THE CONSTITUTION OF CONNECTICUT (1818)*

        Though the people of the state had long acquiesced under the form of government derived from the charter, and sanctioned by the legislature; yet it was considered by many that we had no constitution, as our government under the charter had never received the explicit approbation of the people subsequent to the declaration of independence.  It was also considered to be inconsistent with the dignity of a free nation to hold their rights, even nominally by the tenure of a Royal Grant and that it was proper the powers of the government should be divided into separate departments, and individual rights be secured by a constitution that should control the legislature itself.  It was therefore thought advisable to call a convention for that object.  Accordingly, in 1818, a convention was assembled which agreed upon a constitution.  It was submitted to the people, and approved by a vote of thirteen thousand nine hundred and eighteen in its favor and twelve thousand three hundred and sixty-four against its ratification.  On the twelfth of October, 1818, Governor Wolcott issued his proclamation, at the request of the General Assembly, declaring that the constitution was thenceforth to be observed by all persons, as the Supreme Law of this State.
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        *Copy from original in State Library.

        On October 1, 1901 a vote was taken as to the calling of a constitutional convention for the purpose of revising the constitution.  The vote was 47,317 in favor and 26,745 against.  A convention was held, a revised constitution proposed and a vote taken June 16, 1902 as to its adoption with the result of 10, 377 for the acceptance of such revision and 21,234 against it.

PREAMBLE

    The people of Connecticut acknowledging with gratitude, the good providence of God, in having permitted them to enjoy a free government, do, in order more effectually to define, secure, and perpetuate the liberties, rights and privileges which they have derived from their ancestors, hereby, after a careful consideration and revision, ordain and establish the following constitution and form of civil government.

ARTICLE FIRST.
DECLARATION OF RIGHTS.

    That the great and essential principles of liberty and free government may be recognized and established,

WE DECLARE,

    Sec.  1.    That all men when they form a social compact, are equal in rights; and that no man, or set of men are entitled to exclusive public emoluments or privileges from the community.
    Sec.  2.    That all political power is inherent in the people, and all free governments are founded on their authority, and instituted for their benefit; and that they have at all times an undeniable and indefeasible right to alter their form of government in such manner as they may think expedient.
    Sec.  3.    The exercise and enjoyment of religious profession and worship, without discrimination, shall forever be free to all persons in this state; provided, that the right hereby declared and established shall not be so construed as to excuse acts of   licentiousness, or to justify practices inconsistent with the peace and safety of the state.
    Sec.  4.    No preference shall be given by law to any christian sect or mode of worship.
    Sec.  5.    Every citizen may freely speak, write and publish his sentiments on all subjects, being responsible for the abuse of that liberty.
    Sec.  6.    No law shall ever be passed to curtail or restrain the liberty of speech or of the press.
    Sec.  7.    In all prosecutions or indictments for libels, the truth may be given in evidence, and the jury shall have the right to determine the law and the facts, under the direction of the court.
    Sec.  8.    The people shall be secure in their persons, houses, papers and possessions from unreasonable searches or seizures; and no warrant to search any place, or to seize any person or things, shall issue without describing them as nearly as may be, nor without probable cause supported by oath or affirmation.
    Sec.  9.    In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall have a right to be heard by himself and by counsel; to demand the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted by the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process to obtain   witnesses in his favour; and in all prosecutions by indictment or information, a speedy public trial by an impartial jury. He shall not be compelled to give evidence against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty or property, but by due course of law.  And no person shall be holden to answer for any crime, the punishment of which may be death or imprisonment for life, unless on a presentment or an indictment of a grand jury; except in the land or naval forces, or in the militia when in actual service in time of war, or public danger.
    Sec. 10.    No person shall be arrested, detained or punished, except in cases clearly warranted by law.
    Sec. 11.    The property of no person shall be taken for public use, without just compensation therefor.
    Sec. 12.    All courts shall be open, and every person, for an injury done him in his person, property or reputation, shall have remedy by due course of law, and right and justice administered without sale, denial or delay.
    Sec. 13.    Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed.
    Sec. 14.    All prisoners shall, before conviction, be bailable by sufficient sureties, except for capital offences, where the proof is evident, or the presumption great; and the privileges of the writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended, unless, when in case of rebellion or invasion, the public safety may require it; nor in any case, but by legislature.
    Sec. 15.    No person shall be attained of treason or felony, by the legislature.
    Sec. 16.    The citizens have a right, in a peaceable manner, to assemble for their common good, and to apply to those invested with the powers of government, for redress of grievances, or other proper purposes, by petition, address or remonstrance.
    Sec. 17.    Every citizen has a right to bear arms in defence of himself and the state.
    Sec. 18.    The military shall, in all cases, and at all times, be in strict subordination to the civil power.
    Sec. 19.    No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house, without the consent of the owner; nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.
    Sec. 20.    No hereditary emoluments, privileges or honors, shall ever be granted, or conferred in this state.
    Sec. 21.    The right of trial by jury shall remain inviolate.

ARTICLE SECOND.
OF THE DISTRIBUTION OF POWERS.

    The powers of government shall be divided into three distinct departments, and each of them confided to a separate magistracy, to wit, those which are legislative, to one; those which are executive, to another; and those which are judicial, to another.

ARTICLE THIRD.
OF THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT.

    Sec. 1.    The legislative power of this state shall be vested in two distinct houses or branches; the one to be styled THE SENATE, the other, THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, and both together THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY.  The style of their laws shall be, BE IT ENACTED BY THE SENATE AND HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES IN GENERAL ASSEMBLY CONVENED.
    Sec.  2.    There shall be one stated session of the General Assembly, to be holden in each year, alternately at Hartford and New Haven, on the first Wednesday of May, and at such other times as the General Assembly shall judge necessary; the first session to be holden at Hartford:  But the person administering the office of Governour, may on special emergencies, convene the General Assembly at either of said places, at any other time.  And in case of danger from the prevalence of contagious diseases in either of said places, or other circumstances, the person administering the office of Governour, may, by proclamation, convene said Assembly at any other place in this state.
    Sec.  3.    The house of representatives shall consist of electors residing in towns from which they are elected.   The number of representatives from each town shall be the same as at present practised and allowed.   In case a new town shall hereafter be incorporated, such new town shall be entitled to one representative only; and if such new town shall be made from one or more towns, the town or towns from which the same shall be made, shall be entitled to the same number of representatives as at present allowed, unless the number shall be reduced by the consent of such town or towns.
    Sec.  4.    The Senate shall consist of twelve members, to be chosen annually by the electors.
    Sec.  5.    At the meetings of the electors, held in the several towns in this state in April annually, after the election of representatives, the electors present shall be called upon to bring in their written ballots for senators.  The presiding officer shall receive the votes of the electors, and count and declare them in open meeting.   The presiding officer shall also make duplicate lists of the persons voted for, and of the number of votes for each, which shall be certified by the presiding officer; one of which lists shall be delivered to the town clerk, and the other within ten days after said meeting, shall be delivered under seal, either to the Secretary, or to the Sheriff of the county in which said town is situated; which list shall be directed to the Secretary, with a superscription expressing the purport of the contents thereof.  And each Sheriff who shall receive such votes, shall within fifteen days after said meeting, deliver, or cause them to be delivered to the Secretary.

        Art.  3. Sec. 2. Altered by amendments of 1873 (Art. 14), 1875 (Art. 16) and 1884 (Art. 27).  See amendments of 1911-1912 (Art. 35).
          Art. 3. Sec. 3. Altered by amendments of 1874 (Art. 15), 1876 (Art. 18).
          Art. 3. Sec. 4. Altered by amendments of 1828 (Arts. 1, 2) and 1901 (Art. 31.)
          Art. 3. Sec. 5. Altered by amendments of 1828 (Art. 3), 1836 (Art. 6), 1875 (Art. 16), 1884 (Art. 27), 1901 (Art. 31), 1905 (Art. 33).

    Sec. 6.  The Treasurer, Secretary, and Controller, for the time being, shall canvass the votes publickly.   The twelve persons having the greatest number of votes for senators, shall be declared to be elected.   But in cases where no choice is made by the electors in consequence of an equality of votes, the house of representatives shall designate by ballot which of the candidates having such equal number of votes, shall be declared to be elected.   The return of votes, and the result of the canvass, shall be submitted to the house of representatives, and also to the Senate, on the first day of the session of the General Assembly; and each house shall be the final judge of the election returns and qualifications of its own members.
    Sec. 7.   The house of representatives when assembled, shall choose a Speaker, Clerk and other officers.  The senate shall choose its Clerk, and other officers, except the President.  A majority of each house shall constitute a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and compel the attendance of absent members in such manner, and under such penalties as each house may prescribe.
    Sec. 8.   Each house shall determine the rules of its own proceedings, and punish members for disorderly conduct, and, with the consent of two-thirds, expel a member, but not a second time for the same cause; and shall have all other powers necessary for a branch of the legislature of a free and independent state.
    Sec. 9.   Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and publish the same when required by one-fifth of its members, except such parts as in the judgment of a majority require secrecy.  The yeas and nays of the members of either house, shall, at the desire of one-fifth of those present, be entered on the journals.
    Sec. 10.  The senators and representatives shall, in all cases of civil process, be privileged from arrest, during the session of the General Assembly, and for four days before the commencement, and after the termination of any session thereof.  And for any speech or debate in either house, they shall not be questioned in any other place.
    Sec. 11.  The debates of each house shall be public, except on such occasions as in the opinion of the house may require secrecy.

        Art. 3. Sec. 6. Altered by amendments of 1828 (Art. 3.)

ARTICLE FOURTH.
OF THE EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT.

    Sec.  1.   The supreme executive power of the state shall be vested in a Governour, who shall be chosen by the electors of the state, and shall hold his office for one year from the first Wednesday of May next succeeding his election, and until his successor be duly qualified.  No person, who is not an elector of this state, and who has not arrived at the age of thirty years, shall be eligible.

     Art. 4. Sec. 1. Altered by amendments of 1836 (Art. 6), 1875 (Art. 16), 1884 (Art. 27), 1901 (Art. 30), 1905 (Art. 33),
    1911-1912 (Art. 34).

    Sec.  2.   At the meetings of the electors in the respective towns in the month of April in each year, immediately after the election of senators, the presiding officers shall call upon the electors to bring in their ballots for him whom they would elect to be governour, with his name fairly written.  When such ballots shall have been received and counted in the presence of the electors, duplicate lists of the persons voted for, and of the number of votes given for each, shall be made and certified by the presiding officer, one of which lists shall be deposited in the office of the town clerk within three days, and the other, within ten days after said election, shall be transmitted to the Secretary, or to the sheriff of the county, in which such election shall have been held.  The sheriff receiving said votes shall deliver, or cause them to be deilvered to the Secretary, within fifteen days next after said election.  The votes so returned shall be counted by the Treasurer, Secretary and Controller, within the month of April.  A fair list of the persons and number of votes given for each, together with the returns of the presiding officers, shall be, by the Treasurer, Secretary and Controller, made and laid before the General Assembly, then next to be holden, on the first day of the session thereof; and said Assembly shall, after examination of the same, declare the person whom they shall find to be legally chosen, and give him notice accordingly.   If no person shall have a majority of the whole number of said votes, or if two or more shall have an equal and the greatest number of said votes, then said Assembly, on the second day of their session, by joint ballot of both houses, shall proceed, without debate, to choose a Governour from a list of names of the two persons having the greatest number of votes, or of the names of the persons having an equal and highest number of votes so returned as aforesaid.  The General Assembly shall by law prescribe the manner in which all questions concerning the election of a Governour, or Lieutenant Governour, shall be determined.
    Sec.  3.    At the annual meetings of the electors, immediately after the election of Governour, there shall also be chosen in the same manner as is herein before provided for the election of Governour, a Lieutenant Governour, who shall continue in office for the same time, and possess the same qualifications.
    Sec.  4.    The compensations of the Governour, Lieutenant Governour, Senators and Representatives, shall be established by law, and shall not be varied so as to take effect until after an election, which shall next succeed the passage of the law establishing said compensations.
      
         Art. 4. Sec. 2. Altered by amendments of 1836 (Art. 6), 1875 (Art. 16), 1876 (Art. 19), 1884 (Art. 27), 1901 (Art. 30), 1905 (Art. 33).
            Art. 4. Sec. 3. Altered by amendments of 1832 (Art. 4), 1836 (Art. 6), 1875 (Art. 16), 1876 (Art. 19), 1884 (Art. 27), 1901 (Art. 30), 1905 (Art. 33).

    Sec.  5.    The Governour shall be Captain General of the militia of the state, except when called into the service of the United States.
    Sec.  6.    He may require information in writing from the officers in the executive department, on any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices.
    Sec.  7.    The Governour, in case of a disagreement between the two houses of the General Assembly, respecting the time of adjournment, may adjourn them to such time as he shall think proper, not beyond the day of the next stated session.
    Sec.  8.    He shall, from time to time, give to the General Assembly, information of the state of the government, and recommend to their consideration such measures as he shall deem expedient.
    Sec.  9.    He shall take care that the law be faithfully executed.
    Sec. 10.    The Governour shall have power to grant reprieves after conviction, in all cases except those of impeachment, until the end of the next session of the General Assembly, and no longer.
    Sec. 11.    All commissions shall be in the name and by authority of the state of Connecticut; shall be sealed with the state seal, signed by the Governour, and attested by the Secretary.
    Sec. 12.    Every bill which shall have passed both [houses] of the General Assembly, shall be presented to the Governour.  If he approves, he shall sign and transmit it to the Secretary, but if not, he shall return it to the house in which it originated, with his objections, which shall be entered on the journals of the house; who shall proceed to reconsider the bill.  If after such reconsideration, that house shall again pass it, it shall be sent, with the objections, to the other house, which shall also reconsider it.  If approved, it shall become a law.   But in such cases the votes of both houses shall be determined by yeas and nays; and the names of the members voting for and against the bill, shall be entered on the journals of each house respectively.  If the bill shall not be returned by the Governour within three days, Sundays excepted, after it shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a law in like manner as if he had signed it; unless the General Assembly, by their adjournment, prevents its return, in which case it shall not be a law.
    Sec. 13.    The Lieutenant Governor shall, by virtue of his office, be President of the Senate, and have, when in committee of the whole, a right to debate, and when the Senate is equally divided, to give the casting vote.
    Sec. 14.    In case of the death, resignation, refusal to serve, or removal from office of the Governour, or of his impeachment, or absence from the state, the Lieutenant Governour shall exercise the powers and authority appertaining to the office of Governour, until another be chosen at the next periodical election for Governour, and be duly qualified; or until the Governour, impeached or absent, shall be acquitted or return.

         Art. 4. Sec. 7. Amended in 1911-1912 (Art. 35).
         Art. 4. Sec. 12. See amendment of 1923 (Art. 37); Altered by amendment of 1934 (Art. 40).
         Art. 4. Sec. 14. Altered by amendment of 1911-1912 (Art. 34).

    Sec. 15.    When the government shall be administered by the Lieutenant Governor, or he shall be unable to attend as President of the Senate, the Senate shall elect one of their members, as President pro tempore.  And if during the vacancy of the office of Governour, the Lieutenant Governour shall die, resign, refuse to serve, or be removed from office, or if he shall be impeached, or absent from the State, the President of the Senate pro tempore, shall, in like manner, administer the government until he be superseded by a Governour or Lieutenant Governour.
    Sec. 16.    If the Lieutenant Governour shall be required to administer the government, and shall, while in such administration, die or resign during the recess of the General Assembly, it shall be the duty of the Secretary, for the time being, to convene the Senate for the purpose of choosing a President pro tempore.
    Sec. 17.    A Treasurer shall annually be chosen by the electors at their meeting in April, and the votes shall be returned, counted, canvassed, and declared, in the same manner as it provided for the election of Governour and Lieutenant Governour; but the votes for Treasurer shall be canvassed by the Secretary and Controller only.  He shall receive all monies belonging to the state, and disburse the same only as he may be directed by law.  He shall pay no warrant, or order for the disbursement of public money, until the same has been registered in the office of the Controller.
    Sec. 18.    A Secretary shall be chosen next after the Treasurer, and in the same manner, and the votes for Secretary shall be returned to, and counted, canvassed, and declared by the Treasurer and Controller.  He shall have the safe keeping and custody of the public records and documents, and particularly of the acts, resolutions, and orders of the General Assembly, and record the same; and perform all such duties as shall be prescribed by law.  He shall be the keeper of the seal of the state, which shall not be altered.
    Sec. 19.    A Controller of the public accounts shall be annually appointed by the General Assembly.  He shall adjust and settle all public accounts and demands, except grants and orders of the General Assembly.  He shall prescribe the mode of keeping and rendering all public accounts.  He shall, ex officio, be one of the auditors of the accounts of the Treasurer.  The General Assembly may assign to him other duties in relation to his office, and to that of the Treasurer, and shall prescribe the manner in which his duties shall be performed.

         Art. 4. Sec. 17. Altered by amendments of 1832 (Art. 4), 1836 (Art. 6), 1875 (Art. 16), 1876 (Art. 19), 1884 (Art. 27), 1901 (Art. 30), 1905 (Art. 33).
            Art. 4. Sec. 18.  Altered by amendments of 1832 (Art. 4), 1836 (Art. 6), 1875 (Art. 16), 1876 (Art. 19), 1884 (Art. 27), 1901 (Art. 30), 1905 (Art. 33).
            Art. 4. Sec. 19. Altered by amendments of 1836 (Arts. 5, 6), 1875 (Art. 16), 1876 (Art. 19), 1884 (Art. 27), 1901 (Art. 30), 1905 (Art. 33).

    Sec. 20.    A sheriff shall be appointed in each county by the General Assembly, who shall hold his office for three years, removable by said Assembly, and shall become bound with sufficient sureties, to the Treasurer of the State, for the faithful discharge of the duties of his office, in such manner as shall be prescribed by law:  In case the sheriff of any county shall die or resign, the Governour may fill the vacancy occasioned thereby, until the same shall be filled by the General Assembly.
    Sec. 21.    A statement of all receipts, payments, funds, and debts of the state, shall be published, from time to time, in such manner and at such periods, as shall be prescribed by law.

         Art. 4. Sec. 20. Altered by amendments of 1838 (Art. 7), 1886 (Art. 28).

ARTICLE FIFTH.
OF THE JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT.

   Sec.  1.    The judicial power of the state shall be vested in a Supreme Court of Errors, a Superior Court, and such inferiour courts as the General Assembly shall, from time to time, ordain and establish:  the powers and jurisdiction of which courts shall be defined by law.
    Sec.  2.    There shall be appointed in each county, a sufficient number of justices of the peace, with such jurisdiction in civil and criminal cases, as the General Assembly may prescribe.
    Sec.  3.    The judges of the Supreme Court of Errors, of the superiour and inferiour courts, and all justices of the peace, shall be appointed by the General Assembly, in such manner as shall by law be prescribed.  The judges of the Supreme Court, and of the Superior Court, shall hold their offices during good behaviour; but may be removed by impeachment; and the Governour shall also remove them on the address of two thirds of the members of each house of the General Assembly:   All other judges and justices of the peace shall be appointed annually.  No judge or justice of the peace shall be capable of holding his office, after he shall arrive at the age of seventy years.

        Art. 5. Sec. 2. Amended 1850 (Art. 10).
        Art. 5. Sec. 3.  Altered by amendments of 1850 (Art. 9), 1856 (Art. 12), 1876 (Arts. 20, 21), 1880 (Art. 26), 1934 (Art. 41), 1947 (Art. 47).

    ARTICLE SIXTH.
OF THE QUALIFICATIONS OF ELECTORS.

    Sec.  1.    All persons who have been, or shall hereafter, previous to the ratification of this Constitution, be admitted freeman, according to the existing laws of this State, shall be electors.
    Sec.  2.    Every white male citizen of the United States, who shall have gained a settlement in this state, attained the age of twenty-one years, and resided in the town in which he may offer himself to be admitted to the privilege of an elector, at least six months preceding, and have a freehold estate of the yearly value of seven dollars in this state; or having been enrolled in the militia, shall have performed military duty therein for the term of one year next preceding the time he shall offer himself for admission, or being liable thereto, shall have been, by authority of law, excused therefrom; or shall have paid a state tax within the year next preceding the time he shall present himself for such admission; and shall sustain a good moral character; shall, on his taking such oath as may be prescribed by law, be an elector.

         Art. 6. Sec. 2.  Altered by amendments of 1845 (Art. 8), 1855 (Art. 11), 1876 (Art. 23).  See Amendment of 1897 (Art. 29).

    Sec.  3.    The privileges of an elector shall be forfeited by a conviction of bribery, forgery, perjury, duelling, fraudulent bankruptcy, theft, or other offence for which an infamous punishment is inflicted.
    Sec.  4.    Every elector shall be eligible to any office in this state, except in cases provided for in this constitution.
    Sec.  5.    The selectmen and town clerk of the several towns, shall decide on the qualifications of electors, at such times, and in such manner as may be prescribed by law.
    Sec.  6.    Laws shall be made to support the privilege of free sufferage, prescribing the manner of regulating and conducting meetings of the electors, and prohibiting, under adequate penalties, all undue influence therein, from power, bribery, tumult, and other improper conduct.
    Sec.  7.    In all elections of officers of the state, or members of the General Assembly, the votes of the electors shall be by ballot.
    Sec.  8.    At all elections of officers of the state, or members of the General Assembly, the electors shall be privileged from arrest, during their attendance upon, and going to, and returning from the same, on any civil process.
    Sec.  9.    The meetings of the electors for the election of the several state officers, by law, annually to be elected, and members of the General Assembly of this state, shall be holden on the first Monday of April each year.

                Art. 6. Sec. 3.   See amendment of 1875 (Art. 17).  Repealed, 1948 (Art. 46).
                 Art. 6. Sec. 5. Amended by amendment of 1932 (Art. 38).
                 Art. 6. Sec. 7. Altered by amendment of 1905 (Art. 33).
                 Art. 6. Sec. 9. Altered by amendments of 1875 (Art. 16), 1884 (Art. 27).

ARTICLE SEVENTH.
OF RELIGION.

   Sec.  1.    It being the duty of all men to worship the Supreme Being, the great Creator and Preserver of the Universe, and their right to render that worship, in the mode most consistent with the dictates of their consciences; no person shall by law be compelled to join or support, nor be classed with, or associated to, any congregation, church or religious association.   But every person now belonging to such congregation, church, or religious association, shall remain a member thereof, until he shall have separated himself therefrom, in the manner hereinafter provided.  And each and every society or denomination of christians in this state, shall have and enjoy the same and equal powers, rights and privileges; and shall have power and authority to support and maintain the ministers or teachers of their respective denominations, and to build and repair houses for public worship, by a tax on the members of any such society only, to be laid by a major vote of the legal voters assembled at any society meeting, warned and held according to law, or in any other manner.
         Sec.  2.    If any person shall choose to separate himself from the society or denomination of christians to which he may belong, and shall leave a written notice thereof with the clerk of such society, he shall thereupon be no longer liable for any future expences which may be incurred by said society.

ARTICLE EIGHTH.
OF EDUCATION.

   Sec.  1.    The charter of Yale College, as modified by agreement with the corporation thereof, in pursuance of an act of the General Assembly, passed in May, 1792, is hereby confirmed.
    Sec.  2.    The fund, called the School Fund, shall remain a perpetual fund, the interest of which shall be inviolably appropriated to the support and encouragement of the public, or common schools throughout the state, and for the equal benefit of all the people thereof.  The value and amount of said fund shall, as soon as practicable, be ascertained in such manner as the General Assembly may prescribe, published, and recorded in the Controller's office; and no law shall ever be made, authorizing said fund to be diverted to any other use than the encouragement and support of public, or common schools, among the several schools societies, as justice and equality shall require.

ARTICLE NINTH.
OF IMPEACHMENTS.

    Sec.  1.    The house of representatives shall have the sole power of impeaching.
    Sec.  2.    All impeachments shall be tried by the Senate.  When sitting for that purpose, they shall be on oath or affirmation.   No person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two thirds of the members present.  When the Governour is impeached, the Chief Justice shall preside.
    Sec.  3.    The Governour, and all other executive and judicial officers, shall be liable to impeachment; but judgments in such cases shall not extend further than to removal from office, and disqualification to hold any office of honour, trust, or profit under this state; the party convicted, shall, nevertheless, be liable and subject to indictment, trial and punishment according to law.
    Sec.  4.    Treason against the state, shall consist only in levying war against it, or adhering to its enemies, giving them aid and comfort.  No person shall be convicted of treason, unless on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open court.  No conviction of treason, or attainder, shall work corruption of blood, or forfeiture.

ARTICLE TENTH.
GENERAL PROVISIONS.

   Sec.  1.    Members of the General Assembly, and all officers, executive and judicial, shall before they enter on the duties of their respective offices, take the following oath or affirmation, to wit:
    You do solemnly swear (or affirm, as the case may be) that you will support the constitution of the United States, and the constitution of the state of Connecticut, so long as you continue a citizen thereof; and that you will faithfully discharge, according to the law, the duties of the office of                                              to the best of your abilities.  So help you God.
    Sec.  2.    Each town shall annually elect selectman, and such officers of local police as the laws may prescribe.

                 Art. 10. Sec. 2.  Altered by amendment of 1905 (Art. 32).

    Sec.  3.    The rights and duties of all corporations shall remain as if this constitution had not been adopted; with the exception of such regulations and restrictions as are contained in this constitution.  All judicial and civil officers now in office, who have been appointed by the General Assembly, and commissioned according to law, and all such officers as shall be appointed by the said Assembly, and commissioned as aforesaid, before the first Wednesday of May next, shall continue to hold their offices until the first day of June next, unless they shall before that time, resign, or be removed from office according to law.  The Treasurer and Secretary shall continue in office until a Treasurer and Secretary shall be appointed under this constitution.  All military officers shall continue to hold and exercise their respective offices, until they shall resign or be removed according to law.   All laws not contrary to, or inconsistent with the provisions of this constitution, shall remain in force, until they shall expire by their own limitation, or shall be altered or repealed by the General Assembly, in pursuance of this condition.  The validity of all bonds, debts, contracts, as well of individuals as of bodies corporate, or the state, of all suits, actions, or rights of action, both in law and equity, shall continue as if no change had taken place.  The Governour, Lieutenant Governour, and General Assembly, which is to be formed in October next, shall have, and possess, all the powers and authorities, not repugnant to, or inconsistent with this constitution, which they now have and possess, until the first Wednesday of May next.
    Sec.  4.    No judge of the Superiour Court, or of the Supreme Court of Errors; no member of Congress; no person holding any office under the authority of the United States; no person holding the office of Treasurer, Secretary, or Controller; no Sheriff, or sheriff's deputy, shall be a member of the General Assembly.

ARTICLE ELEVENTH.
OF AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION.

    Whenever a majority of the house of representatives shall deem it necessary to alter, or amend this constitution, they may propose such alterations and amendments; which proposed amendments shall be continued to the next General Assembly, and be published with the laws which may have been passed at the same session; and if two thirds of each house, at the next session of said Assembly, shall approve the amendments proposed, by yeas and nays, said amendments shall, by the Secretary, be transmitted to the town clerk in each town in this state; whose duty it shall be to present the same to the inhabitants thereof, for their consideration, at a town meeting, legally warned and held for that purpose; and if it shall appear in a manner to be provided by law, that a majority of the electors present at such meetings, shall have approved such amendments, the same shall be valid, to all intents and purposes, as a part of this constitution.

    Done in Convention on the fifteenth day of September, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and eighteen,         and of the Independence of the United States the forty-third.

                                By order of the Convention.

                                            OLIVER WOLCOTT, PRESIDENT.

JAMES LANMAN,             }
ROBERT FAIRCHILD,       } CLERKS.     

 

AMENDMENTS TO THE
CONSTITUTION OF CONNECTICUT(1818)

ARTICLE I.

    From and after the first Wednesday [of May], in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and thirty, the Senate of this state shall consist of not less than eighteen, nor more than twenty-four members, and be chosen by districts.

                Art. 1.  Adopted November, 1828.  Altered by amendment of 1901 (Art. 31).

ARTICLE II.

    The General Assembly, which shall be holden on the first Wednesday of May, in the year one thousand eight hundred and twenty-nine, shall divide the state into districts for the choice of Senators, and shall determine what number shall be elected in each, which districts shall not be less than eight, nor more than twenty-four in number, and shall always be composed of contiguous territory, and in forming them, no town shall be divided, nor shall the whole or part of one county be joined to the whole or part of another county, to form a district; regard being had to the population in said apportionment and in forming said districts, in such manner that no county shall have less than two Senators.  The districts, when established, shall continue the same until the session of the General Assembly next after the completion of the next census of the United States; which said Assembly shall have the power to alter the same, if found necessary, to preserve a proper equality between said districts, in respect to the number of inhabitants therein, according to the principles above recited; after which, said districts shall not be altered, nor the number of Senators altered, except at any session of the General Assembly next after the completion of a census of the United States, and then only according to the principles above prescribed.

                Art. 2.  Adopted November, 1828.  Altered by amendment of 1901 (Art. 31).

ARTICLE III.

    At the meeting of the electors on the first Monday of April, in the year one thousand eight hundred and thirty, and annually thereafter, immediately after the choice of Representatives, the electors qualified by law to vote in the choice of such Representatives, shall be called upon, by the presiding officer in such meeting, in the several towns within their districts, respectively, to bring in their ballots for such person or number of person to be Senator or Senators for such districts in the next General Assembly, as shall, by law be allowed to such districts respectively; which person or persons, at the time of holding such meetings, shall belong to, and reside in the respective districts in which they shall be so balloted for as aforesaid:  And each elector present at such meeting, qualified as aforesaid, may thereupon bring in his ballot or suffrage for such person or persons as he shall choose to be Senators for such district, not exceeding the number by law allowed to the same, with the name or names of such person or persons, fairly written on one piece of paper.   And the votes so given in, shall be received, counted, canvassed and declared, in the same manner now provided by the constitution, for the coince of Senators.  The person or persons, not exceeding the number by law allowed to the districts in which such votes shall be given in, having the highest number of votes, shall be declared to be duly elected for such districts:  But in the event of an equality of votes between two or more of the persons so voted for, the House of Representatives shall in the manner provided for by the constitution, designate which of such person or persons shall be declared to be duly elected.

          
            Art. 3.  Adopted November, 1828.  Altered by amendments of 1836 (Art. 6), 1875 (Art. 16), 1884 (Art. 27), 1901 (Art. 30), 1901 (Art. 31), 1905 (Art. 33).

ARTICLE IV.

    There shall annually be chosen and appointed a Lieutenant Governor, a Treasurer, and Secretary, in the same manner as is provided in the second section of the fourth article of the Constitution of this State for the choice and appointment of a Governor.

             Art. 4.  Adopted November, 1832.  Altered by amendments of 1836 (Art. 6), 1875 (Art. 16), 1876 (Art. 19), 1884 (Art. 27), 1901 (Art. 30), 1905 (Art. 33), 1948 (Art. 45).

ARTICLE V.

    A Comptroller of Public Accounts shall be annually chosen by the Electors in their meeting in April, and in the same manner as the Treasurer and Secretary are chosen, and the votes for Comptroller shall be returned to, and counted, canvassed and declared by the Treasurer and Secretary.

            Art. 5.  Adopted November, 1836.  Altered by amendments of 1875 (Art. 16), 1876 (Art. 19), 1884 (Art. 27), 1901 (Art. 30), 1905 (Art. 33).

ARTICLE VI.

     The Electors in the respective towns, on the first Monday of April in each year may vote for Governor, Lieutenant Governor, Treasurer, Secretary, Senators and Representatives in the General Assembly successively, or for any number of said officers at the same time, and the General Assembly shall have power to enact laws regulating and prescribing the order and manner of voting for said officers, and also providing for the election of Representatives at some time subsequent to the first Monday of April in all cases when it shall so happen that the Electors in any town shall fail on that day to elect the Representative or Representatives to which such town shall be by law entitled.  Provided, that in all elections of officers of the State, or Members of the General Assembly, the votes of the Electors shall be by ballot, either written or printed.   
           
            Art. 6.  Adopted November, 1836.  Altered by amendments of 1875 (Art. 16), 1876 (Art. 19), 1884 (Art. 27), 1901 (Art. 30), 1905 (Art. 33).   

ARTICLE VII.

    A Sheriff shall be appointed in each County by the electors therein, in such manner as shall be prescribed by law, who shall hold his office for three years, removable by the General Assembly, and shall become bound with sufficient sureties to the Treasurer of the State, for the faithful discharge of the duties of his office.

          Art. 7.  Adopted October, 1838.  Altered by amendment of 1886 (Art. 28).
   

ARTICLE VIII.

    Every white male citizen of the United States, who shall have attained the age of twenty-one years, who shall have resided in this state for a term of one year next preceding, and in the town in which he may offer himself to be admitted to the privileges of an elector, at least six months next preceding the time he may so offer himself, and shall sustain a good moral character, shall, on his taking such oath as may be prescribed by law, be an elector.

        Art. 8.  Adopted October 1845.  Altered by amendments of 1855 (Art. 11), 1876 (Art. 23).  See amendment of 1897 (Art. 29).

ARTICLE IX.

    The Judges of Probate shall be appointed by the electors residing in the several probate districts, and qualified to vote for representatives therein, in such manner as shall be prescribed by law.

         Art. 9.  Adopted October, 1850.  Altered by amendment of 1876 (Art. 21).

ARTICLE X.

    The Justices of the Peace, for the several towns in this State, shall be appointed by the electors in such towns; and the time and the manner of their election, the number for each town, and the period for which they shall hold their offices, shall be prescribed by law.

        Art. 10.  Adopted October, 1850.

ARTICLE XI.

    Every person shall be able to read any article of the constitution or any section of the statutes of this state before being admitted as an elector.

        Art. 11.  Adopted October, 1855.  See amendments of 1876 (Art. 23), 1897 (Art. 29).

ARTICLE XII.

    The judges of the supreme court of errors and of the superior court appointed in the year 1855, and thereafter, shall hold their offices for the term of eight years, but may be removed by impeachment; and the governor shall also remove them on the address of two thirds of each house of the general assembly.  No judge of the supreme court of errors or of the superior court shall be capable of holding office after he shall arrive at the age of seventy years.

        Art. 12  Adopted October, 1856.  Altered by amendment of 1880 (Art. 26).

ARTICLE XIII.

    Every elector of this state who shall be in the military service of the United States, either as a drafted person or volunteer, during the present rebellion, shall, when absent from this state because of such service, have the same right to vote in any election of state officers, representatives in congress, and electors of president and vice president of the United States, as he would have if present, at the time appointed for such election, in the town in which he resided at the time of his enlistment into such service.  This provision shall in no case extend to persons in the regular army of the United States, and shall cease and become inoperative and void upon the termination of the present war.  [The General Assembly shall prescribe by law in what manner and at what time, the votes of electors absent from this State in the military service of the United States, shall be received, counted, returned and canvassed.]

        Art. 13.  Adopted August, 1864.

        ARTICLE XIV.

    All annual and special sessions of the general assembly shall on and after the first Wednesday of May A. D. 1875, be held at Hartford, but the person administering the office of governor may in case of special emergency convene said assembly at any other place in this state.

        Art. 14.  Adopted October, 1873.  Altered by amendments of 1875 (Art. 16), 1884 (Art. 27), 1948 (Art. 45).

ARTICLE XV.

    The house of representatives shall consist of electors residing in towns from which they are elected.  Every town which now contains, or hereafter shall contain a population of five thousand, shall be entitled to send two representatives, and every other one shall be entitled to its present representation in the general assembly.  The population of each town shall be determined by the enumeration made under the authority of the censes of the United States, next before the election of representatives is held.

        Art. 15.  Adopted October, 1874.  Altered by amendment of 1876 (Art. 18).

ARTICLE XVI.

    Sec. 1.    A general election for governor, lieutenant governor, secretary of state, treasurer, comptroller, and members of the general assembly, shall be held on the Tuesday after the first Monday of November 1876 and annually thereafter for such officers as are herein and may be hereafter prescribed.
    Sec. 2.    The state officers above named and the senators from those districts having even numbers elected on the Tuesday after the first Monday of November 1876 and those elected biennially thereafter on the Tueday after the first Monday of November shall respectively hold their offices for two years from and after the Wednesday following the first Monday of the next succeeding January.  The senators from those districts having odd numbers elected on the Tuesday after the first Monday of November 1876 shall hold their offices for one year from and after the Wednesday following the first Monday of January 1877, the electors residing in the senatorial districts having odd numbers shall on the Tuesday after the first Monday of November 1877 and biennially thereafter elect senators who shall hold their offices for two year from and after the Wednesday following the first Monday of the next succeeding January.   The representatives elected from the several towns on the Tuesday after the first Monday of November 1876 and those elected annually thereafter shall hold their offices for one year from and after Wednesday following the first Monday of the next succeeding January.
    Sec. 3.    There shall be a stated session of the general assembly in Hartford on the Wednesday after the first Monday of January 1877 and annually thereafter on the Wednesday after the first Monday of January.
    Sec. 4.    The persons who shall be severally elected to the state offices and general assembly on the first Monday of April 1876 shall hold such offices only until the Wednesday after the first Monday of January 1877.
    Sec. 5.    The general assembly elected in April 1876 shall have power to pass such laws as may be necessary to carry into effect the provisions of this amendment.

      Art. 16.  Adopted October, 1875.  Altered by amendments of 1876 (Art. 19), 1884 (Art. 27).
        Art. 16. Sec. 2.  Altered by amendment of 1884 (Art. 27).
        Art. 16. Sec. 3.  Altered by amendment of 1884 (Art. 27).

ARTICLE XVII.

    The general assembly shall have power by a vote of two-thirds of the members of both branches to restore the privileges of an elector to those who may have forfeited the same by a conviction of crime.

        Art. 17.  Adopted October, 1875.  Repealed, 1948 (Art. 46).

ARTICLE XVIII.

    In case a new town shall hereafter be incoroporated, such new town shall not be entitled to a representative in the general assembly unless it has at least twenty-five hundred inhabitants, and unless the town from which the major portion of its territory is taken, has also at least twenty-five hundred inhabitants, but until such towns shall each have at least twenty-five hundred inhabitants such new town shall for the purpose of representation in the general assembly be attached to and be deemed to be a part of the town from which the major portion of its territory is taken, and it shall be an election district of such town for the purpose of representation in the house of representatives.

         Art. 18.  Adopted October, 1876.

ARTICLE XIX.

   The provisions of section two, article four, of the Constitution, and of the amendments thereto, shall apply mutatis mutandis to all elections held on the Tuesday after the first Monday of November 1876, and annually thereafter.

      Art. 19.  Adopted October, 1876.

ARTICLE XX.

    Judges of the courts of common pleas, and of the district courts, shall be appointed for terms of four years.  Judges of the city courts and police courts shall be appointed for terms of two years.

        Art. 20.  Adopted October, 1876.  See note to Const. Conn. (Art. 5, Sec. 3).   Amended, 1948 (Art. 47).

ARTICLE XXI.

    Judges of probate shall be elected by the electors residing in their respective districts, on the Tuesday after the first Monday of November, 1876, and biennially thereafter.  Those persons elected judges of probate on the Tuesday after the first Monday of November, 1876, and those elected biennially thereafte, shall hold their offices for two years from and after the Wednesday after the first Monday of the next succeeding January.  Those persons elected judges of probate on the first Monday of April, 1876, shall hold their offices only until the Wednesday after the first Monday of January 1877.

        Art. 21.    Adopted October, 1876.  Amended, 1948 (Art. 44).

ARTICLE XXII.

    The compensation of members of the general assembly shall not exceed three hundred dollars per annum, and one mileage each way for each session, at the rate of twenty-five cents per mile.

        Art. 22.  Adopted October, 1876.  Altered by amendments of 1884 (Art. 27), 1915-1916 (Art. 36), 1946 (Art. 43).

ARTICLE XXIII.

    That article eight of the Amendments to the Constitution be amended by erasing the word "white" from the first line.

        Art. 23.  Adopted October, 1876.  See amendment of 1897 (Art. 29).

ARTICLE XXIV.

    Neither the general assembly nor any county, city, borough, town, or school district, shall have power to pay or grant any extra compensation to any public officer, employee, agent or, servant, or increase the compensation of any public officer or employee, to take effect during the continuance in office of any person whose salary might be increased thereby, or increase the pay or compensation of any public contractor above the amount specified in the contract.

        Art. 24.  Adopted October, 1877.

ARTICLE XXV.

   No county, city, town, borough, or other municipality, shall ever subscribe to the capital stock of any railroad corporation, or become a purchaser of the bonds, or make donation to, or loan its credit, directly or indirectly, in aid of any such corporation; but nothing herein contained shall affect the validity of any bonds or debts incurred under existing laws, nor be construed to prohibit the general assembly from authorizing any town or city to protect by additional appropriations of money or credit, any railroad debt contracted prior to the adoption of this amendment.

        Art. 25.  Adopted October, 1877.

ARTICLE XXVI.

    The judges of the supreme court of errors and of the superior court shall, upon nomination of the governor, be appointed by the general assembly in such manner as shall by law be prescribed.

        Art. 26.  Adopted October, 1880.  See note to Const. Conn. (Art. 5, Sec. 3); Amended by amendment of 1934 (Art. 41).

ARTICLE XXVII.

    Sec. 1.    A general election for governor, lieutenant-governor, secretary, treasurer, comptroller, and members of the general assembly shall be held on the Tuesday after the first Monday of November, 1886, and biennially thereafter, for such officers as are herein and may be hereafter prescribed.
    Sec. 2.    The state officers above named and members of the general assembly elected on the Tuesday after the first Monday of November, 1886, and those elected biennially thereafter on the Tuesday after the first Monday of November, shall hold their respective offices from the Wednesday following the first Monday of the next succeeding January until the Wednesday after the first Monday of the third succeeding January, and until their successors are duly qualified.
    Sec. 3.    The compensation of members of the General Assembly shall not exceed three hundred dollars for the term for which they are elected, and one mileage each way for the regular session at the rate of twenty-five cents per mile; they shall also receive one mileage at the same rate for attending any extra session called by the governor.
    Sec. 4.    The regular sessions of the general assembly shall commence on the Wednesday following the first Monday of the January next succeeding the election of its members.
    Sec. 5.    The senators elected on the Tuesday after the first Monday of November, 1885, shall hold their offices only until the Wednesday after the first Monday of January, 1887.

Art. 27. Adopted October, 1884. Amended, 1948 (Art. 45).
Art. 27 Sec. 3.  Altered by amendments of 1915-1916 (Art. 36), 1946 (Art. 43).
Art. 27 Sec. 4.  See amendment of 1911-1912 (Art. 35).

ARTICLE XXVIII.

   Sheriffs shall be elected in the several counties, on the Tuesday after the first Monday of November, 1886, and quadrennially thereafter, for the term of four years, commencing on the first day of June following their election.

        Art. 28.  Adopted October, 1886.  See note to Const. Conn. (Art. 4, Sec. 20).

ARTICLE XXIX.

    Every person shall be able to read in the English language any article of the constitution or any section of the statutes of this state before being admitted an elector.

        Art. 29.  Adopted October, 1897.

ARTICLE XXX.

    In the election for governor, lieutenant-governor, secretary, treasurer, comptroller, and attorney-general, the person found by the general assembly, in the manner provided in the fourth article of the constitution of this state, to have received the greatest number of votes for each of said offices respectively, shall be declared by said assembly to be elected.  But if two or more persons shall be found to have an equal and the greatest number of votes for any of said offices, then the general assembly, on the second day of its session, by joint ballot of both houses, shall proceed without debate to choose said officer from a list of the names of the persons found to have an equal and greatest number of votes for said office.

        Art. 30.  Adopted October, 1901.

ARTICLE XXXI.

    Sec. 1.    From and after the Wednesday after the first Monday of January, 1905, the senate shall be composed of not less than twenty-four and not more than thirty-six members, who shall be elected at the electors' meetings held biennially on the Tuesday after the first Monday in November.
    Sec. 2.    The general assembly which shall be held on the Wednesday after the first Monday of January, 1903, shall divide the state into senatorial districts, as hereinafter provided; the number of such districts shall not be less than twenty-four nor more than thirty-six, and each district shall elect only one senator.  The districts shall always be composed of contiguous territory, and in forming them regard shall be had to population in the several districts, that the same may be as nearly equal as possible under the limitations of this amendment.  Neither the whole or a part of one county shall be joined to the whole or a part of another county to form a district, and no town shall be divided, unless for the purpose of forming more than one district wholly within such town and each county shall have at least one senator.   The districts, when established as hereinafter provided, shall continue the same until the session of the general assembly next after the completion of the next census of the United States, which general assembly shall have power to alter the same, if found necessary to preserve a proper equality of population in each district, but only in accordance with the principles above recited; after which said districts shall not be altered, nor the number of senators altered, except at a session of the general assembly next after the completion of a census of the United States, and then only in accordance with the principles hereinbefore provided.

        Art. 31.   Adopted October, 1901.

ARTICLE XXXII.

    Each town shall, annually, or biennially, as the electors of the town may determine, elect selectmen and such officers of local police as the laws may prescribe.

        Art. 32.  Adopted October, 1905.

ARTICLE XXXIII.

    Voting machines or other mechanical devices for voting may be used in all elections in this state, under such regulations as may be prescribed by law; provided, however, that the right of secret voting shall be preserved.

        Art. 33.  Adopted October, 1905.

ARTICLE XXXIV.

    In case of the death, resignation, refusal to serve, inability to perform the powers and duties of his office, or removal from office of the governor, or of his impeachment or absence from the state, the lieutenant-governor shall exercise the powers and authority appertaining to the office of governor, until another be chosen at the next periodical election for governor, and be duly qualified; or until the disability be removed, or until the governor, impeached or absent, shall be acquitted or return.

        Art. 34.  Adopted 1911-1912.

ARTICLE XXXV.

    The general assembly shall adjourn sine die not later than the first Wednesday after the first Monday in June following its organization.

        Art. 35.  Adopted 1911-1912.

ARTICLE XXXVI.

    That portion of section three of article twenty-seven of the amendments to the constitution which relates to mileage of members of the general assembly is hereby amended to read as follows:  and in addition to such compensation, the general assembly may provide by law for the transportation of each member by public conveyance by the most convenient route between his home station and the place of meeting during the session or sessions of the general assembly to which he was elected.

          Art. 36.  Adopted 1915-1916.

ARTICLE XXXVII.

    The governor shall have power to disapprove of any item or items of any bill making appropriations of money embracing distinct items, while at the same time approving the remainder of the bill, and the part or parts of the bill so approved shall become effective and the item or items of appropriation so disapproved shall not take effect unless the same are separately reconsidered and repassed in accordance with the rules and limitations prescribed for the passage of bills over the executive veto.  In all cases in which the governor shall exercise the right of disapproval hereby conferred he shall append to the bill at the time of signing it a statement of the item or items disapproved, together with his reasons for such disapproval, and transmit the bill and such appended statement to the secretary.   If the general assembly be then in session he shall forthwith cause a copy of such statement to be delivered to the house in which the bill originated for reconsideration of the disapproved items in conformity with rules prescribed for legislative action in respect to bills which have received executive disapproval.

        Art. 37.  Adopted November, 1924.

ARTICLE XXXVIII.

    Section five of Article VI is amended to read as follows:
   The selectmen and town clerks or an assistant town clerk of the several towns, shall decide on the qualifications of electors, at such times and in such manner as prescribed by law.

ARTICLE XXXIX.

    The general assembly shall have power to provide by law for voting by qualified voters of the state who are absent from the city or town of which they are inhabitants at the time of an election or because of sickness or physical disability are unable to appear at the polling places on the day of election, in the choice of any officer to be elected or upon any question to be voted on at such election.

        Arts. 38 and 39.  Adopted 1932.

ARTICLE XL.

    Each bill which shall have passed both houses of the general assembly shall be presented to the governor.  If he shall approve, he shall sign and transmit it to the secretary of the state, but if he shall disapprove, he shall transmit it to the secretary with his objections, and the secretary shall thereupon return the bill to the house in which it originated, with the governor's objections, which shall be entered on the journal of the house, which shall proceed to reconsider the bill.  If, after such reconsideration, that house shall again pass it, it shall be sent with the objections to the other house, which shall also reconsider it.   If approved, it shall be a law and be transmitted to the secretary; but in such case the votes of both houses shall be determined by yeas and nays and the names of the members voting for and against the bill shall be entered on the journal of each house respectively.  In case the governor shall not transmit the bill to the secretary, either with his approval or with his objections, within five calendar days, Sundays and legal holidays excepted, after the same shall have been presented to him, it shall be a law at the expiration of that period unless the general assembly shall then have adjourned   sine die, in which case the bill shall be a law unless the governor shall, within fifteen calendar days after the same shall have been presented to him, transmit it to the secretary with his objections, in which case it shall not be a law.
    Bills may be presented to the governor after the adjournment sine die of the general assembly, and the general assembly may by law consistent with this amendment regulate the time and method of performing all ministerial acts necessary or incidental to the administration of this amendment.  This amendment shall not impair the powers granted to the governor by Article XXXVII of the amendments to the Constitution.

        Art. 40.  Adopted 1934.

ARTICLE XLI.

    Article XXVI of the Amendments to the Constitution is amended to read as follows:  The judges of the supreme court of errors, of the superior court and of the courts of common pleas shall, upon nomination of the governor, be appointed by the general assembly in such manner as shall by law be prescribed.

         Art. 41.  Adopted 1934.

ARTICLE XLII.

    If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of the governor, the governor-elect shall have died or shall have failed to qualify, the lieutenant-governor-elect may qualify as governor, and, upon so qualifying, shall become governor.  The general assembly may by law provide for the case in which neither the governor-elect nor the lieutenant-governor-elect shall have qualified, by declaring who shall, in such event, act as governor or the manner in which the person who is so to act shall be selected, and such person shall act accordingly until a governor or a lieutenant-governor shall have qualified.

ARTICLE XLIII.

    The salary of members of the general assembly shall be six hundred dollars for the term for which they are elected.

        Arts. 42 and 43.  Adopted 1946.

ARTICLE XLIV.

   Article XXI of the amendments to the constitution is amended to read as follows:  Judges of probate shall be elected by the electors residing in their respective districts on the Tuesday after the first Monday of November, 1950, and quadrennially thereafter, and shall hold office for four years from and after the Wednesday after the first Monday of the next succeeding January.

ARTICLE XLV.

    SECTION 1.     A general election for governor, lieutenant-governor, secretary, treasurer and comptroller shall be held on the Tuesday after the first Monday of November, 1950, and quadrennially thereafter.
   SEC. 2.    Said officers shall hold their respective offices from the Wednesday following the first Monday of the January next succeeding their election until the Wednesday following the first Monday of the fifth January succeeding their election and until their successors are duly qualified.

        Arts. 44 and 45.  Adopted 1948.

ARTICLE XLVI.

    SECTION 1.    The general assembly shall by law prescribe the offenses on conviction of which the privileges of an elector shall be forfeited and the conditions on which and methods by which such rights may be forfeited.
   SEC. 2.    Section three of article sixth of the constitution and article XVII of amendments to the constitution are repealed.

ARTICLE XLVII.

    The judges of minor courts, including town, city, borough and police courts, shall, upon nomination by the governor, be appointed by the general assembly for such term and in such manner as shall be by law prescribed.

        Arts. 46 and 47.  Adopted 1948.

       

Important Note: Effective January 1, 1955, the preceding 47 amendments were incorporated into the text of the Connecticut Constitution. Subsequent to that date, 12 additional amendments were adopted and they follow:

AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION OF CONNECTICUT(1818)

ARTICLE I.

       SEC. 1. Whenever a majority of the house of representatives shall deem it necessary to alter or amend this constitution, they may propose such alterations and amendments, which proposed amendments shall be continued to the next general assembly and be published with the laws which may have been passed at the same session; and if two-thirds of each house, at the next session of said assembly, shall approve the amendments proposed, by yeas and nays, said amendments shall, by the secretary, be transmitted to the town clerk in each town in this state, whose duty it shall be to present the same to the inhabitants thereof, for their consideration, at a town meeting, legally warned and held for that purpose; and if it shall appear, in a manner to be provided by law, that a majority of the electors present and voting on such amendments at such meetings shall have approved such amendments, the same shall be valid, to all intents and purposes, as a part of this constitution.

       SEC. 2. Article eleventh of the constitution is repealed.

       Art. 1. Adopted August 5, 1955. See amendments of 1962 (Art. 5), 1964 (Art. 10).

ARTICLE II.

       SEC. 1. No member of the general assembly shall, during the term for which he is elected, hold or accept any appointive position or office in the judicial or executive departments of the state government, or in the courts of the political subdivisions of the state, or in the government of any country. No member of congress, no person holding any office under the authority of the United States and no person holding any office in the judicial or executive department of the state government or in the government of any county shall be a member of the general assembly during his continuance in such office.

       SEC. 2. Section 6 of Article tenth of the constitution is repealed.

ARTICLE III.

       SEC. 1. Article tenth of the constitution is amended by adding section 7 as follows: Claims against the state shall be resolved in such manner as may be provided by law.

ARTICLE IV.

       SEC. 1. Section 15 of Article third of the constitution is amended to read as follows: The salary of members of the general assembly and the transportation expenses of its members in the performance of their legislative duties shall be determined by law.

       Arts. 2, 3, and 4. Adopted November 20, 1958.

ARTICLE V.

       Article I of the amendments to the constitution is amended by adding thereto the following: Sec. 3. For purposes of section 1 of this article, electors voting by absentee ballot under the provisions of the statutes shall be considered to be present and voting.

       Art. 5. Adopted December 3, 1962.

ARTICLE VI.

       Section 4 of Article Sixth is amended to read as follows: The qualifications of electors shall be decided at such times and in such manner as may be prescribed by law.

ARTICLE VII.

       In the election of governor and lieutenant-governor, voting for said offices shall be as a unit. The name of no candidate for either office, nominated by a political party or by petition, shall appear on the voting machine ballot labels except in conjunction with the name of the candidate for the other office.

ARTICLE VIII.

       Any person admitted as an elector in any town shall, if he removes to another town, have the privileges of an elector in such other town after residing therein for six months. The general assembly shall prescribe by law the manner in which evidence of the admission of an elector and of the duration of his current residence shall be furnished to the town to which he removes.

ARTICLE IX.

       The general assembly may by law provide for the admission as electors in absentia of members of the armed forces, the United States merchant marine, members of religious or welfare groups or agencies attached to and serving with the armed forces and civilian employees of the United States, and the spouses and dependents of such persons.

       Arts. 6, 7, 8 and 9. Adopted December 3, 1962.

ARTICLE X.

       Section 1 of Article I of the Amendments to the Constitution is amended to read as follows: Whenever a majority of the total membership of the house of representatives shall deem it necessary to alter or amend this constitution, they may propose such alterations and amendments, which proposed amendments shall be continued to the next general assembly and be published with the laws which may have been passed at the same session; and if two-thirds of the membership present of each house, at the next session of said assembly, shall approve the amendments proposed, by yeas and nays, said amendments shall, by the secretary, be transmitted to the town clerk in each town in this state, whose duty it shall be to present the same to the inhabitants thereof, for their consideration, at a town meeting, legally warned and held for that purpose; and if it shall appear, in a manner to be provided by law, that a majority of the electors present and voting on such amendments at such meetings shall have approved such amendments, the same shall be valid, to all intents and purposes, as a part of this constitution.

ARTICLE XI.

       Section 1 of Article Sixth is amended to read as follows: Every citizen of the United States who has attained the age of twenty-one years, who has resided in the town in which he offers himself to be admitted to the privileges of an elector at least six months next preceding the time he so offers himself, who is able to read in the English language any article of the constitution or any section of the statutes of this state, and who sustains a good moral character, shall, on his taking such oath as may be prescribed by law, be an elector.

       Arts. 10 and 11. Adopted November 24, 1964.

ARTICLE XII.

       SECTION 1. The general assembly may provide by law for voting in the choice of any officer to be elected or upon any question to be voted on at an election by qualified voters of the state who are unable to appear at the polling place on the day of election because of absence from the city or town of which they are inhabitants or because of sickness or physical disability or because the tenets of their religion forbid secular activity.

SEC. 2. Section 6 of Article Sixth of the constitution is repealed.

Art. 12. Adopted November 24, 1964.