Jews In The Spanish Civil War
By Martin Sugarman, BA (Hons.), Cert. Ed. (Assistant Archivist AJEX Jewish Military Museum)
For reasons best known to themselves, most adherents of the Left - both old and new - and even the Jewish Community itself - have been, till recently, loathe to acknowledge and recall the dominant Jewish role in the International Brigade's struggle against Fascism in the Spanish Civil War. Stereotyped as timid and submissive, thousands of Jews from 53 countries in reality went to fight and die fighting Franco, firing the first shots against Fascism. Some went openly as Jews, others took aliases; some fought in the battalions of their country of birth, others with other national groups; some went via other nations, others came directly to Spain; some were refugees from anti-Semitism or political oppression already, others came freely from the democracies. In addition thousands more Jews worldwide were active in solidarity campaigns, fund raising and refugee rescue, on behalf of the Republican Democrats. Most non-Jewish students of the conflict, however, have no problem emphasising the major part played by Jews in the IB, and the Black actor Paul Robeson even sang and recorded Yiddish songs for the Jewish soldiers in Spain (see reference to O'Riordan, below)
I would like to especially thank Joe Garber, Sol Frankel, Lou Kenton, Simon Hirshman and Major Len Crome, MC (Jewish veterans of the Spanish Civil War) and Bill Alexander (Former Commissar of the Atlee Bat.) for their help and encouragement in compiling this list. Dr Saul Issroff of the Jewish Genealogical Society of the UK was also very helpful. Fred Dellheim - a former Jewish Kindertransportee and WW2 D-Day veteran, and current secretary of the German anti-Fascist Association and Veterans of Anti-Fascism - presented to the author a list of hundreds of German veterans of the Spanish Civil War at a meeting with the author in London in June 1999. A huge number were Jews and this list exists separately at present in the AJEX Archives.
I was able to add considerable detail and names by consulting many files in the International Brigade (IB) archive at the Marx Memorial Library (ML) in Clerkenwell, and thank the librarian there (Tish Newland) for her assistance One particular list in these files was compiled by either Peter Kerrigan or Ted Edwards, the Atlee Battalion secretary, during or soon after the war and contained many British Jewish names not found elsewhere. Special thanks also goes to James Carmody who supplied me so generously with extra material from his own researches on the IB over many years at both the PRO and with correspondents abroad, including many names from David Diamint's (DD) rare book (see below) which I also consulted at the British Library. James also pointed me to a book by Marcel Acier, "From Spanish Trenches" written in 1937 (Modern Age, NY) at the ML, containing many personal memoirs of Jewish Brigaders.
It is estimated that up to 25% of all the (IB) Fighters were Jewish (Alberto Fernandez, "Judios en la Guerra de Espana" , Tiempo de Historia, Madrid, Sept., 1975, "Los Judios Luchadores de la Libertad" by Gina Medem, Madrid, 1937 and Josef Toch "Juden im Spanischen Krieg 1936-39", Zeitgeschichte, Vienna, April 1973) - up to 10,000 men and women. Whilst 20th century history documents well the mass murder of Jews, Jewish resistance by comparison is feebly recorded. This included in Spain the following approximate numbers of Jewish fighters and participants in the IB - Poland - 2250 (of 5,000 Poles - 45% - Jews only 10% of Polish population)
USA - 1250 (38% of total USA Volunteers - Jews only 4% of US population)
France - 1043 (15% - Jews only 0.5% of population)
Britain - between 200 and 400 (11 - 22% - Jews 0.5% of population - DD)
Palestine - 500
Hungarian, Austrian (120-150 volunteers based on research by Hans Landauer and others in The Leo Baeck Year Book 1995, footnote page 17) , Czech, Yugoslav (34), Bulgarian (17), Canadian (71 Jews from Canada - in The Mackenzie-Papineau Battalion) , Italian, Scandinavian, German - all totalling 1095 (work by Arno Lustiger in "German and Austrian Jews in the International Brigade" published in Frankfurt 1989 - and also "Schalom Libertad - Juden in Spanischau Burgerkrieg", also published in French - and the Leo Baeck Year Book No. 35 1990, shows at least 4-500 German Jews fought in Spain), Belgian ( a study by Rudi van Doorslaer "Belgian Jews in the International Brigade" is mentioned in the IB archives at the ML box D4, dated 17.7.86 and is in the AJEX archives, describes 200 Belgian Jews in Spain (30 of them women) , 31 of whom were kia and a further 20 more kia in the Belgian Resistance in WW2). Most of the European volunteers went on to fight in the Resistance groups in WW2, many of them being captured and murdered by the Nazis.
Soviet Union - 53 (a vast underestimate - new research in the archives in Russia will reveal a huge number of Jewish participants)
Virtually all the Romanians (see the article by Lending in the Jewish Workers Circle (JWC) journal, "Horizons" - see below)
40 other countries - 1602.
59 of the 124 American medical team were Jews (48%) - Prago, see below - and virtually all of the 40 Polish doctors. Of the estimated 66 American Jews from Brownsville in Brooklyn, who went to Spain, only 25 returned (Prago).
In fact the Polish Dombrowski Brigade (part of the 13th IB) formed a Jewish Company from the 2nd Palafox Bat. (named after a Spanish patriot from the Napoleonic invasion), called The Botwin Coy., on Dec 12th 1937 at Tardadientes, and named after Naftali Botwin (a famous Polish Jewish radical, executed in 1924 for assassinating a Polish Secret police agent). Their orders and banner was written in Yiddish, Polish and Spanish and they issued a Yiddish written newspaper ("Botwin"), first published on Dec 30th 1937. In fact the first edition of a Yiddish newspaper called "Der Freihaits Kempfer" or "Fighters for Liberty", appeared at the Front on Aug 7 1937. Jews also spoke Hebrew and Ladino as a lingua franca among themselves within the different national groups and the Republic also allowed radio broadcasts in Yiddish too. The Botwins included the only two Arabs in the IB, one of whom was from Jerusalem and spoke Yiddish! The last stanza of the company hymn was " how Jewish Botwin soldiers drove out the fascist plague! No Passaran! " (see "The Jewish Naftali Botwin Company", J Rothenberg, Jewish Frontiers Journal, USA, date unknown, at IB archive, ML;it includes references to several books written in Poland by Botwin and Dombrowski Jewish veterans). Trained at Albacete, the Botwins went into action on Feb 12th 1938 in the Sierra Quemeda near Belal Alcazar, then fought at Belchite March 12-16th 1938. They were virtually wiped out at the battles of the Ebro/Estramadura at Hill 281(18 out of 120 survived !) and received the "Medalla de Valor" from the government (see Hirschmann below). All four successive commanders were killed in action - first Carol Gutman on Feb 13th and then Moise Micha Sapir on April 2nd at Lerida. Hirschmann also provided extracts from the books, "Poles in the Spanish Civil War", Ministry of Defence, Poland, and "International Solidarity with the Spanish Republic", Progress Publishers, Moscow 1975, containing numerous references to the Botwins. The newly reinforced Botwins later formed the rearguard for the IB as they withdrew into France as the fighting ended and it is ironic that the first IB casualty was Jewish (Leon Baum, from Paris) and the last (Haskel Honigstern; the Spanish poet Jose Herrera wrote of him " Haskel Honigstern, Polish worker of the Jewish Race, son of an obscure land, killed in the light of my homeland". He was given a state funeral in Barcelona on Oct 6th 1938). Later, most Botwins joined the Maquis and other Partisan groups in WW2, many dying in fighting the Nazis. In Poland, however, after the 6 Day war in 1967 and the anti-Jewish purges, all the memorials to the Botwin men that had been erected, were wiped out.
As Simon Hirshmann said, Jewish youth of this period - especially in eastern Europe - were living under anti-Semitic regimes and chose to fight back by joining either Zionism or Communism; many chose the latter and Spain gave them a chance to take up arms in the cause of working people and democracy, and with much herosim and self-sacrifice. They are a group much to be admired. But Zionists were equally anti-Fascist and many of the Jewish volunteers from Europe and of course Palestine were Zionist Socialists.
Joe Garber testifies to the fact that there were hundreds of Jews in the German and Austrian Thaelmann battalion and hundreds with the French. He and Sol Frankel also are quite clear that George Orwell was an MI6 agent informing on British Volunteers whom he visited in hospital when wounded, and that the author Laurie Lee vastly exaggerated his part in the conflict.
There are several important published works on this subject (see below) supporting these facts of the immense Jewish contribution. Listed below in the first section are some of the known British Jews who went to Spain together with those of many other nationalities. THE FIGURES ARE FAR FROM COMPLETE as many world-wide did not identify as Jews and used aliases, and most witnesses have died before being able to testify. On this issue Joe Garber was an inestimable source of information and I thank him enormously.
Reference to MSCW is to the book "Memorials of the Spanish Civil War" by Williams, Alexander and Gorman, Alan Sutton, UK, 1996. BVFL is "British Volunteers for Liberty" by Bill Alexander, Lawrence and Wishart, 1982. CTC is "Cheetham to Cordova" by Maurice Levine and Neil Richardson, Manchester Jewish Museum, 1984. PI is Personal Interview held whilst at the 62nd Anniversary of the start of the War reunion at Jubilee Gardens, London on 18.7.98, carried out by Martin Sugarman with Jewish veterans, or whose names were given at the reunion, to him by other veterans. Lou Kenton also sent names from the roll in Bill Rust's book "Britons in Spain". LBYB is the Leo Baeck Year Book which has contained articles about Jews who fought in Spain and is published by the Leo Baeck Institute in London.
Other important works on this subject include "Combattants Juifs dans l'Armee Republicaine Espagnole" by David Diamint, Editions Renouveau, Paris 1979, in French - describing the massive contribution of Jews in the IB and containing names lists, numerous first hand accounts by Jewish fighters and a section on women fighters; Alfred Prago's "Jews in the International Brigades in Spain", Jewish Currents, New York, Feb and March 1979. Also G E Sichon, "Les Volontaires Juifs dans la Guerre Civile en Espagne", Les Temps Modernes, October 1988 and A S Rockman, "Jewish Participation in the IB's in The Spanish Civil War", MA thesis California State University, Fullerton. Much information and several photos were also found in "The Book of the 15th Brigade" pub. by The Commissariat, Madrid 1938 and republished by F Graham, Newcastle, 1975 - abbreviated as "B15B" below. Also more details came from "The Shattered Dream" by Alek Szurek, Columbia University Press 1989, abbreviated as TSD and "Apprentices of Freedom" by J Cook, Quartet 1979 - especially on George Nathan and Maurice Levene. Mentioned also in the latter book is the brief description of discrimination made against Jewish POW's; Bob Doyle (page 119) noted that after his capture (with Maurice Levitas, Dave Goodman and others) at Calaceite near Gandesa on March 31st 1938 Italian and Gestapo guards "ordered all Communists and Jews to step forward"; this is described in more detail in a long article "Irish and Jewish Volunteers in the Spanish Anti-Fascist War - 50th Anniversary lecture" pp. 25-28 by M. O'Riordan of the Irish TGWU at the Irish Jewish Museum in Dublin, Nov 1987, found in the ML Archive. Gary McCarthy (Cook, p.123) noted that "at San Sebastian prison in 1938, Spanish and German guards took photos of those lads who were obviously Jewish, and of Negroes too and when Jimmy Goldstein/Goldsmith was singled out I stepped forward too!" In fact Jews were constantly slandered in Spanish fascist radio broadcasts and newspapers - even though virtually no Jews lived in Spain! - and their large presence in the IB was often a target for fascist newspapers all over Europe.
The list of KNOWN British KIA is in the appendix of MSCW (with a Star of David against those known to be Jewish in the author's copy only) - there are 43 of them and another 7 probables. Many others had non-Jewish aliases (as Joe Garber and others have told me) and we may never know their religious affiliation or origin. Some American, Polish and other names are found in the first section immediately below, but the bulk are in a separate list further on. Spellings, especially of Polish names, may have lost accuracy in the transliteration. Finally, some further details have come from an LSE PhD, by Richard Baxell (Bax), on the British Volunteers, which he kindly sent me. It includes some of the actual ID numbers issued to the men and women ho went to Spain.
The British Atlee Battalion - this consisted originally of 600 men formed in Jan. 1937 at Madrigueras as part of the 15th IB; before that the British were No 1 Company of the Marseillaise Brigade. Of the approx. 2,000 volunteers as many as 2-400 were Jewish (11-22% - DD)
Some other nationalities are included here due to the order of the original interviews with Joe Garber and others.
1056 Sgt Samuel/Sydney Aarons - Melbourne, Australia (ML)
201 Joseph Albaya (?)
Jack /Jacob Alexander - Bethnal Green and Australia - POW 3/38 (ML)
736 M Aaronberg - Sheffield, 43, Wolstenholme Rd - KIA Feb 27th 1937
Ralph C(K)antorovitch/Cantor - 142, Waterloo Rd, Manchester -KIA Mosquito
Hill, Brunete July 1937
Lt David Diamint - French - lost both legs at Jarama
Joseph Epstein - WIA, French - fought in partisans in WW2 - shot by
Feivel/Feiwel - b. 1910 London and married
to Michael Feivel - was a nurse in Spain,
aged 93 in 2003.
1805 Ben Glaser - 25, Wellclose Sq., London E1 - KIA Sept 6th 1938
Ebro/Sierra Caballs - letters at Marx Library.
Alan Harris - Leeds PI
Kahn? KIA PI at reunion 1998 - not in MSCW
George Leeson MSCW p 17 - POW Jarama, tried in Spanish court, sentenced
to death, commuted, hostage with Goldberg till after war - B15B p.199
- 95 Dalyell Rd Brixton SW9 - possibly not Jewish.
Wolf Nathan aka William - POW 3/38 , repat. 10/38 - fruiterer and seaman,
Aubrey's Fruit Store, Newington Green N16/12 Challis Ct, Commercial
Ezekiel Pikar, Haifa, Israel - combat pilot ,Andre Malraux Sqdn - Prago
- later in Israel War of Independence
Bert Ramelson - Leeds - MSCW p 92 - born Bachran/Baruch Ramelson/Ramilevich in, Cherkassy Ukraine, 22.3.10, lived first in Canada as a child in 1921 in Edmonton, Alberta - University law graduate, but went to Spain 24.8.37 as a Lt. and fought on the Ebro and Aragon fronts in the Canadian Macpaps (McKenzie-Pappinneau bat.) and was twice wounded. Returned to UK March 1939 toRoyal Tank Corps in WW2, POW at Tobruk in 1941 and in Italy, escaped after 2 years and then served in India. Later on executive of British Communist Party. Died April 13th 1994.
Benny Rothman - Manchester - ambulance driver - led the Kinder Scout Trespass in 1932
Phil Richards - an alias, after Richard St, off Canon St Road E1, where
he lived - info. from childhood friend Louis Stoller of Leeds (letter
Sept. 1999) - lightweight boxing champion - kia
Gen Yakov Vladimirovich Smushkevich, ("Douglas"), senior
Air Force Adviser and de facto Commander (Russian) - Stern, Shtern and
he were all later recalled to Moscow and executed by Stalin (JWC).
873 J. (?) Samson Tobias - 6 Cricketfield Rd. Clapton, E5.
Ena Vassie - Czech nurse - PI
H Wise - London - KIA Jan 1937, Cordoba.
(A group of Rumanian artillerymen at Estremadura fought in the Slav bat., and were frequently mentioned in depatches for their courage and initiative; they were all Palestinian Jewish kibbutzniks - letter from Simon Hirshman and extract from book on the Polish Battalion)
P Zachriov - London (ML) - Greek (?)
501 D. Z(S)ubchaniov - 15 Sandcroft Abbey, SE2 (ML)
THE JAROSLAV DOMBROWSKI BRIGADE
The Polish Jewish Volunteers - extracted mostly from "No Passeran - Polacyw Wojnie Hiszpnskiej" ( Polish Participation in the Spanish Civil War) pub. by Ministry of Defence, Warsaw, 1963 by Simon Hirshman and DD. Other names come from Szurek's book "The Shattered Dream". The Polish battalions were the very last to leave Spain. The first Polish and Italian Jewish volunteers fought at Irun on Aug 28th 1936 (DD p33)
Four of the 22 Committee members of the surviving 500 Polish Brigade after the war, which gathered in February at the beaches of St Cyprien in Southern France, with the survivors of the IB and the Republican army, were Jews
Sgt Chaim Jungman
Capt. Julian Kirchner, kia with Polish Partisans
Capt Seweryn Sewe Kirszenbaum, kia with French Partisans
Capt. Emanuel Mundek Mink, CO of the Jewish Botwin bat. (which had its own Yiddish newspaper, flag and language of command) and French Resistance WW2. Born 23.4.1913 in Tomaszov, Poland - lived Paris after WW2.
Abram Abramovicz, KIA 1936 defence of Madrid, Casa de Campo
Abram "The Blockhead" - Botwins - TSD
Abram Abramovich - tank commander (Russian) KIA Brunete in 1937 with 108th Brigade (TSD).
Krasny Abrascha - fought with Thaelmann's (?)
Marian Abramczyk - machine gunner - TSD
Daniel Abramovicz lived in Palestine - KIA 1938 Gandesa
Joseph Adler aka Feldman - died 1955 Poland
Maurice Aisenberg (French)
Moryc Aizenberg (French) KIA 1937
Severyn Ajzner aka "Victor" - war correspondent - TSD
Tovie "Mick" Aizen aka Tadek aka Alek Tmoasz kia Estramadura
Victor Seweryn Aizner aka "Wiktorek"
Ms. Golda Akerman murdered by the Nazis
Weronika "Vera" Akerman aka Wera
Robert Akvist aka Suede
Moise Alcobitz - Turkish - Botwins
David Aleksandrowicz KIA with Polish Partisans
Efraim Altenberg died in Australia
Dr Josef Altman
Ms Sara "Ala" Altman
Maurice Maryc Amtler - disappeared in Toulouse fighting Nazis
Anka aka Paris
Jacob Aronowicz - died Belgium
Mans/Max Aronowicz aka Michel
Josef Leon Aronson
Alfred Augersztajn - engineer - TSD
Chaim Augarten - France - aka Rzeszow, wia Spain and fought in French Resistance
Aaron Aumont aka Butkow
Jacub Bachrach - UK
Dr "Kuba" Bachrach - TSD
Josef Balcen - died in Warsaw Ghetto uprising
Isaak Szumon Bailowicz b. 1906, brother of Wolf, below, kia 1943 with Kostcinko Division
Wolf Bailowicz b. Mlawa, Poland 1902 aka Vovke - lived France, kia
Josef Balcerzak - shot by Nazis 1942
Pejsach Baranczuk died in Anjele sur Iller camp, France
Abraham "Motke" Basok kia 1938 at Syre/Ebro
Leszek Eliasz Bastocki ("Red Thread") - a Commissar - TSD
Leon Baum/Boim kia Madrid
Isaak Baumel aka Lombard - shot by Nazis
Leon Liova Bengom
Samuel Baumorojchaj - USA
Bengold - pilot
Alex "Ferry" Olek Bekier - Commissar 5th Corps - TSD
Maurycy "Marek" Berman
Herst Henrtk Bialawaz
Abraham Bielenki/Bielinski - kia Spain
Boleslaw "Bolek" Bilgrajer
Henach Beankrot/Heinich Blankrot - kia Madrid/Zaragossa - from Kalisz, Poland.
Ernest Blank aka "Karl" German Commissar kia Granollers 1938.
Jonasz "Jonas" Blejwas/Bleisweis
Blicban - aka Skorupinski - emigrated to Israel - died 1985 - TSD
Morris Blizbau - POW aged 26
Michael Bron - Coy. Cmdr. - TSD
Marcek Boczar - murdered by Nazis in French Resistance
Jonas Brodkin - born Turkish Palestine - expelled to Austria, lived France, WIA Spain (lost a leg) - TSD.
Dr Bulka - TSD
Marian Boben - Israel
Gerszon Dua Bogen - died Poland 1948
Samuel Max Bot kia Spain - from Lublin
Josef Brikner kia Lerida, 1938, Spain
Jonas Brodkin - b 1901, wia Ebro - died Israel 1985
Zelig Bronstein - pilot
Mietek Broniatowski from Czenstochow
Josek Bruchner from Rzeszow kia
Dr Josef Bryl/Brill
Helena Brzostoska - nurse
Felix "Fajka" Bulinski
Boleslaw "Simon" Bulka
Ms Frida Buchbinder - murdered by Nazis in Holocaust
Miguel Bukovic, labourer aged 34 - Hung.
Benjamin Burg - b. 1916 Tchernowitz - kia
Abram Bursztyn - kia Spain 1938
"Carlos" - from Argentina, a Commissar - TSD
Boris Cejtlis - Latvian kia Guadalquivir - TSD
Jaszar Chein - born Vilna, educated Berlin - Officer in German Thaelmann Brigade, 11th Coy. - TSD.
Boris Chein, brother - died 1975 Paris.
Pinkus Chaite died 1952 USSR
Kazimierz "Winkler" Chichowski
Abram Chroskiel - Belgium
Simche Cialek - died with French Resistance
Chaim Emile Cukier - b. 1919 Radom, 12 in family of 13 - kia Madrid
Tadeusz "Wladyslaw Stopczyk" Cwik
Natan Czak - kia 1937 madrid
Franck Czaplinski - machine gunner former French Legionnaire - TSD
Leon Czopek aged 41 - POW
Julio David aged 33 - Hung.
Henri/Henryk Deutscher - France
Stanislaw Dobrowski POW
Dorka - TSD
Grzegorz "Gricha" Dzierzgowski
Josef Edenhofer - aka Pepe - Czech ambulance driver - TSD
Jakub "Wolf Eimerl" Ehrlich/ "Karol" - died of wounds 1937 Spain
Simon Eicher - USSR
T Einhorn (Rom.)
Beniamin Ekstein kia 1938 Spain
Szloma Elbaum b. 1911 Chelm - kia Gandesa 1938
Lipa Eiss (Pol/Fr)
Ms Zofia Senia Elingen - murdered at Auschwitz
Chaim Elkon kia Ciudad Universitaria, Madrid (see Israel list)
Zofia "Sonia" Ellinger
Borys Epalbaum (see Israel list)
Col. Josef Epsztein aka Gilles - shot by Nazis
Pinkus Erlich - died Paris
Dr Gabriel Ersler aka "Gabrish" - studied Switzerland, MO 13th Brigade - in French resistance WW2 - TSD - left Poland for Israel in 1968
Rubin Eliasz Erlich aka Elie - b. Klobuck, moved to Palestine, died of wounds Estramadura 16.2.38
S. Erlich - 3rd Coy. Mieckiewicz Bat.
Lt Henry Fajbushak
Emanuel Faingelerut - died Poland
Moniek Faingold - b. 1907 in Lodz, lived in Paris
Mojzez "Wonka" Faingold
Michal "Jaroslaw Tichy" Fajgman
Motel Mauryey "Schwartzer" Faltenberg Lenoir died 1959 USSR
Fischel Fefer - killed by Nazis
Stefan "Szloma Salomon" Felman
David Felsaistain kia Ebro 1938
Leib Szmuel Fidel
Mieczyslaw Fiala (Fialkowski)
Leib Samuel Fidel
Janek Josef Figlarz
Szmul "Stach" Fidel b Stasiow 1912, lived Belg., kia Guadalajara 14.1.37
Hersz Henryk Finkestajn kia 1938
Mojzese Fisz kia 1938
Fefer Fiszek - kia in French Partisans
Jonas Naftali Fiszek/Fiszman
Nachman Feek/Felk - escaped internment camp at Argeles but was betrayed and murdered at Dachau
Dr Major Stanislaw (Moishe) Flato, Polish Army, later served in China and Burma against Japanese, died Berlin 1972 - TSD.
Menachem Fleg/Fleck - murdered by Nazis fighting in the Resistance in France
Simon Sumon Flok/Flek
Maria Fortus (Russ.)
Dr Theodore Frankel
Leon Friedman - Argentina
Bernard "Jam" Frejtkes
Frydman living in Varsovie
Maksymilian Gaelet - Israel
Josef Galant - kia 1938
Gayman-Tenenbaum - nurse
Jonas Gedulding aka Michele Martiniak - shot by Nazis in French Partisans 21.2.44 in Paris , buried Ivry - TSD.
Leon Cukier Geler
Vida Geza - Roumanian artist - fought in French and Roumanian Resistance.
Josef Zdizslaw Kolbinsky Glazer - kia 1937 Barcelona
Michalak Gold /Sewek
Lt Adolphe Goldgewicht - Belgian Resistance, deported to Nordhausen - died 3 months after liberation aged 30 years.
Eliasz Goldhamer kia 1938
Josef Fiszel Goldman
Salomon Gotlib - b. Lvov kia Jan 1938 nr. La Gariga
Chaim Gottlib kia 1938 Estramadura
Josef "Stefan Kurt" Granas
Albert Grinbaum aka Berger ; mother lived in Palestine - murdered by Polish Fascists 1946 Kielce, Poland
Aron Grinstajn - Israel
Matias Meir Grosman - murdered by Nazis in France
Fernand Grossfeld - Israel
Jan "Jampoler" Grot
Abraham Ber Growajs
Jacub Gruber - died in France
Dr Jacques Grunblatt b. 26.10.11, Kolonia, Poland
Shlomo Grzywacz - shot by Nazis in Polish partisans - TSD.
Hillel "Bill/Robert" Gruszkiewicz - with Polish partisans, committed suicide rather than reveal secrets under torture - TSD.
Uszer Gruszka aka "Napoleon" because of shortness - Botwins, left Poland in 1968 purges and died Israel 1973.
Capt. Dr Kuba Grynsztajn - studied Zagreb - 13th IB, kia with 129th bat. - TSD.
Boris "Bob" Guimpel - CO 10th bat. "Le Marseillaise", educated St Cyr Military Academy, Paris - WIA - TSD
Dr Maya Guimpel - sister
Ms Rachela Gunzig - Belgium
Zygmunt Simon Gutt - TSD.
Hentyk Guterman kia 1938
Zystryd Feliks Guterman - murdered Buchenwald
Ms Zofia Sonia Gutman
Sofia "Sonia" Gutman
Izrael Halbersberg b. Lublin kia Ebro 1938
Kalman Halfant kia Ebro 1938
Haller, kia Lerida
Arnold Halpen kia Estramadurs 1938
Artur "Stefan" Halpern
Berl Halpern kia 1937 Valencia
Naftali Halpern aka Stefan Hlicki - fought with Palestinian Jews
Stefan Halpern kia 1938 Estramadura
Piekar Hatskel - pilot
Aron Hazenberg , France
Dr Joseph Heller aka "Rudek" - died Tel-Aviv 1976 - TSD
Dr Czeslaw Heilbrun
Abraham Helfand kia 1938
R Hellen, Israel
General. Juliusz "Julek" Hubner
Benjamin/Benedykt Beniek Hirszowicz aka "Lasota"
Josef Hirczowski, kia Ebro
Chaskiel Hourfstein/Honigstein, of Lublin , died of wounds at Barcelona, battle of Ebro, last IB fighter to die manning his MG named "Leon Rubinstein", a former Botwin commander who had been kia.
Dr Maria Jacubowski
Isaac Saloman Jecowic (Pupel)
Jacub Jusel - kia French Resistance
Leon Jurelstein kia 1936 Madrid
Wolf Jacubowicz Leib, born Lodz
Feliks Jacubowski aka Strarzak
Mordechai/Mordche Jacubowski, UK
Saloman Justyn Jaczwuski/Jaszunski aka Bacewicz - kia 1938 Ebro - born 1902 and was at universities of Lvov/Krakow.
Jechok Joffe/Ioffe kia Valesquillo - from Haifa, Israel
Saloman Joffe Israel
Col Selig Joffe - chief engineer of Air Force
Srul Szwlul Joskowicz
Junckrant kia Madrid
Dr Roberto Jungman - Argentina
Sgt Chaim Jaime Jungman, Israel
Abram Jurski Adam Jungstein
Towia/Tove/Tadee (?) Jungstein kia Madrid
Josip Jusinec aged 32
General Simon Krivoshein - Russian - info. from Prof Asher Tropp- commander of Tanks.
Leon Kac, died Poland 1946
Josef Kalb, kia 1937 Spain
Abraham Kalmanowicz kia Estramadura 1938
Dawid Kami, kia Spain
Kantor - murdered by Nazis WW2
Tauba Kapla - nurse
Dr Adolphe Kapler
Zygmunt Karlinski died 1952 - TSD
David "Dodo" Kamy - Russian adjt. to 15th brigade, via Belgium - engineer, emigrated to Palestine, served WW2 in French Army, winning Cr. de Guerre avec palme and Red Orchestra - captured and murdered by Nazis in Belgium - TSD.
Ben-Yosef Kamy - brother - kia - TSD.
Chaim "Adolf" Karp, France
Pinkus Andrzej Piotr Kartin aka " Szmidt"/Andrzejek - kia Warsaw Ghetto Uprising 1943.
Josef Kawa, kia 1938 Gandesa
Josef "Gorecki" Kawa
Maks Kawa, kia France
Izaak Anton Kawenski
Izaak Kawenoki aka Anton
Sewek "Schepsl" Kirszenbaum - bat. cmdr. Murdered at Auschwitz - TSD
Simon Chamberlain "Boks" Konigsburg - b. 1917 Klimentov kia defending retreating comrades, Madrid Feb. 1937.
Josef Kestenberg, France
Dr Joseph Kestenberg
Szaja "Winkler" Kinderman
Julius "Julek" Kirchner, kia Spain
Jacub Kirmayer, kia Spain
Leon Kleinminz (Kolarski)
Natan Klein, murdered by Nazis 1944
Beniamin Benieck/Benki Kochanowicz - 2nd i/c Polish Brigade 1938
Antoni Antek Kochanek - one of first Dombrowskis KIA
Mordechai "Moniek" Kociak
Jacub Kofman kia 1938 Ebro
General Waclaw Komar - TSD - comm. of 129 Brig throughout war.
Edek Koninski - Polish Army Colonel - died 1968 in Poland
Michail Koltsar - Russian war correspondent for "Pravda".
Sholem Konsul (alias) kia in French Resistance
Pejsach "Lechter" Kon
Szmul Koninchowski - murdered by Polish Fascists
Karl Kormes (Ukr) aged 28 years
Josef "Marcel" Kostecki
Izaak Kotlarz - Botwins - TSD
Kotowski aka Kac
Arthur Kowalski aka Aronson
Jechiel Henryk "Henri" Krauauer kia 1938 Spain
Ignace Krakaus - Resistance Commander, Lyon
Jospi Kraksner carpenter aged 32
Sjonka Kramsky - TSD
Abram Abracza Krasnowicki/Krasni/Krasnobrodszki
Daniel Kraus, from Lvov
Kranjold - murdered by Nazis in Poland
Dr Franciszak Francois Hans Kriegel - 45 Div. - later went to fight in China and was in Dubcek Czech cabinet 1968 - TSD.
Ignace Krieger - Lodz
Ignacy Krzemien aka Feuerberg
Majer Szulim Kukler
Mayer Kukles aka Scholem
Lt Josef Kuligowski - TSD
Vladimir/Valdemar Kupcis aka Volodia - Lithuanian medical orderly 35th Div. - TSD
Kupice - France
Benjamin Kur b. 1908 kia WW2 defending Moscow
Rachmil Kurc/Kurtz, kia 1937 Guadalajara
Josef Kutin - later Deputy Minister for Trade in Poland - TSD
Margarite "Maia" Kutin
Maks Kuzmak, kia Spain
Izrael Lanje kia 1938 Estramadura
Majzesz Chaim Laskier
Sioma Szymon Lechman, murdered Auschwitz 1945
Roman Lechter - war correspondent of Polish "Naje Presse" - TSD
Dr Riva Leibovitch
Josef Leitner POW aged 37
Dr Josef Domb Leitner
Pavel "Paul" Leszak aka Peisach Kohn
Dr Adela Lewinska
Adam Lewinski - 3rd Coy. Mickiewicz bat. - kia Ebro
Maurycy Leser, shot by Fascists in Spain
Leon Lew, Israel
Maks Lewandowski POW aged 32 wia
Meir Lewi, kia Spain
Dorota "Dora" Birubach Lewin
Saloman Lewkowic, kia with French Partisans 1944
Scholem "Scholek" Lewkowicz
Salomon Liber b. Tomaszow 1902, aka Lubelski - kia
Samuel Gustav Szinda Lifszyc
Dr Artur Lilker POW aged 33
Simcha Lifszye b. Rzeszow - fought with the British
Josef Lipskind kia 1938 Lerida
Beniamin Lorento Lipszyc - Bundist kia Lerida
Barcelo, kia Spain
August Lisik POW aged 31
Majer List aka Markus - murdered by the Nazis - from Argentina
Zwi Litwak - kia France 1943
Mlle G. Litynska
Basil Lobasky POW aged 32
Dr Laura Lorska aka Slavka
David Jacub Lotninger kia Spain
Boleslaw "Kuba" Lubelski aka Bolek Zygielman
Ms Rachela Luftig, France
Yosef Kantor Majewssi
Josef Majzer kia Spain 1938
Janine "Juanita" Majler
Ms Ruth Fideli/Maliniak
Leon Mandel - kia Spain
Aron Moszek Manhajm
Josef Mania kia, Casa de Campo, Madrid
Franz Masur aged 40 POW
Josef Mateak/Matkack kia Spain
Emil Mayer kia 1938 Ebro
Josef "Josiek Sulinski" Mazel b. Voronej, Russia 1914 husband of Sula , kia Ebro 1938 aged 24 years - war correspondent
Gina Medem - war correspondent for Yiddish newspaper - TSD.
Roman Melchior - Dombrowskis - TSD.
Maria "Maryska Jonasowa" Melchior
Hersz Leib Majerowicz, kia France 1941 with partisans
Isak Merovici (Ukr.) aged 35, carpenter
Horst Chanan Meyer b. 16/2/12 - to Israel
Seweryn "Gold" Michalak
Michal "Stefan" Mielzynski - Polish partisan kia Warsaw.
Abram Milman kia Ebro 1938
Chaim Minkes aka Mietek Fiala
Rebele Moche (Le petit Rabin)
Jakub/Mospan Jacubi Filip Mopan
Elie Moses (Schmidt)
Stefan Motyka - TSD
Eliasz "Elek" Mozes
Josef Najder aka Mickew kia 1937 Cordoba
Moris Najman (KIA)
Foma Najszaler - TSD.
Elzbiets "Liza" Namiot-Hollender
Naratszki - pilot
Liuba Naskatir - nurse
Wolf "Bruno" Nerger
Ivan Nikiforovich aka Nesterenko - Ukrainian Commissar - TSD
Regine Ninkler - nurse
Baruch Bobrus Nysenbaum kia 1937 Villamajor de Gallago
Aisik Olek Olejar
Orzek "Olek" Hercel Nuss b. Siedlice 1912 wia - composed the Botwin Hymn - murdered by Nazis WW2
Tadeusz "Tadek" Opman - husband of Jeanette - one of Chiefs of Staff of Polish Brigade - lawyer, WIA, French Resistance - died 1958 in Paris - TSD.
Roman "Orlov" Orlovski
Rozalia "Angele" Paiwa
Leon Pakin, murdered by Nazis, Paris 1942
T.M. Pangalos/Panoglas (Greek)
Max Pawel POW aged 33
Feliks Pfefer kia with partisans, France
Sgt. Lejzor Piecznik, Argentina - Pole serving with the Thaelmann's.
David Hersz Plomik - married a Spanish girl and kia aged 35 years leaving a child
Lt. Chaim Harry Poncz/Pencz aka "Chari" - wia.
Leon Wolf Propper
Artur/Aron Projekt, Israel
Abram Raiter, kia 1939 Catalonia
Zygmunt "Zach" Rafalovitch
Gustaw Rajcher (Rwal)
Adam Rapoport POW aged 34
Hersz Rapoport, kia crossing Wisla River with Polish Army
Liliane "Rilka" Ras
Israel Yehuda Rechter
Micha Reger aka Szyr Gerson - Commissar of the Palafox
Dr Rachel Reich b. Varsovia, Poland
Simon Rejzman - TSD.
Izrael Juda Reicher
Gusrav "Rwal" Reicher murdered by Stalin 1940's
Fiszel Reichman, Israel
Adolf Redig/Radig POW aged 39 wia
Ritter, kia 1937 Jarama
Charles Rochman, murdered by the Nazis in Belgian Resistance
Lawrence Rosenkrantz - nurse
Ernest Meir Rosental
Michal Herman Rosner from Kalisz - TSD
Dawid Rogovski Rotenberg
Lt Gerszon Rothalc, kia 1938 Gandesa - machine gunner - member of Poale Zion.
Leon Rosenbilt kia Jarama
Mojzez Mende Rosenhalc (Ukr.??), shoemaker aged 25 POW
Emanuel "Mundek" Rozenholc - b. 26.5.19 - nurse?
Marian Mojzesz Rosenknop
Mieczyslaw "Emil Vedin" Rosenstein
Ernest Majer Rosental
Joseph Rozmaryn/Rosmarin - pilot
Lt. Gerson Rotholz b. Varsovie 1917, kia Pradel 18.10.38
Aron Renka Rozowski
Josef Rozowski kia 1938, Spain
Josef "Gruby Le Gros" Rubinstein kia 1937 Saragossa
Leon Rubinstein died Poland 1961
Josef Juda Leon Rubel, kia Spain
Szymon Rudzik murdered at Buchenwald
Moniak Rusinek POW aged 30
Jan Rutkowski - aka Simon - QMS Polish Brig. - French Resistance.
Fred Rzepkowicz - wia Lerida - TSD
Majzesz Moshe "Michel" Safir/Sapir
Rachel Sapir aka Vilner-Fanstein, sister of Moshe above - died of illness after Auschwitz
Andrzejek Shuviut (?)/Schmidt POWkia Warsaw Ghetto uprising
Schiller/Schilleng - Hungarian
Lena Schir - nurse
Josef Schitzer kia 16.2. 1938 Estramadura - b. Aleandria Egypt 1917 when Polish parents Joshua and Ursula fled Palestine from Turks
Saloman Bruno Schleien, carpenter aged 34 (Ukr.) POW
Moritz Marycy Schneebaum/Schnobaum
Josef Schoenbach kia Aragon 1938
Schniel Kopel Schwarz
Hania Schwartz aka Faltenberg
Epstein Silverstein - nurse
Maurice Skalka kia
Srulek Skiersabolski, of Kalisz, kia
Basil Sobaski, farmer aged 34 - Ukr.
Eugene Stark b. 5.9.09 - nurse
Hersz "Maks" Stark
Dr Henryk Sternhel
Dr Henryk Stern
Feliks "Jacubowicz", Felek" Straszak
Henryk "Largo" Sulewicz - TSD
Sulinski - war correspondent KIA.
Jose Soler Sturtiwanti - Argentina POW
Ms Roza Susman
Mieczyslaw Miteke Szafram
Mojzesz Szafran kia Ebro 1938
Chaim Zelig Szajnfaber
Dr Ilja Szapiro (Vilna) kia Spain
Adela Szerman, Belgium - Polish nurse
Albert Szerman, Belgium/Polish
Alter Szerman, Belgium/Polish - from Anvers - Botwin commander
Dawid Eugeniusz Dawidek Szmulewski - escaped St Cyprien and survived Auschwitz.
Josef Strzelczyk aka Jan Barwiniski - TSD
Jacub Aron Sztajner
Sameli Sztamler, kia Aragon
Bernard Sztern kia 1937 Spain
Abram Sztokstil, died in French camp 1939
Dr Emmanuel Sztokman
Samuel Szumik, kia 1938, Spain
Szmuel Kopel Szwarc
Pinkus Szydlowar, Belgium
Marcin Szymanski - TSD
Mieczyslaw "Mietck" Szleyen - editor of Dombrowski newspaper - died 1955.
Zosia Szleyen - wife
Nurse Rachel Szwarcman aka "Angele" - from Bialystok - French Resistance - left Poland 1969, died Israel 1973 - married to Communist Paraguayan Indian Paiva, killed by Nazis in France - TSD.
Capt Aleksander Ilya Davidovitch Szurek aka "Alek" - born 3.8.1907 in Kalisz Poland, died March 1978 USA - author of "The Shattered Dream"- TSD - adjt. to Gen. Walter Swierczewski of Polish Brigade, and then Gen. Boleslaw Moloja - served Polish Army WW2, POW, French Resistance, fled Poland 1968; family murdered in Holocaust - hus. of Berta.
Marcel/Mendel Szterenzys/Sterenzy aka Kot
Dr Victor Taubenfligel - later Prof of Medicine at Univ. of Gdansk - TSD
Aron Tenenbaum - murdered at Auschwitz
Chaskiel Tenenbaum - murdered by the Nazis in Paris in WW2, cousin of Janina Hochland, Manchester.
Dawid Tenenbaum, kia Jarama
Henryk Tragibetregier, kia Spain
Henryk Tracki aka Anton Muller
Hersz Trocki kia France
Saul Trocki , murdered by Gestapo Berlin 1943
Trojan aka Adler
Victor Tulman - Hungarian and later the "Red Rabbi" of France
Israel Wachter POW
Herman Wajnberger, died 1943 in Kirgizia, Russia from wounds recieved in Spain
Josef Wajsberg, POW Spain and perished
Lejzor Wajsberg, kia Spain
Josef Mendel Wajsblum
Chaim Warszawski, kia with French Maquis
Dawid Warszawski kia France 1942
Szlama Warszawski, kia in Paris Resistance laboratory making grenades
Nachman Gerszon Wasermann
Szulim Waserbach, carpenter aged 33 POW
Dr Zalman Wabery/Weinerman aka "Zenek" - TSD
Eliasz Weinberg, kia French Resistance 1944
Saloman Rysiek "Rubio" Weinberger - TSD.
Rucio Richek Weinberg
Israel Weisberg, kia in Paris Resistance
Weiss - Hungarian in Polish bat. - cartographer kia Polish Partisans WW2 - TSD
Helene Weissman - nurse
Abram Weitman kia Teruel 1937
Mojzesz Josef Weitman, brother of Abram
Hersz Weksler kia Spain 1938
Dr "Wiska" Welikanowicz
L. Wielopolski, Israel
Pawel "Paul/Pol" Wimia
Leon Winter aka Zagorski - partisans, sent to Siberia, Polish Govt. official till 1968 pogroms - died West Germany 1984.
Dr Erwin Wolf
Ms. Celina Wolfzahn
Isydor Ernest Wolfzahn
Froim Eduard Wuzek
Jan Wyka (poet)
Szulim Wyszogrodzki, Israel
Szaja Mojzesz Zajderman
Dr Alexander Wojnarek Zajdorfa, murdered by Nazis in France 1943
Dr Dora/Dorota Zajdorf b. 11.7.13
Szymon Zajdorf, Canada
Abram "Antoni" Zajoutz
Izydor Zalzman died 1963 Poland
Sonja Zaydman - nurse b. 1.10.10
Meier Zeller, murdered in Auschwitz
Hersz Henryk Zimmerman/Cymerman, kia with French Resistance 1942
Janos Zsiros metallurgist aged 28 - Hung.
Abraham Zylberstein, kia Spain 1937
Szulim Icchok Zysman
Continue to Part II
Source: Martin Sugarman, Reprinted with permission.