Evolution of Plate

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Annotated Bibliography

Blair, Claude. European Armour Circa 1066 to Circa 1700. London: B. T. Batsford, 1958.

Describes many variations of mail and their changes over time. Notes any speculations and areaswhere little is known. Describes the beginnings of plate for all parts of the body, but does not directly discuss the transition from mail to plate.

Bradbury, Jim. The Medieval Archer. New York: St. Martins Press, 1985.

Fairly good representation of the use of the bow. Details on how it was used where and how it cameto be developed into European tactics. Also makes comparisons between the bow and the crossbow. In depth explanation of the significance of the bow in battles such as Hastings and its role in society.

Bradbury, Jim. The Battle of Hastings. Bridgend, UK: Sutton Publishing, 1998.

Histories of the sides involved in the battle along with a good depiction of the battle and its effects on medieval warfare tactics.

Constanine, Philippe. War in the Middle Ages. New York: Basil Blackwell, 1984.

Bow, crossbow development, basic equipment used, ideals of the knights.

DeVries, Kelly Robert. Medieval Military Technology. Ontario, Canada: Broadview Press, 1992.

Very good overview of the importance of all the different weapons and armor used along with an overview on the importance of siege weapons and fortifications.

Edge, David and Paddock, John M. Arms and Armor of the Medieval Knight. Hong Kong: Crescent Books, 1998.

Raising of armies, equipmant usage and developments.

ffoulkes, Charles. The Armourer and His Craft. London: Methuen, 1912.

A classic text covering many of the basics of arms and armor history and technique. Slanted towards the British development of a local arms and armor trade.

France, John. Western Warfare in the Age of the Crusades 1000-1300. New York: Cornell University Press, 1999.

Importance of armor, size and use of the war-horse, importance of the bows.

Gies, Francies and Gies, Joseph. Cathedral, Forge, and Waterwheel. New York: Harper Collins Publishers, 1994.

An excellent reference for the development of European technology throughout the middle ages. Somewhat light on the development of arms and armor, but presents a more general view of technological and social change throughout the period.

Gogan, Art. Fighting Iron. Lincoln, RI: Andrew Mowbray Publishers, 1999.

A history of iron. More focused on later accomplishments but has a brief section on the use of iron in arms and armor in the middle ages.

Hardy, Robert. Longbow: A Social and Military History. New York: Arco Publishing Company, 1976.

Development/use of the longbow in England.

Hooper, Nicholas & Bennett, Matthew. Cambridge Illustrated Atlas of Warfare: The Middle Ages 768-1487. London: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Cavalry and training techniques, Importance of infantry, the role of mercenaries.

Karcheski, Walter J. Jr. Arms and Armor in The Art Institue of Chicago. Boston: Bulfinch Press, 1995.

Mostly a history on the Harding Collection of the Art Institute, but there is information on the practices of Nuremberg armorers and their relation to the town.

Keen, Maurice. Medieval Warfare: a History. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Castle warfare, The knight vs. infantry. The use of archers. Armor usage and horses.

Koch, H.W. Medieval Warfare. London: Bison Books, 1978.

Feudalism, knights, siege technology.

Oakeshott, R Ewart. The Sword in the Age of Chivalry. New York: Fredrick A. Praeger, Publishers, 1964.

Explanation of the swords used and when they were used. Some description of history and evolution.

Payne-Gallwey, Ralph. The Book of the Crossbow. New York: Dover Publications Inc., 1903.

A very good source to learn about the crossbow. Very little though on dates.

Prestwich, Michael. Armies and Warfare in the Middle Ages: The English Experience. London: Yale University Press, 1996.

Very useful; goes over many important issues of how armies were raised what they consisted of and typesof formations and combat.

Price, Brian R., Techniques of Medieval Armour Reproduction. Boulder, CO: Paladin Press, 2000.

An excellent source on the recreation of armor with historical information inserted throughout.

Richardson, Thom. The Introduction of Plate Armour in Medieval Europe. Royal Armouries Yearbook vol. 2(1997): 40-45.

An exceptional article directly dealing with the beginnings of the transition from mail to plate.

Singer, Charles, et al., eds. A History of Technology. 5 vols. New York and London: Oxford University Press, 1954.

Excellent compilation of articles on metallurgy, metalwork, and mining.

Theophilus. On Divers Arts Trans. Hawthorne, John G. an dSmith, Cyril. New York: Dover, 1979.

Contains information on metalworking techniques from the 12th century. Does not go into metalworking for military use and concentrates on metals other than wrought iron.

Thordemann, Bengt. Armour From the Battle of Wisby 1361. Stockholm: Kungl. Vitterhets, 1939.

A thorough explanation of the history, battle, and excavations that took place at Wisby.

White, Lynn Jr.. Medieval Technology and Social Change. New York: Oxford University Press, 1962.

A view on cavalry tactics.

Williams, Alan. "Experiments with 'Medieval Steel' Plates." Historical Metallurgy Vol 32, #2 (1999): 82-96.

Williams, Alan. The Metallurgy of Muslim Armour. Basingstoke, UK: TAylor and Francis, Ltd., 1978.

Excellent source of information on the differences between wrought iron, mild steels, and hardened steels as well as how they were procesed.

Williams, Alan. "Slag Inclusions in Armour." Historical Metallurgy Vol 24, #2 (1990): 69-80.

Interesting comparison of sources of iron in various armors. Also contains information on the price of armor in the middle ages.

Wise, Terrance. Medieval Warfare. New York: Hastings House, 1976.

Scutage, crossbow/spear men, organization of units and how they were gathered, army formations.

Higgins Armory

This work is Copyright Adrian Wheelock, Ian Hobbs, and Jordan Maddok. It may be freely distributed under the Creative Commons License so long as this notice remains with all copies.