppers and crickets). U.S.D.A., Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Research Note PNW-443. 23 pp.
  • Rehn, J.A.G.; Randell, R.L. 1962. Boonacris, a new generic component of the North American Melanoplini (Orthoptera: Acrididae: Cyrtacanthacridinae). Transactions of the American Entomological Society 88: 105-182, 4 pls.

Boonacris polita (Scudder)
Type locality: Divide, Lane County, Oregon.
Distribution: Benton and Lane counties, Oregon. specific localities include: ORE: Benton Co., Blodgett; McDonald Forest near Corvallis; Summit.
Habitat: Grassy openings in forest.
Food habits and behavior: Feeds on living plant material.
Comments: A member of a boreal genus with wingless adults. In general, this species occurs at lower elevations than B. alticola and thus far is found only in the coast range and the short extension of the coast range at the southern rim of the Willamette Valley (Divide).
References:

  • Rehn, J.A.G.; Randell, R.L. 1962. Boonacris A new generic component of the North American Melanoplini (Orthoptera: Acrididae: Cyrtacanthacridinae). Transactions of the American Entomological Society 88:105-182, 4 plates.
  • Scudder, S.H. Proceedings of the Davenport Academy of Natural Science 7: 158.

Order Isoptera (termites)

Family Hodotermitidae (rotten wood termites)

Zootermopsis angusticollis (Hagen)

Order Plecoptera (stoneflies)

Family Nemouridae (spring stoneflies)

Ostrocerca dimicki (Frison)
Type locality: Corvallis, Benton Co., Oregon.
Range: Southern British Columbia south to Oregon Coast Ranges. Specific localities are ORE: Benton Co., branch of Dixon Creek near Corvallis; Brooklane Creek near Corvallis; Washington Co., North Plains; WASH: Snohomish Co., Warm Beach; Wallace River; Thurston Co., Nisqually River;.
Habitat: Spring-fed rivulets leading into small meandering streams.
Food habits and behavior:
References:

  • Young, D.C.; Kondratieff, B.C.; Kirchner, R.F. 1989. Description of male Ostrocerca Ricker (Plecoptera: Nemouridae) using the scanning electron microscope. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 91: 257-268.
  • Hoppe, G.N. 1938. Plecoptera of Washington. University of Washington Publications in Biology. 4: 139-174.

Ostrocerca foersteri (Ricker)
Type locality: Reservoir Creek, Cultus Lake, British Columbia.
Range: southern British Columbia, Oregon Coast Range south to Humboldt County, California. Specific localities are CALIF: Humboldt Co., Willow Creek, Highway 299, below Berry Summit. ORE: Benton Co., Rock Creek near Corvallis; Clatsop Co., 2 miles east of Elsie; Douglas Co., 10 miles east of Gardiner; Multnomah Co., tributary of Johnson Creek, near SE 82nd Ave.
Habitat: Small meandering streams at edge of Willamette Valley.

Nemoura (Zapada) wahkeena Jewett, Wahkeena Falls flightless stonefly
Type locality: Wahkeena Falls, Multnomah County, Oregon
Range: Known only from the type locality.
Habitat: Base of Wakeena Falls, Columbia River gorge.
Food habits and behavior: The immature stages are aquatic. The adults have been found adjacent to the stream on small limbs of creek dogwood, alder trunks, and curled leaves of young fern fronds.
References:

  • Jewett, S., Jr. 1959. Stoneflies of the Pacific Northwest. Oregon State Monographs. Studies in Entomology. Oregon State University, Corvallis, 3, 92 p.

Family Capniidae (small winter stoneflies)

Paracapnia oswegaptera (Jewett)
Range: Wash.; Ore.

Family Leuctridae (rolled-winged stoneflies)

Paraleuctra andersoni Harper and Wildman
Range: Calif., Ore.

Family Peltoperlidae

Soliperla fenderi (Jewett), Fender's soliperlan stonefly
Type locality: Seeps along Saint Andrews Creek, Mt. Rainier National Park, Pierce County, Washington.
Range: Limited to Pierce County in Western Cascade Province of Washington. Specific localities in addition to type location include Pierce Co., small stream at Reflection Lake; seeps along Puyallup River; Christina Falls.
Food habits and behavior:
Comment: Other species of Soliperla within the range of the northern spotted owl include Soliperla campanula(Jewett) [Oregon West Cascades], S. quadrispinula(Jewett) [Oregon Coast Range, Oregon Klamath, and California Coast]; S. thyra (Needham and Smith) [California Coast Range], and S. tilamook Stark [Clatsop County, Oregon].
Reference:

  • Stark, B.P. 1983. A review of the genus Soliperla (Plecoptera: Peltoperlidae). Great Basin Naturalist 43: 30-44.

Order Heteroptera (true bugs)

Family Anthocoridae (minute pirate bugs)

Tetraphleps latipennis Van Duzee
Type locality: Summit of Mt. Eddy, 9100', Siskiyou County, California.
Distribution: British Columbia east to New Brunswick and Nova Scotia south in the United States to Idaho and the central Sierra Nevada of California. Found in higher elevations throughout the range of the northern spotted owl.
Habitat: Found on branches and needles of conifers.
Food habits and behavior: Predaceous on small arthropods, especially aphids and balsam woolly adelgids. Occurs on a wide variety of conifers, especially Pinaceae.
Comments: A summary of information on this species is found in Lattin and Stanton, 1992), including an illustration of the adult. Kelton (1978) treats the species as found in Canada.
References:

  • Kelton, L.A. 1966. Synopsis of the genus Tetraphleps Fieber in North America (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae). Canadian Entomologist 98: 199-204.
  • Kelton, L.A. 1978. The insects and arachnids of Canada. Part 4. The Anthocoridae of Canada and Alaska. Heteroptera: Anthocoridae. Canada Department of Agriculture, Research Branch. Publication 1639. 101 pp.
  • Lattin, J.D.; Stanton, N.L. 1992. A review of the species of Anthocoridae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) found on Pinus contorta . Journal of the New York Entomological Society 100: 424-479.
  • Van Duzee, E.P. 1921. Characters of eight species of North American Anthocoridae or flower bugs. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (4th series). 11: 137-144.

Tetraphleps pilosipes Kelton and Anderson
Type locality: Blackwall, Manning Park, British Columbia, Canada
Distribution: Widespread boreal in North America from Alaska east to Newfoundland and south to Oregon and northern Colorado.
Habitat: Lives on branches and needles of conifers.
Food habits and behavior: Predaceous on small arthropods including balsam woolly aphids. Chief hosts are true firs (Abies), but the species is also recorded from Larix, Picea, and Pinus.
Comments: This species has an interesting disjunct boreal distribution. The populations on Mary's Peak, Benton County, and Grass Mountain, Clackamas County, in the Oregon Coast Range appear to be the southernmost occurrence of the species. There they occur on Picea procera. A thorough revision of this genus is needed.
References:

  • Kelton, L.A. 1966. Synopsis of the genus Tetraphleps Fieber in North America (Hemiptera, Anthocoridae). Canadian Entomologist 98: 199-204.
  • Kelton, L.A.; Anderson, N.H. 1962. New Anthocoridae from North America with notes on the status of some genera and species (Heteroptera). Canadian Entomologist 94: 1302-13xx.
  • Kelton, L.A. 1978. The insects and arachnids of Canada. Part 4. The Anthocoridae of Canada and Alaska. Heteroptera: Anthocoridae. Canada Department of Agriculture, Research Branch. Publication 1639, 101 pp.
  • Lattin, J.D.; Stanton, N.L. 1992. A review of the species of Anthocoridae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) found on Pinus contorta. Journal of the New York Entomological Society 100: 424-479.

Xylocoris umbrinus Van Duzee
Type locality: Bryson, Monterey County, California.
Distribution: British Columbia, Canada east to Manitoba and south to Shasta County, California. Specific localities inside range of northern spotted owl include: CALIF: Shasta Co., Cayton; ORE: Lane Co., H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest.
Habitat: Under bark of dead trees and logs.
Food habits and behavior: This is a predator under bark. There are both macropterous and brachypterous forms of both sexes.
Comments: This genus needs careful study and revision.
References:

  • Kelton, L.A. 1978. The insects and arachnids of Canada and Alaska. Heteroptera: Anthocoridae. Canada Department of Agriculture, Research Branch. Publication 1639, 101 pages.
  • Lattin, J.D.; Stanton, N.L. 1992. A review of the species of Anthocoridae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) found on Pinus contorta. Journal of the New York Entomological Society 100: 424-479.
  • Parsons, G.L. et al. 1991. Invertebrates of the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, western Cascade Range, Oregon. V: An annotated list of insects and other arthropods. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. General Technical Report PNW-GTR 290, 168 pp.
  • Van Duzee, E.P. 1921. Characters of eight new species of North American Anthocoridae or flower bugs. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, 4th series, 11: 137-144.

Family Miridae (plant bugs)

Allorhinocoris speciosus Bliven
Type locality: Humboldt County, California.
Distribution: Pierce County, Washington south in Cascades, Sierra Nevada, and Coast Range to Tuolumne County, California. Specific locations include: (See Schwatz et al. 1989)
Habitat: Found on low herbaceous plants in cool, moist shaded sites in forests.
Food habits and behavior: This insect is a polyphagous plant-feeder. The species seems to be more habitat- specific than host-plant specific.
Comments: This is an interesting Holarctic component of the Pacific Northwest. The only other species in this genus, Allorhinocoris flavus (Sahlberg) occurs widely across the Palaearctic faunal region from Switzerland to Siberia. North American records of A. flavus are misidentifications of A. speciosus.
References:

  • Bliven, B.P. 1960. Studies on insects of the redwood empire. III. New Hemiptera with notes on others. The Occidental Entomologist 1(4): 42.
  • Henry, T.J.; R.C. Froeschner. 1988. Catalog of the Heteroptera, or True Bugs, of Canada and the continental United States. E.J. Brill, Leiden, The Netherlands, 958 pp.
  • Parsons, G.L. et al. 1991. Invertebrates of the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, western Cascade Range, Oregon. V: An annotated list of insects and other arthropods. U.S.D.A., Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, General Technical Report PNW- GTA-290. 168 pp.
  • Schwartz, M.D.; A. Asquith; J.D. Lattin. 1989. The genus Allorhinocoris in North America (Heteroptera: Miridae: Mirinae). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 65(3): 366-374.

Atractotomus cooperi Stonedahl
Type locality: Mary's Peak Campground, Benton County, Oregon.
Distribution: From Washington and Idaho south through western mountains to Arizona, Utah, Nevada, and California. Specific locations include: WASH.:Okanogan Co.: Washington Pass Meadow; Yakima Co.: Mt. Adams.
Habitat: The insect is found on the foliage of a variety of western conifers, especially Abies procera and other Abies species, Picea engelmanni,and Pseudotsuga menziesii.
Food habits and behavior: The insect is a sap- feeder on conifer foliage, but may also be partially predaceous.
Reference:

  • Stonedahl, G.M. 1990. Revision and cladistic analysis of the Holarctic genus Atractotomus Fieber (Heteroptera: Miridae, Phylinae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. No. 198, 88 pp.

Atractotomus kolenati (Flor)
Type locality: Europe.
Distribution: Western Europe, Yakutia Forest in Far East, and several localities in Oregon. Specific localities include: ORE.: Benton Co., Mary's Peak; Lane County, H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest; County unknown: Mt. Hood.
Habitat: Conifer foliage, especially of Abies and Picea.
Food habits and behavior: Sap-feeder on conifer foliage, but may be partially predaceous.
References:

  • Stonedahl, G.M. 1990. Revision and cladistic analysis of the Holarctic genus Atractotomus Fieber (Heteroptera: Miridae: Phylinae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. No. 198, 88 pp.

Deraeocoris piceicola Knight

Eurychilopterella sp. undescr.

Largidea pudica Van Duzee

Neoborella xanthenes Herring

Phytocoris nobilis Stonedahl, Noble fir plant bug
Type locality: H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Lane County, Oregon.
Distribution: Only known in Oregon from type locality and Mary's Peak, Benton County.
Habitat: This insect is found only on branches and trunks of Abies amabilisand A. procerain mature and old growth forests.
Food habits and behavior: Predaceous on small arthropods.
References:

  • Stonedahl, G.M. 1984. Two new conifer-inhabiting Phytocoris from western North America (Hemiptera: Miridae). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 60: 47-52.
  • Stonedahl, G.M. 1988. Revision of the mirine genus Phytocoris Fallen (Heteroptera: Miridae) for western North America. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 188(1): 11-25.

Feeds only on Noble fir in Cascades and coast range.

Pinalitus solivagus (Van Duzee)

Pithanus maerkelii (H.-S.)

Platylygus pseudotsugae Kelton

Polymerus castilleja Schwartz

Family Enicocephalidae (gnat bugs)

Boreostolus americanus Wygodzinsky and Stys
Type locality: Clark, Routt County, Colorado.
Distribution: Washington south to Routt County, Colorado. Specific locations within range of northern spotted owl include: ORE: Jackson Co., Little Butte Creek; Indian Soda Springs, 23 miles ESE Eagle Point; Lane Co., H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest; Linn Co., House Rock Camp; WASH: King Co., Carnation.
Habitat: Riparian, streamside, under rocks partially imbedded in moist sand.
Food habits and behavior: Predaceous on small arthropods found in habitat. The species is able to withstand submergence during winter high water.
Comments: One of the most primitive members of a very primitive family. The only other member of the genus occurs in the Amur River region of eastern Siberia.
References:

  • Wygodzinsky, P.W.; Schmidt, K. 1991. Revision of the New World Enicocephalomorpha (Heteroptera). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 200, 265 pp.
  • Wygodzinsky, P.W.; Stys, P. 1970. A new genus of Aenictopecheinie bugs from the Holarctic (Enicocephalidae, Hemiptera). American Museum Novitates. 2411, 17 pp.

Hymenocoris formicina Uhler

Systelloderes grandes Kritsky
Type locality: 14 miles south of Ruch, Jackson County, Oregon.
Distribution: Western Oregon. Specific locations in addition to type locality include: ORE: Linn/Lane Co., H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, near Blue River; near Oakridge, along Willamette River.
Habitat: Streamside, under rocks partially imbedded in moist sand. Found in same habitat with Boreostolus americanus in H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest along lower Lookout Creek.
Food habits and behavior: Predator on small arthropods and other small invertebrates. The species is able to withstand winter flooding.
Comments: Only brachypterous (short-winged) individuals are known, but macdropterous (long-winged) individuals are likely. Other species of Systelloderes are known to swarm, but this behavior has not been reported in the present species.
Reference:

  • Kritsky, G. 1978. The North American and Caribbean species of Systelloderes (Hemiptera: Enicocephalidae). Entomological News 89: 65-73.

Family Nabidae (damsel bugs)

Pagasa fusca (Stein)

Family Tingidae (lace bugs)

Acalypta lillianis Torre-Bueno
Type locality: White Plains, New York.
Distribution: Alaska east to Newfoundland, south to Oregon, Illinois, and North Carolina. The Oregon location is from H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Lane County.
Habitat: Moss.
Food habits and behavior: Feeds on moss. Adults are either brachypterous or macropteryous.
Comment: The Oregon record is from a high, cold, dry ridge-top.
References:

  • Drake, C.J.; Lattin, J.D. 1963. American species of the lacebug genus Acalypta (Hempitera: Tingidae). Proceedings of the United States National Museum 115: 331-345.
  • Torre-Bueno, J.B. 1916. A new tingid from New York state. Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 11: 39-40.

Acalypta mera Drake
Type locality: British Columbia.
Distribution: British Columbia south through western Washington to Oregon.
Habitat: Moss, usually in more exposed sites.
Food habits and behavior: Feeds on moss.
Comments: 1. Fairly common in forests. 2. The preponderant proportion of both sexes is brachypterous, but macropterous forms occur in both sexes. 3. This species occurs in more exposed situations than Acalypta saundersi. 4. Synonymy of A. mera (including A. barberi) with A. parvula is not recognized here.
References:

  • Drake, C.J. 1941. New American Tingitidae (Hemiptera). Journal of the Washington Academy of Science 31: 141-145.
  • Drake, C.J.; Lattin, J.D. 1963. American species of the lacebug genus Acalypta (Hemiptera: Tingidae). Proceedings of the United States National Museum 115: 331-345.
  • Froeschner, R.C. 1988. Tingidae. pp. 708-733 in T.J. Henry and R.C. Froeschner (editors). Catalog of the Heteroptera, or true bugs, of Canada and the continental United States. E.J. Brill, Leiden, Netherlands. 958 pp.

Acalypta saundersi (Downes)
Type locality: Goldstream, British Columbia, Canada.
Distribution: Coastal British Columbia south through western Washington and Oregon.
Habitat: Moss in shady old growth forests.
Food habits and behavior: Feeds on moss. Adults are brachypterous, flightless, and have limited dispersal capabilities.
Comment: This is one species of a Holarctic species group. All species are brachypterous.
References:

  • Downes, W. 19xx. A new species of Drakella (Heteroptera: Tingidae). Canadian Entomologist 59: 60.
  • Drake, C.J.; Lattin, J.D. 1963. American species of the lacebug genus Acalypta (Hemiptera: Tingidae). Proceedings of the United States National Museum 115: 331-345.

Acalypta vanduzeei Drake
Type locality: Green Point Ranch, Humboldt County, California.
Distribution: Known only from the type locality.
Habitat: Moss.
Food habits and behavior: Feeds on moss. Adults are brachypterous and flightless.
Comment: Members of the genus have limited dispersal and are usually found in shaded conditions.
References:

  • Drake, C.J. 1928. A synopsis of the American species of Acalypta (Hemip.-Tingidae). Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 23: 1-9.
  • Drake, C.J.; Lattin, J.D. 1963. American species of the lacebug genus Acalypta (Hemiptera: Tingidae). Proceedings of the United States National Museum 115: 331-345.

Derephysia foliacea (Fallen)

Physatocheila variegata Parshley

Family Lygaeidae (seed bugs)

Gastrodes pacificus (Provancher)
Type locality: British Columbia.
Distribution: Western North America from British Columbia south to California and east to Nebraska.
Habitat: The bug is found in and on the cones of coniferous trees.
Food habits and behavior: This seed bug feeds on the developing and mature seeds of conifers, especially Douglas-fir.
Comments: Feeding on developing and mature seeds could be expected to kill the former and prevent germination of the latter. The extent of seed loss due to this insect's feeding has not been determined.
References:

  • Henry, T.J.; Froeschner, R.C. 1988. Catalog of the Heteroptera, or True Bugs, of Canada and the continental United States. E.J. Brill, Leiden, The Netherlands, 958 pp.
  • Provancher, L. 1886. Petite faune entomolog du Canada et particulierement de la Province de Quebec. Volume 3. Cinquiene Ordre les Hemipteres. Naturaliste Canadien: 65-112.
  • Slater, J.A. 1964. A catalogue of the Lygaeidae of the world. 2 volumes. University of Connecticut, Storrs, 1688 pp.
  • Usinger, R.L. 1938. Review of the genus Gastrodes (Lygaeidae, Hemiptera). Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, fourth series. 23: 289-301.

Kleidocerys sp.
Seed bug primarily western hemlock cones in old growth at Andrews Experimental Forest.
References:

  • Schowalter (1989).

Malezonotus obrieni Ashlock
Type locality: California.
Distribution: Central Cascade Mountains of Oregon south along west slope of Sierra Nevada in California. Specific localities include: ORE.: Linn-Lane Co.: H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Blue River.
Habitat: Occurs on ground in litter in sunny forest openings, on south-facing slopes in Oregon.
Food habits and behavior: Feeds on seeds in litter.
Comments: This species may be a hypsothermal relict. (Ed.: put hypsothermal in glossary).
References:

  • Ashlock, P.D. 1963. A new species of Malezonotus from California. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 39:264-266.
  • Parsons, G.L. et al. 1991. Invertebrates of the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, western Cascade Range, Oregon. V: An annotated list of insects and other arthropods. U.S.D. A., Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, General Technical Report PNW- GTA-290. 168 pp.

Plinthisus longisetosus Barber
Type locality: California.
Distribution: Oregon south to California.
Habitat: Mature forests, usually in the litter layer.
Food habits and behavior: This is a seed-feeding bug that appears to feed only on conifer seeds. Another Plinthisus species feeds only on hemlock seeds that have fallen to the ground and are found in the litter layer. Plinthisus longisetosus is likely to have the same behavior.
References:

  • Barber, H.G. 1918. The genus Plinthisus Latr. (Lygaeidae-Hemiptera) in the United States. Proceedings of the Entmological Society of Washington 20: 108-111.
  • Parsons, G.L. et al. 1991. Invertebrates of the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, western Cascade Range, Oregon. V: An annotated list of insects and other arthropods. U.S.D.A., Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, General Technical Report PNW- GTA-290, 168 pp.

Thylochromus nitidulus Barber
Type locality: California.
Distribution: Oregon and California.
Habitat: Litter under shrubs in dryer forest sites. Forest openings with shrubs in the north and chapparal forests in the south.
Food habits and behavior: This bug feeds on manzanita (Arctostaphylos spp.) seeds.
Comments: This appears to be a hypsothermal relict species now restricted to xeric patches.
References:

  • Arnaud, P.H., Jr. 1978. A host-parasite catalog of North American Tachinidae (Diptera). U.S.D.A., Miscellaneous Publication No. 1319, 860 pp.
  • Ashlock, P.D.; C.W. O'Brien. 1964. Catherosia lustrans, a tachinid parasite of some drymine Lygaeidae (Diptera and Hemiptera-Heteroptera, Lygaeidae). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 40: 98-100).
  • Barber, H.G. 1928. Two new Lygaeidae from the western United States (Hemiptera-Lygaeidae). Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 23: 264-268.
  • Parsons, G.L. et al. 1991. Invertebrates of the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, western Coast Range, Oregon. V: An annotated list of insects and other arthropods. U.S.D.A., Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, General Technical Report PNW- GTA-290, 168 pp.
  • Slater, J.A. 1986. A synopsis of the zoogeography of the Rhyparochrominae (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae). Journal of the New York Entomological Society 94: 262-282.

Family Aradidae (flat bugs or fungus bugs)

Mezira pacifica Usinger
Type locality: California.
Distribution: The species occurs from British Columbia south to California and south in the Rocky Mountains from Idaho to Arizona.
Habitat: The species is found under the bark of dead and dying trees or sometimes fallen trees. Conifers are preferred.
Food habits and behavior: The species feeds on subcorticular fungus. The insect may be partially gregarious.
Comments: This is a characteristic subcorticular insect found under the bark of downed moist conifer logs with partial or entire bark complement remaining. The apparent widespread distribution actually reflects the distribution of one of its major hosts, Douglas-fir.
References:

  • Henry, T.J.; Froeschner, R.C. 1988. Catalog of the Heteroptera, or True Bugs, of Canada and the continental United States. E.J. Brill, Leiden, The Netherlands, 958 pp.
  • Usinger, R.L. 1936. Studies in the American Aradidae with descriptions of new species (Hemiptera). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 29: 490-516.

Family Scutelleridae (shield-backed bugs)

Vanduzeeina borealis californica Van Duzee
Type locality: Cisco, Nevada County, California.
Distribution: Ranges from Alaska south to central California,
Habitat: Found at bases of grasses.
Food habits and behavior: Phytophagous, possibly on grasses.
References:

  • Van Duzee, E.P. 1925. New Hemiptera from western North America. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, Fourth Series, 14: 391-425.

Family Pentatomidae (stink bugs)

Zicrona caerulea (L.)

Order Homoptera (aphids, leafhoppers, and scale insects)

    Superfamily Aphidoidea (aphids and phylloxerans)

Family Aphididae (aphids)

Aulacorthum dorsatum Richards

Boernerina variabilis Richards

Drepanosiphum oregonensis Granovsky

*Essigella critchfieldi Sorensen
Type locality: 16 kilometers west of Amanda Park, U.S. Highway 101, Grays Harbor County, Washington.
Distribution: Coastal in Washington, Oregon, and northern California. Presumably occurs in coastal British Columbia and Alaska panhandle.
Habitat: Coastal lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta contorta) forests.
Food habits and behavior: All life stage feed on xylem fluid of lodgepole pine.
References:

  • *Sorensen, J.T. 1994. A revision of the aphid genus Essigella (Homoptera: Aphididae: Lachninae): its ecological associations with, and evolution on, Pinaceae hosts. Pan-pacific Entomologist 70: 1-102.

Essigella wilsoni Hottes

Illinoia patriciae (Robinson)

Illinoia rhododendri (Wilson)

Macrosiphum (Sitobion) osmaoniae (Wilson)

Macrosiphum (Sitobion) tolmiea (Essig)

Mindarus abietinus Koch

Uroleucon adenocaulonae (Essig)

    Superfamily Coccoidea (scale insects)

Family Diaspididae

Chionaspis pinifoliae (Fitch)
Most associated with old growth Douglas-fir and western hemlock at Andrews Experimental Forest.
References:

  • Schowalter (1989)

Nucalaspis californica (Coleman)
Most associated with old growth Douglas-fir at Andrews Experimental Forest.
References:

  • Schowalter (1989)

Puto cupressi (Coleman)
Most associated with old growth Douglas-fir at Andrews Experimental Forest.
References:

  • Schowalter (1989)

Stramenaspis kelloggi (Coleman)
Most significantly associated with old growth western hemlock at Andrews Experimental Forest.
References:

  • Schowalter (1989)

Order Neuroptera (lacewings)

Family Coniopterygidae

Semidalis sp.
Predaceous insect found primarily in old growth Douglas-fir and western hemlock.
References:

  • Schowalter (1989)

Order Megaloptera (dobsonflies, fishflies, and alderflies)

Family Corydalidae (dobson flies)

Dysmicohermes disjunctus (Walker)
Lives in clear, cold swift-flowing streams. Largest member of its family in North America.
Food habits and behavior: Larvae are predaceous

Orohermes crepusculus (Chandler)
Distribution: Specific localities include: CALIF: Colusa Co., Paradise; Tuolumne Co., Strawberry.
Collections: E.O. Essig Museum, University of California, Berkeley.
References:

  • Chandler, H.P. unpublished thesis.

Order Coleoptera (Beetles)

Family Cicindelidae (tiger beetles)

Omus dejeani Reiche, 1839
Type locality:
Distribution: Southern British Columbia south through the coast ranges of Oregon and Washington to Jackson County, Oregon. Specific localities include: ORE: Benton Co., Corvallis; slopes of Mary's Peak; Clatsop Co., Olney; Coos Co., 4 miles east of Bandon; Myrtle Point; Douglas Co.; Jackson Co., Prospect; Woodruff Meadows, Highway 62; Marion Co., Detroit; Lincoln Co., Newport;; Multnomah Co., Portland; Washington Co., Forest Grove; county unknown, Sand Lake,; Gates Creek; WASH:Clallam Co., Port Angelus. King Co., Seattle; Kittitas Co., Easton; Pacific Co., South Bend; Pierce Co., Electron; Fort Lewis; Snohomish Co., Monroe; Thurston Co., Takoma; county unknown, Olympic National Forest.
Habitat:
Food habits and behavior:
Collections: California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco; E.O. Essig Museum, University of California, Berkeley.
References:

Family Carabidae (ground beetles)

Agonum belleri
Type locality:
Distribution: Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia south to coastal Washington. Localities include WASH: King Co., near Falls City; Snohomish Co., Chase Lake; county not specified, Lake Marie,
Habitat:
Food habits and behavior:
Collections: California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco; E.O. Essig Museum, University of California, Berkeley.
References:

Agonum ovipennis Mannerheim
Type locality:
Distribution: Localities include CALIF: Alameda Co., Berkeley; Marin Co., Lagunitas; San Mateo Co., Crystal Springs Wildlife Refuge.
Habitat:
Food habits and behavior:
Collections: E.O. Essig Museum, University of California, Berkeley.
References:

Bembidion spectabile Mannerheim
Type locality:
Distribution:
Habitat:
Food habits and behavior:
References:

Cyphrus (Cychrus) tuberculatus Harris
Type locality:
Distribution: Coastal Alaska (Kosciusko Island) south along coast to central Oregon. Specific localities include: ORE: Benton Co., Corvallis; Mary's Peak, southwest slope at base; McDonald Forest; Marion Co., Detroit,county to be located, Santiam River; WASH: King Co., Seattle, Golden Garden; Pierce Co., Electron; Puyallup; Snohomish Co., Monroe; county to be located, Crescent Lake
Habitat:
Food habits and behavior: Adults are predators of snails.
Collections: California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco.
References:

Harpalus cordifer Notman
Type locality:
Distribution:
Habitat:
Food habits and behavior:
References:

Nebria acuta quileute Kavanaugh
Type locality:
Distribution: Olympic Mountains, Clallam County, Washington. Specific locations include: WASH:Clallam Co., Dosewallips Trail at Pass Creek, 560 m.; Olympic Hot Springs; Olympic National Park, Boulder Creek at Olympic Hot Springs, 510 m; Olympic National Park, Deception Basin, 1750-1790 m.; Olympic National Park, Dosewallips River, Mascott Camp; Sol Doc Hot Springs.
Habitat:
Food habits and behavior:
Collections: California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco.
References:

Nebria gebleri siskiyouensis Kavanaugh, Siskiyou ground beetle
Type locality:
Distribution: Trinity Alps and Klamath Mountains of northwestern California and southwestern Oregon. Specific localities include: CALIF: Trinity Co., Boulder Creek at Goldfield Campground, 1070 m.; Coffee Creek; Trinity Alps State Park, Salmon River at Big Flat, 1490'; ORE: Jackson Co., Lake Applegate Road, 2300'.
Habitat:
Food habits and behavior:
Collections: California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco.
References:

Nebria kincaidi kincaidi Schwarz
Type locality:
Distribution: British Columbia south to Olympic Mountains, Clallam County, Washington. Specific localities include: WASH: Dosewallips Trail at Upper Twin Creek, 670 m.; Olympic Hot Springs; Olympic National Park, Boulder Creek at Olympic Hot springs, 2000'; Olympic National Park, 0.5 mile south of Lunch Lake, 4600'; Olympic National Park, east slope of Mount Mystery, 1800 m.
Habitat:
Food habits and behavior:
Collections: California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco.
References:

Nebria kincaidi balli Kavanaugh
Type locality:
Distribution:
Habitat:
Food habits and behavior:
References:

Nebria sahlbergii triad Kavanaugh, Trinity Alps ground beetle
Type locality:
Distribution: Trinity Alps, Siskiyou and Trinity counties, California. Specific localities include: CALIF:Siskiyou Co., Salmon-Trinity Alps Wilderness; Trinity Co., Big Flat; Boulder Creek at Goldfield Campground, 1070 m.; Coffee Creek, Salmon River; Stuart Fork of Trinity River at Caribou Lakes trail, 1510 m.; Trinity Alps, Coffee Creek at Coffee Creek Ranch, 1070 m.; Trinity Alps, Deep Creek at Stuart Forks trail, 1510 m.; Trinity Alps State Forest, Big Flat Campground, 1490 m., Salmon River.
Habitat:
Food habits and behavior:
Collections: California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco; E.O. Essig Museum, University of California, Berkeley.
References:

Notiophilus sylvaticum Escholtz
Type locality:
Distribution: Coastal Alaska (Glacier Bay) south through Cascades and Coast Range to Humboldt and Fresno counties, California. Specific localities include CALIF: Fresno Co., Huckleberry Meadow; Humboldt Co., Green Point; ORE: Coos Co., Barview; Jackson Co., Medford; Multnomah Co., near Portland; Yamhill Co.; county unknown, Marshfield; Dilley; WASH: Clallam Co., Sol Doc Hot Springs King Co., Seattle; Pierce Co., Ft. Lewis; North Ft. Lewis; Paradise Park; Snohomish Co., Monroe; Yakima Co., Yakima Indian Reservation.
Habitat:
Food habits and behavior:
Collections: California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco.
References:

Promecognathus crassus LeConte
Type locality:
Distribution:
Habitat:
Food habits and behavior:
References:

Promecognathus laevissimus (Dejean)
Type locality:
Distribution:
Habitat:
Food habits and behavior: Flightless and terrestrial. Chief predator of millipede Harpathe haydeniana. Tolerates cyanide gas produced by millipede. Found on west slope of Cascades.
References:

Pterostichus (Anilloferonia) lanei (Hatch)
Type locality:
Distribution: Specific localities include: ORE: Benton Co., Mary's Peak, 1100 m, forest campground on north slope; county unspecified, Seaside.
Habitat:
Food habits and behavior:
Collections: California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco.
References:

Pterostichus (Anilloferonia) rothi Hatch, Roth's blind ground beetle
Type locality:
Distribution: Endemic to 2 or 3 localities including Mary's Peak, Benton Co., Oregon. Specific localities include: ORE: Benton Co., Mary's Peak, 1100 m, forest campground on north slope.
Habitat:
Food habits and behavior:
Collections: California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco.
References:

Pterostichus (Hypherpes) amethystinus Menetries
Type locality:
Distribution: Coastal Alaska south along immediate Pacific Coast to Humboldt County, California. Specific localities include: CALIF:Del Norte Co., Klamath; Humboldt Co., Arcata; Green Point; Redwood National Park, Orick Area, Lady Bird Johnson Grove; mouth of Van Duzen River. ORE:Clatsop Co., Olney; Lincoln Co., Newport; County unknown, Cascade Beach. WASH: Clallam Co., Forks; Port Angeles; King Co., Baring; Seattle; Klickitat Co., Lake Wanea; Snohomish Co., Monroe;county not specified, Orens Island.
Habitat:
Food habits and behavior:
Collections: California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco. References:

Pterostichus (Hypherpes) crenicollis LeConte
Type locality:
Distribution: Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia south along Pacific coast to Marin County, California. Specific localities include: CALIF:Humboldt Co., Green Point; mountains near Orick; Prairie Creek; Willow Creek; Marin Co., Point Reyes; Mendocino Co., Tan Oak Lodge; Sonoma Co., Camp Meeker; Duncan's Mills; Russian River mouth; Sylvania. ORE: Lane Co., highway 126, junction north fork Boulder Creek with McKenzie River; Marion Co., 2.5 miles east of Detroit, 1600', highway 22, North Santiam River; WASH: Clallam Co., Olympic National Park, Boulder Creek at Olympic Hot Springs, 610 m.; Olympic National Park, Dosewallips Trail at Upper Twin Creek, 670 m.; Klickitat Co., 10 miles south of Trout Lake, 2350'; Lewis Co., 1 mile south of Toledo, Salmon Creek, 300'; Whatcom Co., highway 542, 4 miles east of Glacier Lookout Creek; north fork of Nooksack River, Silver Fir campground, 610 m.; county unspecified, Astoria.
Habitat:
Food habits and behavior:
Collections: California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco.
References:

Pterostichus (Hypherpes) lama Menetries
Type locality:
Distribution: Coastal British Columbia south discontinuously in coastal Washington, northwestern California, and Sierra Nevada to Tuolumne County, California. Specific localities include: CALIF: Amador Co., 4 miles east of Mt. Aukum; Humboldt Co., 5 miles east of Kneeland; Redwood National Park, Orick Area, Lady Bird Johnson Grove; Tuolumne Co., Yosemite National Park, Tuolumne Grove, 1770 m. WASH: Pierce Co., highway 706, Nisqually River at Elbe, 1300'.
Habitat:
Food habits and behavior:
Collections: California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco.
References:

Pterostichus (Hypherpes) nigrocaerulea Van Dyke
Type locality:
Distribution: Immediate Pacific coast from Olympic Mountains, Washington south to coastal Humboldt County, California. Specific localities include: CALIF: Humboldt Co., Van Duzen River; ORE: Benton Co., Mary's Peak, Chintimini Creek, 530 m.; Curry Co., Pistol River; WASH: Clallam Co., Olympic National Park, Boulder Creek at Olympic Hot Springs, 2000'; Olympic National Park, Dosewallips River at Dosewallips Campground, 430 m.; Port Angeles; Sol Duc Hot Springs; county not specified, Crescent Lake.
Habitat:
Food habits and behavior:
Collections: California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco.
References:

Scaphinotus (Brennus) cristatus (Harris)
Type locality:
Distribution: Coastal California from del norte Count south to Point Sur, Monterey County. Specific localities include: CALIF:Alameda Co., Diamond; Oakland Hills; Contra Costa Co., Redwood Canyon; Del Norte Co., Crescent City; Klamath River at U.S. 101; Humboldt Co., Arcata; Blocksburg; Eureka; Green Point Ranch; Williams Grove; Lake Co., Middletown; Marin Co., Bolinas; Copper Mine Gulch; Lagunitas; Muir Woods; Point Reyes National Seashore, McClure's Beach; S.P. Taylor State Park; Willow Camp; Monterey Co., Big Sur; Carmel; near Point Sur; Napa Co., Mt. St. Helena, 2000', near Calistoga; San Francisco Co., San Francisco; San Mateo Co., San Bruno Mountains; San Mateo Hills; San Mateo Park, La Honda Road; Santa Clara Co., Corte Madera Creek, Stanford University; Memorial Park; Uvas Canyon; Santa Cruz Co., Big Basin; Boulder Creek; Mount Hermon; Santa Cruz; Sonoma Co., Annapolis; Duncans Mills; Petaluma; Trinity Co., Hayfork; county to be located, Lane Grove; Pescadero Creek.
Habitat:
Food habits and behavior:
Collections: California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco.
References:

Scaphinotus (Brennus) johnsoni Van Dyke
Type locality:
Distribution: Vancouver island south to Olympic Mountains, Washington. Specific localities include: WASH:Clallam Co., Bogachiel State Park; Forks; 24 miles west of Forks Hot Springs; Klahowya Camp; Sol Duc Hot Springs.
Habitat:
Food habits and behavior:
Collections: California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco.
References:

Scaphinotus (Brennus) rugiceps rugiceps (Horn)
Type locality:
Distribution: Coast Ranges and west slope of Cascades in Oregon from Corvallis south to Klamath Lake. Specific localities include: ORE:Benton Co., Corvallis; Jackson Co., Ashland; Lake Creek; Medford; Prospect; Josephine Co.; Klamath Co., Aspen Lake, near Klamath Lake; Crater Lake; Upper Klamath Lake; Lane Co., Eugene; H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Carpenter Mountain, 3000';county to be located, Talent; 1 mi. west of Dead Indian Springs; Squaw Lake, 3 miles above Copper.
Habitat:
Food habits and behavior:
Collections: California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco.
References:

Scaphinotus (Brennus) rugiceps incipiens (Casey)
Type locality:
Distribution: Siskiyou Mountains, Trinity Alps, and north Coast Ranges of extreme southwestern Oregon and northwestern California. Specific localities include: CALIF: Del Norte Co., Humboldt Co., Green Point; mountains near Korbel; Mad River; mountains east of Orick; ridge above Orleans; Mendocino Co., Boardtree Camp; Telephone Camp; Siskiyou Co., Hidden Lake, 6650'; Tehama Co., Sugar Spring, southwest corner of county; Trinity Co., Big Flat; Carrville; Farm Lodge; Hayfork; Nash Mine; Trinity Alps, south fork of Salmon River at Big Flat Campground, 1550 meters; ORE: Josephine Co., Zenia.
Habitat:
Food habits and behavior:
Collections: California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco.
References:

Scaphinotus (Neochrysus) angulatus (Harris)
Type locality:
Distribution: Coast ranges and west slope of Cascades of Washington and northern Oregon. Specific localities include: ORE: Lane Co., McCredie Springs; Lincoln Co., Waldport; Linn Co., 2 miles south of Marion Fork, north Santiam River, Highway 22. WASH: Clallam Co., Klahowya Camp; Olympic National Park, Boulder Creek at Olympic Hot Springs; Grays Harbor Co., Melbourne; King Co., Seattle; Thurston Co., Evergreen State College, less than 75 m.; Whatcomb Co., north fork of Nooksack River at Douglas-fir Campground, 300 m.; .
Habitat:
Food habits and behavior:
Collections: California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco.
References:

Scaphinotus (Neocychrus) behrensi behrensi Roeschke
Type locality:
Distribution: Extreme southwestern Oregon and northwestern California along coast. Specific localities include: CALIF: Del Norte Co., Crescent City; Jebediah Smith Redwoods State Park; Mill Creek Redwoods; Humboldt Co., mountains east of Orick; ORE: Coos Co., Myrtle Point; Curry Co.; Whaleshead Cove State Park.
Habitat:
Food habits and behavior:
Collections: California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco.
References:

Scaphinotus (Neocychrus) behrensi malkini
Type locality:
Distribution: Limited to Mary's Peak, Benton Co., Oregon. Specific localities include: ORE: Benton Co., Mary's Peak, 3400'.
Habitat:
Food habits and behavior:
Collections: California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco.
References:

Scaphinotus (Neocychrus) longiceps Van Dyke, Humboldt ground beetle
Type locality:
Distribution: Specific localities include: CALIF: Humboldt Co., Orick; Mendocino Co., Northern California Coastal Redwoods Park, 8 km. north of Branscomb.
Habitat:
Food habits and behavior:
Collections: California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco.
References:

Scaphinotus (Stenocantharis) hatchi Beer
Type locality:Waldo Lake, Lane Co., Oregon.
Distribution: West slope of Cascades in vicinity of Waldo Lake, Lane County, Oregon. Specific localities include: ORE: Lane Co., Betty Lake trail; Waldo Lake.
Habitat: Silver fir forest.
Food habits and behavior: Feeds on snails.
Collections: California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco.
References:

Scaphinotus (Stenocantharis) velutinus (Menetries)
Type locality:
Distribution: Coast and Coast Range of Oregon and northern California. Specific localities include: CALIF: Colusa Co., 6.2 miles south of Lodoga; Del Norte Co., Del Norte Redwood State Park, Mill Creek Campground, 140 m.; Highway 199, 10.1 miles northeast junction of highways 101 and 199; Klamath Trees of Mystery Park; Humboldt Co., Deer Lodge; Eureka; Fieldbrook; Green Point; Hydeville; Orick; Prairie Creek Redwoods State Park; Redwoods National Park, Orick area, Redwood Creek trailhead, 20 m.; Mendocino Co., Healdsburg; Sonoma Co., Annapolis; Fort Ross; Gualala; Trinity Co., Trinity Alps Camp. ORE: Benton Co., Corvallis; slope of Mary's Peak; Clatsop Co., Cannon Beach; Columbia Co., Mist; Coos Co., Myrtle Point; 1/2 mile south of Bandon; Curry Co., Harbor; Douglas Co., Umpqua Lighthouse State Park, Lincoln Co., Lincoln City; Newport;Multnomah Co., Portland; county unspecified, Marshfield.
Habitat:
Food habits and behavior:
Collection: California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco.
References:

Stomis termitiformis Van Dyke
Type locality:
Distribution: Oregon coastal forests. Specific localities include: ORE: Curry Co., 1/2 mile south of Carpenterville; Douglas Co., T22S, R10W, tributary to Mill Creek; Tilamook Co., Netarts, barksand; county unspecified, Marshfield; Westlake.
Habitat:
Food habits and behavior:
Collections: California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco.
References:

Tachyta falli Hayward
Type locality:
Distribution: Pacific coast from Texada Island, British Columbia south to Lake and Mariposa counties.
Habitat:
Food habits and behavior:
Collections: California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco.
References:

Tachypachus holmbergi Motschulsky
Type locality:
Distribution:
Habitat:
Food habits and behavior:
References:

Trechus humboldti Van Dyke
Type locality:
Distribution: Oregon coast range in Lincoln County. Specific localities include: ORE: Lincoln Co., Mike Bauer County Park, 17 miles east of Waldport; 16 miles east of Waldport.
Habitat:
Food habits and behavior:
Collections: California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco.
References:

Zacotus matthewsi LeConte
Type locality:
Distribution: Pacific coast (mainly coast range) from British Columbia south to extreme northern California. Specific localities include: CALIF: Humboldt Co., ridge above Orick; county unspecified, McCloud River; IDA: Moscow; Priest River; ORE: Benton Co., Mary's Peak; McDonald Forest; Lincoln Co.; Linn Co.; Marion Co., 2 miles southeast of Marion Forks; Tilamook Co., Astoria; county unspecified, Olney; Colton; Salmon River; Marshfield; Blue Mountains; Mount Hood; WASH: Clallam Co., Sol Doc Hot Springs; Grays Harbor Co., Hoquiam; Humptulips; Lake Quinault; King Co., Seattle; Pacific Co., South Bend; Pierce Co., Longmire, Rainier National Park; Thurston Co., Olympia; Whitman Co., location not specified; Yakima Co., Mt. Adams; county not specified, Crescent; Keyport; Olympic National Park; Newman Lake.
Habitat:
Food habits and behavior: Flightless ground beetle. eats millipedes. Found in old growth conifer forests.
References:

Family Amphizoidae (trout-stream beetles)

Aphizoa insolens LeConte, 1853
Type locality:
Distribution: Alaska south to Riverside County, California.
Habitat: Under stones and trash along the edges of streams and rivers.
Food habits and behavior: Larvae are found in crevices of water-soaked decaying logs. Adults are also found on water-soaked logs in streams or along their edges.
References:

  • Usinger, R.L. 1956. Aquatic insects of California. University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, ix + 508 p.

Family Leiodidae (round fungus beetles)

Catopocerus capizzii Hatch

Family Staphylinidae (rove beetles)

Omalorphanus aenigma Campbell and Chandler
References:

  • Campbell, J.M.; Chandler, D.S. 1987. Canadian Entomologist 119: 315-327.

Tachinus semirufus Horn

Family Pselaphidae (short-wing mold beetles)

Actium microphthalmus Park and Wagner

Euboarhexius sinus Gigarick and Schuster

Oropus microphthalmus Chandler

Sonoma cascadia Chandler

Family Cantharidae (soldier beetles)

Podabrus piceatus Fender

Family Lampyridae (lightening bugs or fireflies)

Ellychnia hatchi Fender

Family Lycidae (net-winged beetles)

Dictyopterus simplicipes Mannerheim, 1843?
Type locality:
Distribution:
Habitat:
Food habits and behavior:
References:

Family Cisidae (minute tree-fungus beetles)

Cis maritimus (Hatch)

Family Elateridae (click beetles)

Eanus hatchii, Hatch's click beetle

Family Buprestidae (metallic wood-boring beetles)

Buprestis aurulenta L.
Distribution: Washington from Kittitas County south through Oregon to San Bernardino Mountains, including Sierra Nevada and Coast Ranges. Also in Idaho.
Habitat: Coarse woody debris.
Collections: E.O. Essig Museum, University of California, Berkeley.

Chalcophora angulicollis
Distribution: Widespread in mountains of western North America.
Requires large dead logs in old growth Douglas-fir forests.

Melanophila drummondi Kirby
Distribution: Widespread in western North America. From Kittitas County, Washington south in California Coast Range to Mendocino County and south in Sierra Nevada to Kern County.
Collections: E.O. Essig Museum, University of California, Berkeley.

Family Psephenidae (water-penny beetles)

Acneus beeri, Beer's false water penny (beetle)

Acneus burnelli, Burnell's false water penny (beetle)

Family Byrrhidae (pill beetles)

Listemus formosus Casey
Moss feeder in old growth

Family Cucujidae (flat bark beetles)

Dendrophagus glaber LeConte, 1850?
Type locality:
Distribution:Widespread. ?Delete.
Habitat:
Food habits and behavior:
References:

Family Coccinellidae (ladybird beetles)

Anatis rathyoni (LeConte)

Family Lucanidae

Platycerus oregonensis Westwood

Family Scarabeidae (scarab beetles)

Pleocoma dubitalis Davis
Distribution: Specific localities include: ORE:Benton Co., Corvallis; McDonald Forest near Corvallis; county? Colton; Forest Grove.
Collections: E.O. Essig Museum, University of California, Berkeley.

Family Cerambycidae (long-horned beetles)

Dicentrus bluthneri LeConte

Leptalis macilenta (Mannerheim)

Ulochaetes leoninus LeConte

Xestoleptura crassipes (LeConte)

Family Chrysomelidae (leaf beetles)

Chrysomela interna Brown, 1956
Type locality:
Distribution: Alaska south to Oregon.
Habitat:
Food habits and behavior:
References:

Pyrrhalta carbo LeConte, 1861
Type locality:
Distribution:
Habitat:
Food habits and behavior:
Comment: Treated by some workers as a subspecies of decora.
References:

Timarcha intricata Haldeman

Family Curculionidae (snout beetles)

Lobosoma horridum Mannerheim

Pissodes utahensis Hopkins

Family Platypodidae (pinhole borers)

Platypus wilsoni Swaine

Family Scolytidae (engraver beetles)

Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopkins

Phloeosinus sequoiae Hopkins

Scolytus oregoni Blackman

Family Zopheridae

Phellopsis porcata LeConte

Family Hydrophilidae

Chaetarthria leechi, Leech's chaetarthria water scavenger beetle

Order Mecoptera (scorpionflies)

Family Boreidae (snow scorpionflies)

Caurinus dectes Russell
Flightless. Feeds on liverworts in coast range old growth.

Hesperoboreus brevicaudus (Byers)

Family Panorpidae (common scorpionflies)

Brachypanorpa oregonensis (MacLachan)

Order Trichoptera (caddisflies)

Family Philopotamidae (finger-net caddisflies)

Dolophilodes novusamerica (Ling)
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Family Rhyacophilidae (primitive caddisflies)

Himalopsyche phryganea (Ross)
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Rhyacophila amabilis Denning
Type locality: Castle Lake, Siskiyou County, California.
Distribution: Known only from the type locality.
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References:

  • Denning, D.G. 1965. New rhyacophilids and limnephilids (Trichoptera: Rhyacophilidae and Limnephilidae). Canadian Entomologist 97: 690-700.

Rhyacophila colonus Schmid, O'Brien rhyacophila caddisfly
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Rhyacophila fenderi Ross, Fender's rhyacophilan caddisfly
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Rhyacophila haddocki Denning, Haddock's rhyacophilan caddisfly
Type locality: Gravel Creek, Marys Peak, Benton County, Oregon.
Distribution: Known only from the type locality.
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References:

  • Anderson, 1976.
  • Denning, D.G. 1968b.
  • Wisseman 1982.

Rhyacophila lineata Denning, Castle Crags rhyacophilan caddisfly
Type locality: Castle Crags State Park, Shasta County, California.
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References:

  • Denning, D.G. 1956. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 32: 73-80.
  • Smith, S.D.

Rhyacophila mosana Denning, Bilobed rhyacophilan caddisfly
Type locality: Castle Crags State Park, Shasta County, California.
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References:

  • Denning, D.G. 1965b.
  • Smith, 1982

Rhyacophila willametta Ross
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Family Phryganeidae (large caddisflies)

Yphria californica (Banks)
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Distribution: Southwestern Oregon (Douglas Co.) south to Trinity Alps and central Sierra nevada, California.
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Family Uenoidae (northern caddisflies)

Apatania sorex (Ross)
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Farula jewetti Denning, Mt. Hood farulan caddisfly
Type locality: Salmon River tributary, Mt. Hood, Clackamas County, Oregon.
Distribution: Mt. Hood, Oregon.
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References:

  • Denning, D.G. 1956b.
  • Columbia Gorge neothremman caddisfly

Neothremma andersoni Wiggins
Type locality: Columbia River Gorge, Wahkeena Falls, 30 miles east of Portland, Multnomah County, Oregon.
Range: Known only from the type locality.
Habitat: Under rocks cascades and waterfalls in rapid cold, clear streams.
Food habits and behavior: Larvae have scraping mandibles and feed algae, diatoms, and fine particulate organic matter.
Reference:

  • Wiggins 1975
  • Wiggins, pers comm 1992
  • Wiggins, G.B.; Weaver, J.S. III; Unzicker, J.D. 1985. Revision of the caddisfly family Uenoidae (Trichoptera). Canadian Entomologist 117: 763-800.

Neothremma siskiyou Denning, Siskiyou caddisfly
Type locality: Road to Taylor Lake, Salmon Mountains, 5700', Siskiyou County, California.
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References:

  • Denning, 1975

Oligophlebodes sierra Ross
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Family Psychomyiidae (trumpet-net caddisflies)

Tinodes siskiyou Denning, Siskiyou caddisfly
Type locality: Beaver Sulfur Camp, 1700', Rogue River National Forest, Jackson County, Oregon.
Distribution: Known from two widely separated localities in Oregon. In addition to the type locality: ORE: Wallowa Co., near Imnaha.
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References:

  • Denning 1951

Family Hydropsychidae (net-spinning caddisflies)

Homoplectra alsea Ross
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Homoplectra schuhi Denning, Schuh's homoplectran caddisfly
Type locality: 10 miles southwest of Keno, seepage near Klamath River, Klamath County, Oregon.
Distribution: Southern Oregon. In addition to type locality also known from ORE: Jackson Co., 15 miles west of Mt. Ashland.
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References:

  • Anderson 1976
  • Denning 1965b

Abellan hydropsyche
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Family Lepidostomatidae (lepidostomatids)

Lepidostoma cascadense (Milne)
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Family Brachycentridae (brachycentrids)

Eobrachycentrus gelidae Wiggins, Mt. Hood primitive brachycentrid caddisfly
Type locality: Mt. Hood National Forest, stream crossing highway between Government Camp and Timberline Lodge, 4200'.
Distribution: Southern British Columbia to central Oregon Cascades. In addition to type locality, the species is known from B.C.:Allison Pass summit; ORE: Linn Co., Marion Lake, Mt. Jefferson Wildnerness; Multnomah Co., Columbia River gorge, 1600'.
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Family Goeridae

Goera archaon Ross
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Family Hydroptilidae

Ochrotrichia vertreesi Denning and Blickle, Vertree's ochroctrichian micro caddisfly
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Family Limnephilidae

Apatania tavala (Denning), Cascades apatanian caddisfly
Type locality: Head of Metolius River, Jefferson Co., Oregon.
Distribution: Known only from Oregon Cascades. In addition to type locality, occurrences are ORE: Clackamas Co.(?), north fork of Iron Creek, Mt. Hood National Forest; Linn Co., Moon Creek, Marion Forks.
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Cryptochia shasta Denning, Confusion caddisfly
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Desmona bethula Denning, Amphibious caddisfly
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Distribution: Plumas and Sierra counties, California.
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Halesochila taylori (Banks)
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Philocasca demita Ross
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Philocasca oron Ross, Clatsop philocascan caddisfly
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Order Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths)

    Suborder Zeugloptera

Family Micropterygidae

Epimartyria pardella (Walsingham), 1880
Type locality: coastal southern Oregon.
Distribution: northern coast ranges of California and southern Oregon and west slope of Cascades in southern Oregon. Specific locations include CALIF: Del Norte Co., Redwoods National Park, Gold Bluffs Park; Humboldt Co., Arcata, forest behind Humboldt State University campus; Fern Canyon; 1 mile west Kneeland; Prairie Creek State Redwood Park. ORE:?Curry Co., near coast.
Habitat: Preferred habitat in coastal Humboldt County, California is steep-walled canyons dominated by ferns and bryophytes. Also found along creeks and on moist hillsides in redwood-fir forest.
Food habits and behavior: Larvae feed on the underside of liverwort thalli, usually at night, and avoid intense light. In captivity larvae preferred Pellia sp., but in nature may feed on other bryophytes. Adults are diurnal and are not attracted to lights. They spend most of their time perched on low plants in the understory of old-growth forests.
Comments: 1. Adults from Forest Glen, Trinity Co., California display different markings and may be a different species or subspecies. 2. Micropterygidae larvae were collected at Andrews Experimental Forest, Lane Co., Ore., but there are no associated adults in the Oregon State University collection. 3. This is the most primitive family of moths found in North Anerica and is the only western species.
References:

  • Tuskes, P.M.; Smith, N.J. 1984. The life history and behavior of Epimartyria pardella (Micropterygidae). Journal of the Lepidopertists' Society 38: 40-46.
  • Walsingham, T. 1880. On some new and little known species of Tineidae. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 1880: 77-93.

    Suborder Ditrysia

Family Gracillariidae

Cameraria sadlerianella Opler and Davis
Type locality: Siskiyou Spring, 12 miles southwest of O'Brien, Josephine County, Oregon.
Distribution: Klamath Mountains of northwestern California and southwestern Oregon. Specific localities include: CALIF: Siskiyou Co., 18 miles northwest of Happy Camp; ORE: Josephine Co., Siskiyou Spring, 12 miles southwest of O'Brien.
Habitat: Stands of Sadler oak (Quercus sadleriana) in late successional or old growth mixed forest.
Foods habits and behavior: Caterpillars form mines in leaves of Sadler's oak. They have both sap feeding and chewing phases.
Comment: Adults were raised from leaf mines of an undescribed species of Phyllonorycter (Gracillariidae) were also found on Sadler's oak at the two localities. The species is under study by Donald R. Davis at the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
References:

  • Opler, Paul A. and Donald R. Davis. 1981. The leafmining moths of the genus Cameraria associated with Fagaceae in California (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 333, iii + 58 pp.

Family Gelechiidae

Coleotechnites granti (Freeman)
Type locality: Boswell, British Columbia
Distribution: Southwestern British Coplumbia, probably occurs in northwestern Washington.
Habitat: Conifer forests that include grand fir.
Food habits and behavior: Caterpillars mine and feed on the needles of grand fir.
References:

  • Freeman, T.N. 1965. New Canadian species of leaf-mining Lepidoptera on conifers. Journal of the Research on Lepidoptera 4: 209-220.

Chionodes periculella (Busck), 1910
Type locality: Humboldt County, California.
Distribution: Specific localities include: CALIF: Humboldt Co., no locality given; Lake Co., 2 miles west of Anderson Springs; Napa Co., 1.5 miles northeast of Angwin; 1 mile southeast of Angwin; 1 mile west of Angwin; ORE: Jackson Co., Ashland.
Habitat:
Food habits and behavior: Caterpillars feed on foliage of Douglas-fir.
Collection: E.O. Essig Museum, University of California, Berkeley.
References:

  • Busck, A. 1910. New Microlepidoptera from New Mexico and California and a synoptic table of the North American species of Heliodines Stainton. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 11: 175-188.
  • Busck, A. 1939. Proceedings of the U.S. National Museum 86: 574.
  • Powell, J.A.; De Benedictis, J.A. 1994a. 6. Foliage-feeding Lepidoptera on Abies and Pseudotsuga associated with Choristoneura in California. IN: Powell, J.A., editor. Biosystematic studies of conifer-feeding Choristoneura (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in the western United States. University of California Publications in Entomology, in press.

Family Tortricidae

Choristoneura carnana californica Powell, 1964
Type locality: Anderson Springs, Lake Co., California.
Distribution: North Coast Ranges from Siskiyou and Del Norte counties south to San Mateo County. Specific localities include: CALIF:Contra Costa Co., El Cerrito; El Dorado Co., Blodgett Forest, 4,000', 13 miles east of Georgetown; 0.1 road miles west of Uncle Tom's; 3.8 road miles east of Uncle Tom's; Lake Co., Anderson Springs; 1 mile northwest of Cobb; Mendocino Co., 1.5 mile west of Branscomb; Napa Co., 2 miles north of Angwin; 1 mile west of Angwin; 1 mile southwest of Angwin; 1 mile southeast of Angwin, Pacific Union College; Robert L. Stevenson State Park; Plumas Co., Butte Valley Reservoir; Plumas Eureka State Park; 4 miles west of Quincy; San Mateo Co., Pescadero Creek County Park, 3 miles south of La Honda; Shasta Co., Hat Creek Post Office; Siskiyou Co., Blue Mountain, 4600', 10 air kilometers southeast of Trinity Center; Etna Creek, 4 kilometers southwest of Etna; Hockaday Spring, 7 miles west of Etna; Mt. Shasta, 5,800', Everett Memorial; Mt. Shasta City; Shadow Creek Campground, 2800', 8 kilometers northeast of Cecilville; Snowmass Summit, 5 miles east of McCloud, 4500'; Trail Creek Campground, 17 air kilometers southwest of Callahan; Willow Creek, 10 kilometers southwest of Gazelle; Sonoma Co., 1/2 mile west of Plantation; 4 miles east of Point Arena
Habitat: Douglas-fir and mixed conifer forests.
Food habits and behavior: Larvae feed on Douglas- fir foliage in most of the range and on white fir in mixed conifer stands.
Comments: 1. This species may occasionally cause economic damage to conifers. 2. In northern California and southern Oregon this species blends with the Western Spruce Budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis).
References:

  • Powell, J.A.; DeBenedictis, J.A. 1994b. 7. Evolutionary interpretation, taxonomy, and nomenclature. In: Powell, J.A., editor. Biosystmeatic studies of conifer-feeding Choristoneura (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in the western United States. University of California Publications in Entomology, in press.
  • Schowalter (1989).

Zeiraphera pacifica Freeman, 1966
Type locality: Sandspit, Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia.
Distribution: Coastal British Columbia from Queen Charlotte Islands south through western Washington and Oregon to central Sierra Nevada in California (Mono and Placer counties). Specific localities include: CALIF: Mono Co., Tom's Place; Monterey Co., Big Creek Reserve; Placer Co., Ward Creek, 2 miles south of Tahoe City; Siskiyou Co., McBride Spring Campground, 5000', Mount Shasta. ORE: Jackson Co., east flank of Mount Ashland (locale 17); Klamath Co., Dry Lake Flat (locale 38); Riverbed Butte (locale 34); Rock Creek(locale 39); county not located, Halfway. WASH: County not located, Goldendale.
Habitat:
Food habits and behavior: Caterpillars feed on foliage of grand fir and Sitka spruce.
Collections: E.O. Essig Museum, University of California, Berkeley; National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C.
Comments: 1. Larvae have caused economic injury to young stands of Sitka spruce on the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia. 2. Schowalter found larvae of a related, but more widespread, species Zeiraphera hesperiana to feed more on old-growth trees that younger trees at Andrews Experimental forest, Lane County, Oregon.
References:

  • Condrashoff, S.F. 1966. Larval descriptions of Zeiraphera pacifica Freeman and Epinotia hopkinsana (Kearfott) (Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae). Canadian Entomologist 98: 703-706.
  • Freeman, T.N. 1966. A new species of Zeiraphera Treitschke from British Columbia (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Canadian Entomologist 98:588-589.
  • Mutuura, A.; Freeman, T.N. 1967. The North American species of the genus Zeiraphera Treitschke (Olethreutidae). Journal of the Research on the Lepidoptera 5: 153-176.
  • Stevens, R.E.; Carolin, V.M.; Markin, G.P. 1984. Lepidoptera associated with western spruce budworm. U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Agriculture Handbook 622, 63 pp.

Zeiraphera vancouverana McDunnough
Type locality: Velulet, British, Columbia.
Distribution: Vancouver Island, British Columbia south to coastal Oregon. Specific localities include: ORE:county to be determined, Ocean Lake; Seaside.
Habitat:
Food habits and behavior: Caterpillars feed on Sitka Spruce.
Collections: National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C.
References:

  • Mutuura, A.; Freeman, T.N. 1967. The North American species of the genus Zeiraphera Treitschke (Olethreutidae). Journal of the Research on the Lepidoptera 5: 153-176.
  • Stevens, R.E.; Carolin, V.M.; Markin, G.P. 1984. Lepidoptera associated with western spruce budworm. USDA Forest Service, Agricultural Handbook 622, 63 pp.

Family Pyralidae

Udea washingtonalis washingtonalis (Grote)
Type locality: Washington.
Distribution: Alaska panhandle and coastal British Columbia south to northern California. Specific localities include: CALIF:Del Norte Co., Klamath; Humboldt Co., Arcata, forest behind Humboldt State University campus; Sonoma Co., Plantation; ORE: Clackamas Co., Oregon City; Clatsop Co., Elsie; Coos Co., Tilamook; Crook Co., Ochoco summit; Linn Co., Santiam Pass summit; Cooper Campground, Deer Creek; WASH: Cowlitz Co., Toutle; King Co., Lake Sammamish; Kitsap Co., Bremerton; Mason Co., Stimson Creek; Okanogan Co., Pateros; San Juan Co., Friday Harbor; Skamania Co., Skamania; County unknown, Factoria; Spillman Camp; Forks.
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Collections: California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco; E.O. Essig Museum, University of California, Berkeley; Oregon State University, Corvallis.
Comments: An undescribed species of Udea is known from Gasquet, Del Norte Co., California.
References:

  • Munroe,E. 1966. Revision of North American species of Udea Guenee (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada. 49: 1-57.

Family Lycaenidae

Mitoura johnsoni (Skinner), 1904, Johnson's Hairstreak
Type locality: Vicinity of Seattle, Kings County, Washington and southern British Columbia.
Distribution: From southern British Columbia south to through Cascades and Coast Range to Mariposa and Solano counties, California. Most of range is within that of the northern spotted owl. Specific localities include: CALIF: El Dorado Co., Blodgett Forest, 13 miles east of Georgetown; Sierra Co., Bassets; Gold Lake Lodge; Yuba Pass summit; Siskiyou Co., Castle Lake; near Dead Horse Summit, 5 miles southeast of Bartle, 4500'; Solano Co., Thompson Canyon, near Lake Berryessa. ORE: Linn Co., Lost Prairie, 3400'; Parrish Lake Road; Tombstone Prairie, 4100'; WASH: Clallam Co., Olympic Moutains; Jefferson Co., 5 miles southwest of Bogachiel Peak, Olympic National Park; King Co., Seattle vic.; Lewis Co., 10 miles below White Pass, about 3500', southeast of Mt. Rainier; Mason Co., Mount Cushman; Stimson Creek; Longmire Springs, 2000', Mt. Rainier; Snohomish Co., Garland Mineral Springs, near Index; about 3 miles west of Maltby, on road to Alderwood Manor; Yukon Park, Stevens Pass Highway; county unknown, near Greenwater, Highway 410.
Habitat: Mature and old growth coniferous forests, mainly those dominated by true firs (Abies spp.) and hemlock-western red cedar, but also found in California in foothill woodland dominated by Digger pine (Pinus sabiniana).
Food habits and behavior: Adults spend most time in tree tops near host but come down to nectar at plants such as buckbrush (Ceanothus sp.) and pussy-toes (Calyptridium). Caterpillars feed only on conifer mistletoe (Arceuthobium spp.). Adults were raised from caterpillars found on Arceuthobium campylopodum form tsugensis on western hemlock in Washington.
Collections: E.O. Essig Museum, University of California, Berkeley; Oregon state University, Corvallis.
References:

  • Dornfeld, E.J. 1959. Mitoura johnsoni in Oregon and California (Lycaenidae). Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 13: 183.
  • Dornfeld, E.J. 19xx. The butterflies of Oregon. Timber Press, Forest Grove, Ore., xxx pp.
  • McCorkle, D.V. 1962. Notes on the life history of Callophrys (Mitoura) johnsoni Skinner (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae). Proceedings of the Washington State Entomological Society. 14: 103- 105.
  • Opler, P.A. 1962. Some notes on Callophrys (Mitoura) johnsoni in California. Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 16: 193-194.
  • Shields, O. 1965. Callophrys (Mitoura) spinetorum and C. (M.) johnsoni: their known range, habits, variation, and history. The Journal of the Research on the Lepidoptera 4: 233-250.
  • Skinner, H. 1904. A new Thecla from the northwest. Entomological News 15: 298.

Mitoura nelsoni plicataria C. Johnson, Rosner's hairstreak
Type locality: Cameron Lake, south Vancouver Island, British Columbia.
Distribution: Vancouver Island, British Columbia south to Butte Falls, Oregon, mainly on the west slope of the Cascades.
Habitat: Butterfly is limited to old growth forests and is especially associated with western red cedar on which caterpillars are presumed to feed.
Food habits and behavior: Caterpillars have been raised on western red cedar, but other Cupressaceae in range are also possible hosts. Adults perch and mate on hosts, and visit flowers near ground level. Adult nectar sources for this group include Ceanothus species and yellow composites.
Comment: 1. This population intergrades on the west slope of the Cascades with populations associated with Incense-cedar and Alaska white-cedar. 2. The species relationships and taxonomy of this group are poorly understood. Mitoura barryi acuminata C. Johnson is also included under plicataria.
Collections: Oregon State University, Corvallis.
References:

  • Dornfeld, E.J. 19xx. The Butterflies of Oregon. Timber Press, Forest Grove, Ore., xxx pp.
  • Johnson, K. 1976. Three new Nearctic species of Callophrys (Mitoura), with a diagnosis of all Nearctic consubgeners (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). Bulletin of the Allyn Museum 38: 1-30.

Family Nymphalidae

Polygonia progne oreas (W.H. Edwards), 1869
Type locality: California.
Distribution: Southwestern Oregon from Jackson and Klamath counties south through the California coast ranges to northern Monterey County.Specific localities include: CALIF:Alameda Co., Oakland; Strawberry Canyon, Berkeley Hills; Contra Costa Co., Fish Ranch Canyon, 300-425 m.; Redwood Regional Park; Monterey Co., Carmel Valley; San Francisco Co., San Francisco; Sonoma Co., Adobe Canyon road near Kenwood. ORE: Jackson Co., McKee Bridge, ca. 1600', T40S, R3W, S4,5; Palmer Creek, Applegate River Road, ca. 2000', T40S R4W S1,2; Squaw Lakes, 3000', T41S R3W S2; Tubb Springs, 4200', T40S R3E S2; Klamath Co., Klamath River Canyon, 3400', T40S R6E S23; Klamath River Canyon, T40S R6E S14; Klamath River Canyon, Topsy Grade, 3680', T41S R6E S10.
Habitat:
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Collections: E.O. Essig Museum, University of California, Berkeley; Oregon State University, Corvallis.
References:

  • Edwards, W.H. 1869. Descriptions of new species of diurnal Lepidoptera found within the United States. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 2:373.

Polygonia progne silenus (W.H. Edwards, 1870)
Type locality:
Distribution: Specific locations include: IDA: Bonner Co., Priest River; Clearwater river, above Lewiston. ORE:Benton Co., north of Corvallis; Mary's Peak; McDonald Forest; Clackamas Co., Bull Run, Mount Hood; Estacada; Clatsop Co., Elsie, Highway 26; Douglas Co., Diamond Lake; Jackson Co., Squaw Lake, 3000'; Tubb Spring, 4200'; Jefferson Co., Warm Springs Indian Reservation; Polk Co., Helmick Park; Tilamook Co., Nehalen River; Wallowa Co., Hurricane Creek; 8 miles east of Joseph; Lostine River; WASH: Yakima Co., Mt. Adams.
Habitat: Wet spots in heavy coniferous forests.
Food habits and behavior:
Collections: E.O. Essig Museum, University of California, Berkeley; Oregon state University, Corvallis.
References:

  • Dornfeld, E.J. 19xx. The butterflies of Oregon. Timber Press, Forest Grove, Ore., xxx pp.
  • Edwards, W.H. 1870. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 4: 68.

Speyeria cybele pugetensis F. Chermock and Frechin
Type locality: Stimson Creek, near Belfair, Mason County, Washington.
Distribution: In Oregon and Washington west of the Cascades crest. Specific locations include: ORE: Benton Co., Finley National Wildlife Refuge; McDonald Forest; Clackamas Co., Oregon City; Douglas Co., North Umpqua River; Lane Co., H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest; 10 miles southeast of Eugene; Oak Ridge; Linn Co., Calapooya River; Multnomah Co., Portland; Polk Co., Camp Kilowan. WASH:Clallam; Kitsap; Mason; and Thurston counties.
Habitat: Found in mature riparian habitat.
Food habits and behavior:
Collections: E.O. Essig Museum, University of California, Berkeley; Oregon State University, Corvallis.
Comment: Similar but unnamed populations are found in Del Norte and Humboldt counties, California. Localities include Calif: Humboldt Co., near Carytown; 5 miles east of Kneeland.
References:

  • Chermock, F.H., Frechin, D.P. 1947. A new Speyeria from Washington. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 23: 111-112.
  • Dornfeld, E.J. 19xx. The butterflies of Oregon. Timber Press, Forest Grove, Ore., xxx pp.

Speyeria hydaspe rhodope (W.H. Edwards), 1874.
Type locality: Cariboo District, British Columbia.
Distribution: From Vancouver Island south in coast ranges and west slope of Cascades in Oregon and Washington south to Coos and Douglas counties, Oregon.
Habitat: Common in mature or old growth conifer forests.
Food habits and behavior:
Comment: Intergrades with Speyeria hydaspe sakuntala on east slope of Cascades and with Speyeria hydaspe purpurascens in northern California.
Collections: Oregon State University, Corvallis.
References:

  • Brown, F.M. 1965. The types of nymphalid butterflies described by William Henry Edwards. Part 1. Argynninae. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 91: 233-250.
  • Dornfeld, E.J. 19xx. The butterflies of Oregon. Timber Press, Forest Grove, Ore., xxx pp.

Family Thyatiridae

Euthyatira lorata (Grote)
Type locality:
Distribution: Oregon west of the Cascades south to Santa Cruz and Tulare counties, California. Specific locations: CALIF: El Dorado Co., Blodgett Forest, 14 miles east of Georgetown; Lake Co., Anderson Springs; Lakeport; Marin Co., Lagunitas; Mill Valley; Mariposa Co., Miami Ranger Station; Modoc Co., Plum Valley; Nevada Co., no specific locality; Placer Co., Baxter; Plumas Co., 1 mile south of Meadow Valley; Santa Cruz Co., Alma; Sierra Co., Gold Lake; Tulare Co., Kaweah River; ORE: Benton Co., Corvallis; Clackamas Co., Colton; Oregon City; Clatsop Co., Elsie; Jefferson Co., Warm Springs Indian Reservation near Mt. Jefferson; Josephine Co., Lake Selmac; Lane Co., H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest; Marion Co., Mill City.
Habitat:
Food habits and behavior: Caterpillars feed on foliage of dogwoods.
Collections: E.O. Essig Museum, University of California, Berkeley; Department of Entomology, Oregon State University, Corvallis.
References:

Ceranemota improvisa (Henry Edwards)
Type locality: Cascades, Washington.
Distribution: Vancouver Island, British Columbia south to Oregon west of the Cascades. Specific locations: ORE: Benton Co., McDonald Forest; Clatsop Co., Elsie; Jackson Co., 5 miles north of Butte Falls; Lane Co., H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest; Marion Co., 2 miles east of Scott's Mill; Washington Co., Manning, U.S. Highway 26; WASH: King Co., Seattle; Whatcom Co.,, Bellingham; Whitman Co., Pullman (mislabeled?); .
Habitat: Mixed evergreen forest dominated by Douglas-fir, other conifers, and red alder.
Food habits and behavior: Caterpillars are reported to eat wild cherry.
Collections: Oregon State University, Corvallis.
References:

  • Clarke, J.F.G.; Benjamin, F.H. 1938. A study of some North American moths allied to the thyatirid genus Bombycia Huebner. Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences 37: 55-73.
  • McFarland, N.A. 1963. The Macroheterocera (Lepidoptera) of a mixed forest in western Oregon. Masters thesis, Oregon State University, Corvallis, 152 pp.

Ceranemota fasciata (Barnes and McDunnough)
Type locality: Duncan, Vancouver Island, British Columbia.
Distribution: Vancouver Island, British Columbia south to Mendocino Co., California. Specific locations are: CALIF: Mendocino Co., ORE: Benton Co., McDonald Forest; Clackamas Co., Milwaukie; Oregon City; Clatsop Co., Elsie, Nehalen River; WASH:Pierce Co., Mt. Rainier.
Habitat:
Food habits and behavior: Caterpillars are reported to eat Prunus occidentalis.
Collections: Oregon State University, Corvallis.
References:

  • Clarke, J.F.G.; Benjamin, F.H. 1938. A study of some North American moths allied to the thyatirid genus Bombycia Huebner. Bulletin of the southern California Academy of Sciences 37: 55-73.

Ceranemota semifasciata Benjamin
Type locality: Siskiyou County, California.
Distribution: Siskiyou County, California.
Habitat:
Food habits and behavior:
Collections:
Comment: This species is known only from the unique type specimen and is reported to be closely related to Ceranemota tearlei. It's possible that species is synonymous with the latter species which is widespread in the West.
References:

  • Clarke, J.F.G.; Benjamin, F.H. 1938. A study of some North American moths allied to the thyatirid genus Bombycia Huebner. Bulletin of the southern California Academy of Sciences 37: 55-73.

Family Geometridae (inch-worm or measuring worm moths)

Cochisea sonomensis Barnes and McDunnough, 1941
Type locality: Spring Mountain, Sonoma County, California.
Distribution: In California Coast Ranges from Siskiyou and Trinity counties south to Santa Clara County. Specific localities include: CALIF:Alameda Co., Cedar Mountain; Lake Co., Anderson Springs; Mendocino Co., Laytonville; Napa Co., Angwin; 2 miles north northeast of Angwin; Howell Mountain; Spring Mountain; Santa Clara Co., San Antonio Canyon; Siskiyou Co., Shadow Creek Campground, 2800', 8 km northeast of Cecilville; Sonoma Co., Hedgpeth Ranch; Spring Mountain; Trinity Co., Hayfork Ranger Station.
Habitat:
Food Habits and behavior: Caterpillars feed on foliage of conifers including Douglas-fir, Sargent cypress (Cupressus sargentii), and pine.
Collections: E.O. Essig Museum, University of California, Berkeley; California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco; National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC.
Comment: Rindge (1975) considered the inclusion of Alameda County, California specimens doubtful. The similar inclusion of Santa Clara County, California specimens may also be doubtful.
References:

  • McDunnough, J. 1941. New species of moths, mostly Californian. Canadian Entomologist 73: 67-75.
  • Powell, J.A.; De Benedictis, J.A. 1994a. 6. Foliage-feeding Lepidoptera of Abies and Pseudotsuga associated with Choristoneura in California. In: Powell, J.A., editor. Biosystmeatic studies of conifer-feeding Choristoneura (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in the western United States. University of California Publications in Entomology, in press.
  • Rindge, F.H. 1975. A revision of the New World Bistonini (Lepidoptera, Geometridae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 156: 71-155.

Family Noctuidae (owlet moths)

Abagrotis pulchrata (Blackmore)
Type locality: Maple Bay, near Duncan, British Columbia.
Distribution: Coastal British Columbia south to Alameda County, California. Specific localities include: CALIF: Alameda Co., Strawberry Canyon, Berkeley Hills. ORE:Benton Co., McDonald Forest, 5 miles northwest of Corvallis; Clackamas Co., Eagle Creek; Josephine Co., Grant's Pass; Lane Co., H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest.
Habitat: Mixed forest including Douglas-fir, other conifers, and red alder.
Food habits and behavior:
Collections: Oregon State University, Corvallis.
References:

  • Blackmore, E.H. 1925. A new noctuid from British Columbia (Lepid.). Canadian Entomologist 57: 205.
  • McFarland, N.A. 1963. The Macroheterocera (Lepidoptera) of a mixed forest in western Oregon. Masters thesis, Oregon State University, Corvallis, 152 pp.

Annaphila casta Henry Edwards
Type locality: Near Oakland, Douglas County, Oregon.
Distribution: Localities include: CALIF:Humboldt Co., Blocksburg; 2 miles west of Briceland; 4 miles east of Shelter Cove; Mendocino Co., Dunlap Campground; Sonoma Co., Plantation, 1/4 mile southeast; ORE:Benton Co., McDonald Forest.
Habitat: Openings and marshy meadows in mature or old-growth Douglas-fir or redwood forest.
Food habits and behavior:Caterpillars feed on foliage of Mimulus moschatus Dougl. ex. Lindl. Adults are diurnal.
Collections: California Academy of Sciences; E.O. Essig Museum, University of California, Berkeley; Oregon State University, Corvallis.
References:

  • Buckett, J.S. 1965. A reevaluation of Annaphila casta (Noctuidae). Journal of the Research on the Lepidoptera 4: 199-204.
  • Buckett, J.S. 1966. Rediscovery of Annaphila casta Hy. Edw. in California (Noctuidae). Journal of the Research on the Lepidoptera 5: 37-38.
  • Comstock, J.A.; C. Henne. 1967. Studies in life histories of North American Lepidoptera. California Annaphila III. Journal of the Research on the Lepidoptera 6: 257-262.

Autographa corusca (Strecker)
Type locality: Colorado, probably incorrect according to La fontaine and Poole (1991).
Distribution: From the southern Alaska panhandle and coastal British Columbia south through Cascades and Coast Range to northern coastal California (Mendocino Co.). Localities include: CALIF: Humboldt Co., Arcata, forest behind Humboldt State University campus; ORE: Benton Co., Corvallis; Clackamas Co., Jenning Lodge; near Oregon City; Clatsop Co., Elsie; Jefferson Co., Camp Sherman; Lane Co., H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest; Lincoln Co., Newport; Marion Co., Mill City; Salem. WASH: Kennewick (?stray).
Habitat: Cool, moist environments. Old-growth Douglas-fir, ponderosa pine, or redwood forests.
Food habits and behavior: Caterpillars eat foliage of red alder.
Collections: E.O. Essig Museum, University of California, Berkeley; Oregon State University, Corvallis.
Comment: A closely related species Autographa labrusca (Grote) ranges along the coast of California from Marin County north to Mendocino County.
References:

  • Lafontaine, J.D.; Poole, R.W. 1991. The moths of America north of Mexico. Fascicle 25.1. Noctuidae (part). The Wedge Entomological Research Foundation, Washington, D.C., 182 pp.

Egira baueri (Buckett)
Type locality: Inverness, Marin County, California.
Distribution: Specific localities include: CALIF: Marin Co., Inverness; Salt Point; Tomales Bay State Park; Mendocino Co., Mendocino.
Habitat: Bishop pine forest.
Food habits and behavior: Caterpillars probably feed on staminate cones and foliage of Bishop pine. Adults are nocturnal.
Collections: California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco; E.O. Essig Museum, University of California, Berkeley; University of California, Davis.
References:

  • Buckett, J.S. 1967. Description of a new species of Xylomiges from California. Journal of the Research on the Lepidoptera 6: 23-30.

Euxoa vetusta (Walker), 1865
Type locality: Vancouver Island, British Columbia.
Distribution: Southern British Columbia south along west slope of the Cascades and Coast Ranges to central California. Specific localities include: ORE: Benton Co., Corvallis; Clackamas Co., Jennings Lodge; Clatsop Co., Elsie; Lane Co., H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest; Marion Co., Mill City; Washington Co., Forest Grove; Yamhill Co., Dayton; county unspecified, Mt. Hood. WASH: Mason Co., Stimson Creek; Pierce Co., Mount Rainier; Puyallup; Wahkiakum Co., Cathlamet;.
Habitat: Conifer forests on west slope of Cascades.
Food habits and behavior: The life history and caterpillar foods are unreported.
Collections: Oregon State University, Corvallis.
References:

  • Lafontaine, J.D. 1987. The moths of America north of Mexico. Fascicle 27.2. Noctuidae (part), Noctuinae (part-Euxoa). The Wedge Entomological Research Foundation, Washington, D.C. 237 pp.

Feralia deceptiva McDunnough, 1920
Type locality: Vancouver, British Columbia.
Distribution: British Columbia south to central California. Specific localities include: CALIF: El Dorado Co., Blodgett Forest, 13 miles east of Georgetown; Lake Co., Anderson Springs; Cobb Mountain; Lake Pilsbury; Mendocino Co., Mount San Hedron; Napa Co., 2 miles north northeast of Angwin, 1300', north side of Howell Mountain; Spring mountain; Plumas Co., 1 mile south of Meadow Valley; Sonoma Co., Kenwood; ORE: Benton Co., Mary's Park Road, 0.8 mi. W Jct. with Hwy 36; McDonald Forest, 5 miles northwest of Corvallis; Clackamas Co., Estacada; Oregon City; Lane Co., H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest; Marion Co., Mill City; Washington Co., Forest Grove; Portland; Yamhill Co., McMinnville. WASH: Pierce Co., Parkland.
Habitat: Late successional or old-growth forest with Douglas-fir or true firs.
Food habits and behavior: Caterpillars feed on foliage of Douglas-fir and true firs.
Collections: California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco; E.O. Essig Museum, University of California, Berkeley; C.P. Gillette Museum, Colorado State University; Department of Entomology, Oregon State University.
References:

  • Crumb, S.E. 1956. The larvae of Phalaenidae. U.S. Department of Agriculture Technical Bulletin 1135: 356 p.
  • McDunnough, J. 1920. New species of Lepidoptera. Canadian Entomologist 52: 161-165.
  • McFarland, N.A. 1963. The Macroheterocera (Lepidoptera) of a mixed forest in western Oregon. Masters thesis, Oregon State University, Corvallis, 152 pp.
  • Powell, J.A.; De Benedictis, J.A. 1994a. 6. Foliage-feeding Lepidoptera of Abies and Pseudotsuga associated with Choristoneura in California. In: Powell, J.A., editor. Biosystematic studies of conifer-feeding Choristoneura (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in the western United States. University of California Publications in Entomology, in press.

Lithophane dilatocula (Smith), 1900
Type locality: California.
Distribution: Specific localities include: ORE: Clackamas Co., Estacada; Oregon City; Douglas Co., Metz Hill rest stop; Jefferson Co., Santiam Pass; Josephine Co., Grants Pass; Lane Co., H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest; vicinity of Eugene; Marion Co., Mill City; WASH: Cowlitz Co., near Kelso; King Co., Lake Wilderness; Pierce Co., old north entrance to Mt. Rainier.
Habitat: Riparian alder thickets.
Food habits and behavior: Caterpillars eat foliage of alders.
Collections: Oregon State University, Corvallis.
References:

  • Crumb, S.E. 1956. The larvae of Phalaenidae. U.S. Department of Agriculture Technical Bulletin 1135, 356 pp.
  • Todd, E.L. 1982. The noctuid type material of John B. Smith (Noctuidae). U.S. Department of Agriculture, Technical Bulletin 1645, 228 pp.

Nedra dora Clarke, 1940
Type locality: Grizzly Flats, El Dorado County, California.
Distribution: Specific localities include: CALIF:Calaveras Co., 4 miles east of Murphy's; El Dorado Co., Grizzly Flats; Humboldt Co., Orleans; Lake Co., Anderson Springs; Napa Co., Pope Creek, 3 miles northeast of Pope Valley; Nevada Co., Nevada City; Plumas Co., 4 miles west of Quincy; Shasta Co., Hat Creek; Redding; Siskiyou Co., Happy Camp; Shadow Creek Campground, 8 km northeast of Cecilville; Sonoma Co., Forbestown; Glen Ellen; Guerneville; Trinity Co., Hayfork Ranger Station, 2300', Tuolumne Co., Strawberry.
Habitat:
Food habits and behavior:
Collections: California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco; E.O. Essig Museum, University of California, Berkeley.
References:

  • Clarke, J.F.G. 1940. A study of the North American moths formerly referred to Delta Saalmueller, with two new species (Lepidoptera: Phalaenidae). Bulletin of the southern California Academy of Sciences 39: 39-47+

Platypolia contadina (Smith), 1894
Type locality: Victoria, British Columbia
Distribution: Cascades from British Columbia south to California. Specific localities include: ORE: Clackamas Co., Oregon City; Clatsop Co., Elsie; Jefferson Co., Santiam Pass; Josephine Co., Grants Pass; Lane Co., H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest; Linn Co., Santiam Pass; Marion Co., Silverton; Multnomah Co., Sandy; Washington Co., Forest Grove.
Habitat:
Food Habits and Behavior: Caterpillars eat foliage of Vacciniumspecies and are reported to feed on Osmaronia, Symphoricarpos, and possibly others.
Collections: Oregon State University, Corvallis.
References:

  • Crumb, S.E. 1956. The larvae of Phalaenidae. U.S. Department of Agriculture Technical Bulletin 1135, 356 pp.
  • Todd, E.L. 1982. The noctuid type material of John B. Smith (Lepidoptera). U.S. Department of Agriculture, Technical Bulletin 1645, 228 pp.

Pseudocopivaleria sonoma (McDunnough), 1941
Type locality: The Geysers, Sonoma County, California.
Distribution: Specific localities include: CALIF: El Dorado Co., Placerville; Lake Co., Anderson Springs; Cobb Mountain; Middletown; Mendocino Co., Laytonville; Plumas Co., 1 mile north of Elephant Butte; Riverside Co., Anza; Shasta Co., Burney Mountain; Sonoma Co., The Geysers; Mt. St. Helena; Tuolumne Co., Twain Harte; ORE: Clackamas Co., Oregon City; Josephine Co., Grants Pass.
Habitat: Upper Sonoran and Transition life zone.
Food habits and behavior: The caterpillars of a related species feed on oak foliage, and it is assumed that this species also feeds on oaks.
Collections: E.O. Essig Museum, University of California, Berkeley; Oregon State University, Corvallis.
References:

  • Buckett, J.S.; Bauer, W. 1966. Key to the genera of Psaphidini, with descriptions of a new genus and species from western North America (Noctuidae: Cucullinae). Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 20: 83-91.
  • McDunnough, J. 1941. New species of moths, mostly Californian. Canadian Entomologist 73: 67-75.

Order Diptera (true flies)

    Suborder Nematocera (primitive flies)

Family Psychodidae (moth flies)

Maurina sp.

Family Deuterophlebiidae (mountain midges)

Deuterophlebia shasta Wirth
Type locality: Fawn Creek near headwaters of South Fork of Sacramento River, 41� 14'N 122� 26'W, 1460 m
Distribution: Known only from two drainages in northern California, South Fork of Sacramento River, Siskiyou County and Smith River, Del Norte County; and one drainage in southwestern Oregon, Illinois River, Curry County. Specific localities other than type locality are: CALIF: Del Norte Co., Hardscrabble Creek at Highway 199 crossing, 41� 50'N 124� 01'W, 73 m; Middle Fork Smith River at Panther Flat, 41� 50'N 123� 55'W, 135 m; Middle Fork Smith River, above Howard Griffin Bridge, 41� 50'N 123� 52'W, 220 m; Middle Fork Smith River, 1.5 mile above Siskiyou Fork Road, 41� 53'N, 123�47'W, 335 m; Patrick Creek, 0.8 mile above confluence with Middle Fork Smith River, 41� 52'N 123� 51'W, 265 m; South Fork Smith River, 41� 47'N 123� 39'W, 45 m; South Fork Smith River, above Steven Memorial Bridge, 41� 41'N 123� 55W, 170M; Smith River, 1.3 miles below Highway 199, 41� 48'N 124� 05'W, 17 m; Siskiyou Co., South Fork Sacramento River, at Forest Service Road 26 crossing, 41� 16'N 122� 24'W, 1120 m; ORE: Curry Co., Illinois River, at Oak Flat, 42� 30'N 124� 02'W, 46 m.
Habitat: Riparian habitat through mature forest.
Food habits and behavior:
References:

  • Courtney, G.W. 1989. Morphology, systematics, and ecology of mountain midges (Diptera: Deuterophlebiidae). PhD. dissertation. University of Alberta, Edmonton, 422 p.

Family Simuliidae (black flies)

Parasimulium undescribed species

      Suborder Bracycera

Family Asilidae (robber flies)

Choerades ferox (Williston)
Type locality:
Distribution: Specific localities include: CALIF:El Dorado Co., Blodgett Forest, 8 miles east of Georgetown; Glen Alpine Creek, Lake Tahoe; Plumas Co., 4 miles east of Quincy; Sierra Co., 1 mile east of Sierra City; Tuolumne Co., Strawberry; ORE:Benton Co., Corvallis.
Habitat: Found mainly in late successional or old growth conifer forests.
Food habits and behavior:
Collections: E.O. Essig Museum, University of California, Berkeley.
References:

  • McAtee. 1918. Ohio Jour. Sci. 19: 143-170.

      Suborder Cyclorrhapha

Family Drosophilidae (pomace flies)

Drosophila montana Stone, Griffen, and Patterson
References:

  • Stone, W.S.; Griffen, A.B.; Patterson, J.T. 1942. A new species of the virilis group. Genetics 27: 127.
  • Stone, W.S.; Patterson, J.T. 1947. The species relationships in the virilis group. University of Texas Publications in Genetics 4720: 157-160.

Order Hymenoptera (ants, bees, and wasps)

      Suborder Symphyta (sawflies and horntails)

Family Tenthredinidae (common sawflies)

Empria multicolor (Norton)

Monophadnoides geniculatus (Hartig)

Phymotocera similata (MacGillivray)

Family Cephidae

Caenocephus aldrichi Bradley
Type locality:?
Distribution: British Columbia, Washington, Idaho, Oregon, and California.
Habitat: Understory of forests.
Food habits and behavior: Larvae bore in stems of Holodiscus discolor, a common forest understory plant.
References:

  • Bradley, J.C. 1905. Caenocephus in America. Canadian Entomologist 37: 363-364.
  • Hanson, P.E.; Miller, J.C. 1988. Notes on the biology of Caenocephus aldrichi Bradley (Hymenoptera: Cephidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 90:204-206.
  • Middlekauf, W.W. 1969. The cephid stem borers of California (Hymenoptera: Cephidae). Bulletin of the California Insect Survey 11: 19 pp.

Family Cimbicidae (cimbicid sawflies)

Zaraea americana Cresson

Family Siricidae (horntails)

Xeris morrisoni (Cresson)

Family Orussidae (parasitic wood wasps)

Orussus thoracicus (Ashmead)

Family Formicidae (ants)

Amblypone oregonense (Wheeler)

Camponotus modoc Wheeler

Family Ichneumonidae (ichneumons)

Aplomerus robustus Townes
Type locality:
Distribution:
Habitat:
Food habits and behavior:
References:

Rhyssa alaskensis Ashmead
Type locality:
Distribution:
Habitat:
Food habits and behavior:
References:

Family Apidae (bumble bees, honey bees, carpenter bees)

Bombus franklini (Frison), Franklin's bumble bee
Type locality: Nogales, Arizona (almost certainly in error)
Distribution: River valleys in southern Oregon. Specific localities include: ORE.: No county information: Medford, Gold Hill, Roseburg.
Habitat: River valleys.
Food habits and behavior: This is a pollinator, preferred nectar and pollen sources have not been reported. The species forages actively from July to September.
Reference:

  • Stephen, W.P. 1957. Bumble bees of western America. Oregon State College, Agricultural Experiment Station, Technical Bulletin 40, 163 pp.

 

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