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New Times | Socitey | THE FRAUD OF THE CENTURY, OR A BOOK BORN IN HELL
• Past and present
THE FRAUD OF THE CENTURY, OR A BOOK BORN IN HELL
By Valery Kadzhaya
One hundred years ago, the authors of "The Protocols of the Elders of Zion" were diagnosed for the first time in Russia by a columnist of the "New Times" daily.
 
A hundred years ago, an opus appeared in Russia that became, within its genre, the book
of the century. The penny booklet, like a penny match, set all Europe afire. It was entitled
The Protocols of the Elders of Zion.

The whole world knows about The Protocols. Anti-Semites consider them the main proof
that there is a "global conspiracy of Jews". Today, after numerous thorough investigations,
we know that The Protocols were written or, rather, faked at the end of the 19th century.
The first public mention of them dates back to April 1, 1902 when an extensive article, "A
Conspiracy Against Mankind", was published by a renowned essayist of the time,
M.Menshikov, in St.Petersburg's conservative Novoye Vremya (New Times) daily
newspaper that belonged to Russia's biggest publisher, A.Suvorin.

The feverish brain

The article said that a venerable lady of the beau monde had suggested the author read a
small booklet, The Protocols of the Elders of Zion. Making no secret of his skepticism
regarding the authenticity of The Protocols, Menshikov concentrated all his journalistic zeal
on "the magic array of the awesome Utopias" from the Pan-Britainism and Pan-Germanism
to Pan-Turkism and Pan-Slavism that were a real menace to mankind and that indeed
included ideas of global domination.

As to The Protocols, Menshikov put their authors and spreaders in the category of "people
with brain fever". History has confirmed subsequently the amazing accuracy of the
journalist's diagnosis. Regrettably, the accuracy and depth of Menshikov's appraisal was a
voice crying in the wilderness. Nobody heard him or paid any attention to his words.

The time of triumph of The Protocols came somewhat later when they flooded Europe and
America and their indices surpassed all records. Their sales were many times above the
figures of all significant works of the 20th century. The literature accompanying them was
even greater. The most striking fact is that The Protocols are undergoing a virtual
renaissance in our days. "Brain fever" turned out to be an incurable disease.

From the Zionist "conspiracy" to the Nazi conspiracy

While languishing in his comfortable prison cell after his comical attempt at a coup d'etat
known as the Beer Hall Putsch in Munich in November 1923, Adolf Hitler, a very small
"fuhrer" of the just as small then National Socialist Party, commenced dictating his
thoughts to his stenographer. After subsequent editorial polishing to meet German
grammar and lexical standards, they became the notorious Mein Kampf, the Nazis' sacred
book.

The Protocols of the Elders of Zion were a source of inspiration for Hitler. A large portion of
his Mein Kampf is just a free rendering of The Protocols or the commentaries on it: how
the Jews were seeking world domination and how they were to be stopped; how they had
already subjugated Russia with the help of Bolshevism and were using their financial
capital to make Germany's ruling class serve their ends, while at the same time
manipulating the lower classes with the help of the press that they had taken over.
According to Hitler (and The Protocols), capitalism, democracy and liberalism were the
methods the Jews employed first to make the bourgeoisie overthrow the aristocracy and
then make the proletariat overthrow the bourgeoisie.

"According to The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, the Jewry are to starve nations into
submission", we read in Hitler's book. "In our times, the Jews' goal is a second revolution
under the Star of David. When this book becomes well known to people, the Jewish
danger can be considered overcome forever."

By that time The Protocols of the Elders of Zion was already a bestseller in Germany.
Right after the end of the First World War, six organizations were selling it in Germany: two
in Berlin, three in Hamburg, one in Leipzig, and as many as 12 newspapers. With Hitler
coming to power in 1933, a veritable orgy commenced. The minister of education of the
new, fully Nazified Germany declared The Protocols a must to read in schools. They
became, in effect, a kind of a symbol of faith, the very dream of the obsessed author of
Mein Kampf that would have been better entitled Mein Kampf Mit Juden (My Struggle
Against the Jews).

"I have read The Protocols of the Elders of Zion and was horrified!" confessed Hitler. "The
stealthiness of the ubiquitous enemy! I realized at once that we must follow their example,
but in our own way, of course..." And he added to his armoury the plan of world domination
detailed in The Protocols of the Elders of Zion.

Rachkovsky and Co.

The Protocols got to Germany from Russia in the throes of the Civil War. In 1903, exactly
four months after the infamous pogrom in Kishinev, Znamya, the Black Hundred's principal
newspaper, ran The Protocols in its issues from August 28 to September 7. The paper's
editor and publisher was the notorious Pavel Krushevan. He had initiated the Kishinev
pogrom and would later become one of chiefs of the Black Hundred.

At about the same time The Protocols got into the hands of Sergei Nilus, a religious and
mystic writer of renown. He got it in a round-about way through the same lady of the beau
monde as the author of Novoye Vremya had. The lady was Yustina Glinka, a follower of
Helena Blavatsky and a lady-in-waiting of the Empress. She was the daughter of a high-
ranking official, Dmitry Glinka, a philosopher and diplomat who was a tutor of Grand
Princes Nicholas and Mikhail. He taught Russian literature to them and to other offspring of
the royal family. Yustina's father and his brothers, Fyodor, a mystic poet, and Sergei, a
publicist, were an influential clan of ultra-conservatives who had shaped Yustina's
worldview. Nilus was introduced to her by Grand Princess Yelizaveta, a sister of Empress
Alexandra. At the time, Yelizaveta tried to get him into the circle of Emperor Nicholas II's
spouse in place of a certain French adventurer by the name of Philippe, formerly a
butcher's assistant in Lyons. Philippe had been brought into the Empress' circle by the
sisters of her closest friends. These sisters, Militsa and Anastasia, were the daughters of
the Prince of Montenegro, and both were enthusiastic spiritualists and occultists. By the
way, they were the ones who later "unearthed" Rasputin as well.

Nilus was unable to overcome the "Montenegro barrier" even after marrying the Empress's
maid-in-waiting, Yelena Ozerova – it was arranged by Grand Princess Yelizaveta. He
retired to Optina hermitage with his lawful wife and Natalya Volodimerskaya, his former
mistress. Naturally, such a menage-a-trois could not please the Optina elders who
energetically prevented his being ordained. Later, in 1911 he was expelled from the
monastery after the latter-day prophet started telling the other monks that the Antichrist
was coming in 1920.

The cherished manuscript reached Nilus, and not by chance. Back in 1903 he had
published the book The Great in the Small which won him recognition in church circles.
However, it was not his writings but his fanatical belief in the forthcoming appearance of
the anti-christ and a fanatical conviction that Jews were involved in it that brought him
renown in high society which he had penetrated with the help of the emperor's sister. So
The Protocols were like manna from heaven for him. But he did not suspect that he himself
was a true godsend for the owners of the manuscript. In December of 1905, Nilus, as he
was aspiring to the position of the royal couple's confessor, published a second edition of
his book. It was the first publication of the complete text of The Protocols. In a footnote the
author gave this explanation of their origin: "These protocols have been secretly extracted
(or stolen) from a volume of protocols. A correspondent of mine obtained all of this from a
secret repository of the Zion Chancellery that is now on French territory".

It was a finely printed book stating that its publisher was The Red Cross Office in the town
of Krasnoye Selo where the Tsar's residence was. Written along the lines of mystical
works admired by Tsar Nicholas, it was intended primarily for his eyes. The publishers hit
the mark: the tsar read the Nilus opus and The Protocols most attentively, as evidenced by
the numerous notes he made in the margins: "What precise execution of their
programme!"; "Our 1905 was clearly orchestrated by the Zion Elders!". "The Jews' guiding
and destroying hand is visible everywhere". The royal conclusion was unequivocal: "There
can be no doubt of their authenticity".

On learning this, Krushevan, Shmakov, Markov II, and other leaders of the Union of the
Russian People approached the newly appointed Minister–President Stolypin with a
suggestion to make wide use of The Protocols in the fight against enemies of the
autocracy, first of all against Jews who figured prominently in their list. A tough and cruel
man completely loyal to the autocracy, Stolypin did not have much sympathy for the Jews
but he did have clarity of thought and common sense. Having read The Protocols, he saw
at once that the book was utter gibberish, and immediately ordered the Okhranka (security
service) to find out where it had come from. Since the orders were urgent and highly
confidential, the case was investigated by top officials of the police department. They
discovered that The Protocols had been authored not by the mysterious "Elders of Zion"
but by operatives of the Okhrana field headquarters in Paris. The details of the
investigation were known to very few people to avoid compromising the network of agents
set up in Paris by Pyotr Rachkovsky.

That man, in his own way, was a person worthy of a novelist's pen. For almost two
decades he ran the foreign branches of the Okhranka. Everywhere – in France, Britain,
Austia–Hungary, Germany, and Switzerland –- his men kept Russian revolutionaries under
surveillance. Rachkovsky had the reputation of being an unrivalled master of intrigues and
provocation. One of his favourite methods was fabrication of letters and pamphlets. For
example, in 1902 he made a letter look as if it as written by George Plekhanov, the
patriarch of the Russian Social Democracy. It accused The Peoples Will (Narodnaya
Volya) leaders of treachery, cooperation with the British Intelligence Service and other
sins. To make the letter convincing, Plekhanov's signature was faked. Afterwards it took
Plekhanov a lot of time and effort to wash off all this dirt and to prove that he had had
nothing to do with the fraud.

Unfortunately, Rachkovsky, like Nilus, was a pathological anti-Semite. Since many of the
Russian ОmigrО revolutionaries were Jews, his anti-Semitic sentiments found fertile soil
for application. Nicholas II was highly displeased to learn that The Protocols were a fake,
and made this note about Nilus's book: "The Protocols should be confiscated, a good
cause cannot be defended by dirty means". It is not hard to guess what the emperor meant
by "a good cause": he never made a secret of his dislike of Jews.

Of course, nobody began confiscating Nilus' book despite the tsar's instructions. It was re-
published several times in old Russia under a new title Right at the Door. The last time was
in 1916. Nilus survived the revolution, the civil war and died a natural death in 1929 at the
age of 68 in the village of Krutets in the Vladimir Region.

Poor Jolie

Rachkovsky had a gift for provocation, no doubt about it, but neither he nor his men
possessed literary talents. However, The Protocols were rendered in excellent French. It
was found out who the true author was only in July of 1921. One year earlier, the most
influential daily, The Times of London, published an editorial on the just published English
translation of The Protocols. While noting that the book facilitated the growth of the rabid
anti-Semitism in Europe and energetically promoted in France, Britain and the USA, its
editors thought that the book put forward a hypothesis that was too original, attractive and
sensational to be bypassed by the country's not particularly happy or satisfied public. The
editorial ended with a sacred question: Had we fought all those tragic years for the
destruction and uprooting of German domination only to discover behind it another one
even more dangerous because it was more secret? Had we made an all out effort to
escape the yoke of the Pan-Germanic Union only to get ensnared by an All-Jewish
Alliance? Presumably they (The Protocols) had been written by Jews for the Jews. If so,
then under what conditions were they created, and what inner Jewish problems were they
to solve?

Just like in a detective story, it so happened that exactly one year later in Istanbul, The
Times local correspondent Philip Graves bought a tattered volume in French for ‡337 from
a White Russian ОmigrО landowner from Saratov, Mikhail Roslovlev. He suggested that
Graves should compare it with The Protocols. The volume was a political pamphlet,
Dialogue in Hell between Montesquieu and Machiavelli. It was a criticism of Napoleon III in
disguise because any open denouncement of his dictatorship was persecuted and cruelly
punished. The author of the Dialogue, Parisian lawyer and writer by the name of Maurice
Jolie, printed his book in Brussels in 1864 and tried to smuggle it into France. However, he
underestimated Napoleon's secret police: all copies were seized by the police at the
border crossing. The author was arrested, put on trial and sentenced to 15 months in jail:
the censor had seen through whom and what Jolie meant.

The compilers of The Protocols simply ascribed all that Jolie's Machiavelli said to some
mythical Elders of Zion. With his perfect knowledge of French, Graves was astonished by
the barefaced impudence of the plagiarizers. "It is amazing" he wrote in a Times article,
"that the plagiarizer made no effort to conceal the plagiarism. The original text is re-told in
a very careless way: parts of sentences and sometimes whole sentences are identical, and
the train of thought of the arguments is similar."

Indeed, when the editors compared the two texts, it was clear that over 160 extracts from
The Protocols, that is, two thirds of the text, were carbon copies of the Dialogue. In nine
chapters, more than a half, sometimes as much as three quarters of the text was
borrowed, and Protocol VII was copied in full.

For a long time it was a mystery how and why Rachkovsky had come upon Jolie's book,
unknown as it was and with almost every copy destroyed. The mystery was solved only
recently. A year ago Academician Skuratovsky published his book, The Question of the
Authorship of The Protocols of the Elders of Zion in Kiev. After a scrupulous and extensive
literary, historical and linguistic analysis of the Russian third of The Protocols, the
Ukrainian scholar proved that it had been penned by Matvei Golovinsky, a second-rate
journalist whom the fate had brought to Paris and there he had found a job with Le Figaro.
There Rachkovsky noticed him and hired him to edit all the false texts cooked up in the
resident spy's kitchen. Academician Skuratovsky discovered one small but essential fact
that settles the matter. Early in 1902, just two months before publication of Menshikov's
article, Novoye Vremya reported that the Le Figaro correspondent Charles Jolie, a son of
the very poor Maurice Jolie had paid a visit to St.Petersburg. It was logical to assume that
Charles and Golovinsky had become close as they worked for the same paper, and that
the Frenchman had shown his father's book to his Russian colleague. It is just amazing
how great the role of chance in history can sometimes be.

Process in Bern

On coming to power in Germany, the Nazis channeled their frenzied anti–Jew propaganda
to the neighbouring countries, first of all to Austria and Switzerland. The only serious
attempt to halt that flood of lies and hate was a trial in Bern. The formal reason for it was a
Nazi rally in a local casino on June 13, 1933. There the leaders of the National Front (the
party of Swiss Nazis who had publicly announced they were Adolf Hitler's followers) had
made pogrom-style speeches and The Protocols of

the Elders of Zion had been openly on sale and quoted through loudspeakers for the
crowds to hear. That was the first ever case of this kind in Switzerland.

On June 26, leaders of the Swiss Jewish Community (SJC) lodged a complaint with a court
of law but not against the organizers of the rally: Switzerland had no legislation to prohibit
propaganda and incitement of national enmity. The SJC sued the publishers of the book,
for it was actually a fraud, in other words, a deception of the customer, in this case the
reader. The appointed judge was Walter Meyer, a respectable Christian and a stranger to
politics. He had not even heard of The Protocols. The trial of the fraudulent book was, in
fact, a trial of the false ideology whose brown fog was enveloping Europe. The trial lasted
for nearly two years and attracted the attention of the whole world. It denounced the myth
about some global conspiracy of the Jews and about

The Protocols in which the "Elders of Zion" allegedly had recorded it. Reading the verdict
which classed

The Protocols as "obscene literature", Judge Meyer concluded his speech with a wrathful
rebuff of the obscurant racists. "I hope", he said, "the time will come when nobody will be
able to understand how in 1935 nearly a dozen sane and responsible men (he meant
representatives of the defendant, that is Swiss and German Nazis – V.K.) were able for
two weeks to mock the intellect of the Bern court discussing the authenticity of the so-
called Protocols, the very Protocols that, harmful as they have been and will be, are
nothing but laughable nonsense". The wise and honest judge could not foresee that bloody
and not-too-distant future when that "laughable nonsense" would bring about the
destruction of six million Jews under Hitler's rule.

The trial in Bern is described in a book that reads like a thriller. Its title is The Lie That
Does Not Want to Die and is published by now in six languages: Hebrew, German, Dutch,
Hungarian, Romanian and now in Russian. The book was written by Hadassa Ben-Itto, a
Polish Jewess who as a child had emigrated with her parents to Palestine. On graduation
from a law school in 1955, Hadassa worked as a lawyer, then for 31 years was a judge.
She was the first woman to be a member of Israel's Supreme Court, but in 1991 when she
first saw The Protocols she retired from that lofty position to devote six years of her life to
studying all the nuances of the Bern trial.

A long line of witnesses testified at the trial, including former members of Russia's beau
monde, Rachkovsky's operatives who were already free to tell the truth, and even
Alexander Kerensky. Actually, he did not come to Bern, instead he sent his testimony in
writing from the USA where he was living as an ОmigrО. He reported, by the way, that he
was not Jewish (the Nazis maintained that the real name of the ex-head of the Provisional
Government was Kibris. Here one cannot help recalling that our neo-Nazis did the same
with Yeltsin's name), and that several generations of the Kerenskys were Orthodox priests.
The crafty manner in which Rachkovsky's fabrication was palmed off to Nilus so that that
man would never doubt the authenticity of The Protocols also became known. And many
other fascinating things can be learned from Hadassa Ben-Itto's book.

Anti-Semitism at the door It is a tragic fact that

The Protocols get reprinted and are still believed, at least in Russia, notwithstanding the
denunciations made by Stolypin, repeated by Graves and systematised by the Bern Trial,
and despite the splendid book of Hadassa Ben-Itto.

The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, and even Hitler's Mein Kampf can be freely bought in
democratic Russia, but this fact does not worry the authorities. Early in the 1990s when
The Protocols were re-adopted by our Black Hundred, or National Patriots as they call
themselves, such books as the following were also published in Russia: a book by the well-
known British scholar Norman Cohen entitled A Blessing for Genocide dealing with the
conversion of Dialogue in Hell into The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, Savely Dudakov's
book The History of a Myth resulting from his thorough research into the matter, and,
lastly, a book by the Russian journalist Vladimir Burtsev, Chasing the Provocateurs. The
Protocols of the Elders of Zion Proved to Be a Fraud first published in Paris in 1938.Have
they stopped our National Patriots? In 2000, when the second edition of Cohen's book was
published, two new editions of Nilus' book Right at the Door appeared as well. It should be
noted that the reprints were made in St.Petersburg by the North-Western Centre of
Orthodox Literature Dioptra "with the blessing of Archbishop Afanasy of Perm and
Solikamsk," as it says on its flyleaf. That means it was officially sanctioned by the Russian
Orthodox Church. It is hard to believe that the reverend hierarch did not know what he was
doing when he gave his blessing to the work of the devil, for The Protocols – the full text of
these is included in the book of Nilus – is certainly such a deed. But Nilus had been
deceived by Rachkovsky. Yet how could he, a highly experienced archbishop who was
considered one of the best educated hierarchs of the Russian Orthodox Church, have
yielded to temptation?

Actually, he is not the only one to succumb to temptation. This year another publishing
house in St.Petersburg, Tsarskoye Delo, brought out The Secret of Lawlesness, the larger
part of which is the same Right at the Door. The book has the blessing of Bishop Veniamin
of Vladivostok and Primorye, who is known for his firm belief in the existence of a global
conspiracy against Russia, and is an ardent champion of restoration of the monarchy
and... of canonization of Rasputin. Another fervent upholder of The Protocols was the late
Mitropolitan Ioann (Snychev) of St.Petersburg and Ladoga. He blessed and supported the
"Orthodox St.Petersburg" society that instituted the literary prize Sergei Nilus. The Statute
of the prize notes the principal merit of the author: "He is known to Orthodox Russians
above all as the publisher of The Protocols of the Elders of Zion".

But, as noted above, Nilus did not, and could not have known what he should have and,
most probably, was known well by the initiators of the prize: that The Protocols had been
fabricated by the Okhrana, and that they are a fraud! That it was this great lie about the
Jews that provided the ideological basis for Hitler's exterminating the Jews.

The six million Jews were not the only victims of the Holocaust. The German Nazis
unleashed World War II which took the lives of over 40 million Germans, Russians, Poles,
French, Italians, and other European men and women of all faiths. Is it not what the Holy
Book says about the wicked who "hath conceived mischief and brought forth falsehood. He
made a pit, and digged it, and is fallen into the ditch which he made". (Psalms, 7:14-15).

Boks

Dialogue in Hell

Everywhere in Europe, and through its relations on the other continents, we must provoke
disturbances, dissension and enmity. This has two advantages: first, in this way we keep
the respect of all countries because they are well aware of our capacity to generate
disorders at will or to bring orderliness... Secondly, our intrigues will make a tangle of all
the threads of ours to all governments' offices...

I would set up, for instance, huge financial monopolies as accumulators of the
government's wealth which all private fortunes would depend on so heavily that they might
be absorbed along with government credits the day following any political upheaval. You
are an economist, Montesquieu, so you just assess the importance of this combination!

The Protocols of the Elders of Zion

t is necessary to incite revolutionary turmoil abroad, from one end of Europe to the other...
It will yield two advantages: the liberal propaganda abroad will be helpful in justifying
repression at home. Moreover, in this way it will be possible to subjugate all states and to
start conflicts or establish order in them at will.

We will soon start setting up huge monopolies accumulating tremendous wealth. Even the
big boys' fortunes will depend so heavily on them that they would sink along with
governments' credits the second day after a political upheaval... Messieurs economists
present here, please assess the importance of this combination!

Content
Cover
Politics
World
Economics
Society
Culture and Art
Persons
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CHILDREN OF LIGHT AND FIENDS OF DARKNESS
Can "fair" violence change the world?

THE BEILIS CASE AND ALEXANDER SOLZHENITSYN
The Nobel Laureate's mighty intellect failed to grasp what the semi-literate peasant jurors had understood with their hearts

PETER STOLYPIN. THE MASON THROWS OUT THE KEYSTONE

PIERRE BOURDIEU. A LIFELONG STRUGGLE WITH THE AGENTS OF IGNORANCE
Who was Bourdieu's work intended to help? Not the well-established nor the big bosses, but the little people isolated from the rest of society

"KONDRATYUK'S LOOP"

YOU CANNOT DRIVE TRAMPS OFF THE STREET WITH A CLUB
Every day for the last ten years, Doctors Without Borders have been meeting homeless people, helping them with words of advice and consolation, healing their wounds, and standing up for their basic rights

WHAT COMES AFTER A MAN AND A WOMAN
Why the state dislikes gays and lesbians

MUMMY, MUMMY AND I
It's not always unpleasant to be and feel invisible

FROM DINOSAURS TO PEOPLE'S DEPUTIES
The entire history of life on Earth shows that sexual standards are relative. As for dirty perversions, they are the lot of the aggressive-obedient majority

ADVENTURES IN TIKSI LAND
The government is considering opening up the Far North to foreign tourists as a way oearning foreign currency. Judging by the impressions of a young English lady who traveled fto the Arctic Ocean last summer, this beautiful place might be attractive to adventure seekers

THE LEGACY OF AN ENGINEER NAMED KRASIN
A terrorist, businessman, counterfeiter and intellectual – he didn't seem to be your typical Bolshevik

THE GENE OF COMPETITIVENESS
Football is a mirror of the economy

ARK IN LAVRUSHENSKY
There is not a single memorial plaque on the facade of this house as the juxtaposition of certain names would be incongruous

A LITTLE CHILD'S FINGER AND THE RED TUNDRA
Are things in the mass media worse but better? Or are they better but worse?

Victor SHENDEROVICH: "IT'S A DISGRACE WHEN YOU'RE RAPED, BUT PRETEND IT'S LOVE"

THEY ARE BEATING UP OUR BOYS
Racism, soccer and pop art. It looks like we are losing by a lopsided score

"NEWSPAPERS ARE SOLD, JOURNALISM IS NOT"
The State Duma received the draft of a new version of the Law on the Mass Media for consideration. The NT correspondent Nairi HOVSEPYAN discussed the matter with Mikhail FEDOTOV. In 1991 he Media that is currently in force

A FREAK GENIUS
How many tanks need to be sold for fundamental science to survive?

THE COMPLEX OF A VICTIM
Academic science is changing as a result of the Brownian movement of interests, not of a thought-out strategy

HE WHO DRIVES STRAIGHT DOESN'T SLEEP AT HOME
Vyacheslav Pyetsukh studies proverbs. Rudolf Boretsky talks to the author

THE WORLD POLICEMAN
Fearing Moslem and any other type of terrorism, democratic nations have been compelled to swing towards totalitarianism, bans, denunciations and shadowing. How far will this process go?

IS IMPOSTURE REALLY SO BAD?
False Dmitry I pulled off the most spectacular coup in Russia's history, only to become almost its most hated anti-hero

A SHADOW OF IVAN DENISOVICH
The author Vladimir VOINOVICH has written a book about Alexander Solzhenitsyn. He granted his last interview on this subject to our correspondent Ilya Milstein

"THE FIRST SIGN OF VANDALISM…"
Our main trouble is not idol-making, but lack of respect for the individual

MERRYMAKING IN RUSSIA: CENTURIES OF DRINKING

THE HOUSE I USED TO LIVE IN
The inhabitants of the famous house of writers also known as the Arc in Lavrushinsky included Boris Pasternak, Valentin Katayev, Yury Olesha, Konstantin Paustovsky, Mikhail Prishvin, Viktor Shklovsky, Armand Hammer and the critic Latunsky, a character in the novel "The Master and Margarita"

HOW MUCH IS MORE?
The government always tried not to let people know the truth about themselves

THE KINGDOM OF CROOKED MIRRORS
The bureaucracy of today is convinced that the administration’s interest is tantamount to the people’s interests and that patriotism is love for the authority

STALIN’S MISTAKE COUNTERBALANCED BY HITLER’S
Was the battle of Stalingrad inevitable?

MR SUGAR OR MR HEXOGEN
It is still not known what was in the sacks found in the basement of the apartment house at 14/16 Novosyolov Street in Ryazan on September 22, 1999. Was it an anti-terrorism preparedness “exercise” staged by the Federal Security Service (FSB)or a failed terrorist act?

THE RUSSIAN MUSE OF THE CUBAN GENIUS
Olga Chagodayeva: Capablanca complained to Stalin about Soviet chess-players

BOY AND GIRL SCOUTS IN RUSSIA NOW
Why is Khodorkovsky playing children’s games?

HOW TO ATTRACT THE RUSSIAN DIASPORA
Vladimir KVINT, professor of economics at Fordham University in New York and co-chairman of the International Council of Compatriots, discusses problems of cooperation with Russians living abroad

HOW HEROIN ENTERS RUSSIA
Shocking Asia: the capitals of drug barons and the secret path of drug traffickers

SEVENTY YEARS UNDER THE " JOLLY ROGER"
The pirate business in Russia

THE GORBUSHKA MARKET: A WAY TO GET RICH FAST
This is the third biggest market – after drug trafficking and arms trade – in terms of profits

ZHIGULI, RUSSIA’S BARBIZON

THE CREW OF THE DECEASED

GAMES THE DICTATORS PLAYED
Did Stalin plan a victorious march westward?

THEIR PROFESSION IS TO SURVIVE
They have taken part in experiments on the sea, in a desert in summer, and beyond the polar circle in winter. Among the likely outcomes of the tests conducted on them were death and disablement. What makes space “guinea pigs” seek the limits of human endurance?

SHADOW-BOXING
Are warriors of Islam terrorizing Russia?

FREEDOM OF RELIGION VS FREEDOM OF HATRED
Mufti Talgat Tajuddin, the Chairman of the Central Spiritual Board of Moslems of Russia, is interviewed by our correspondent Iosif Galperin

THE IMMORTAL FELT BOOT
Felt boots of different kinds in the home of the leader

SINKING TO THE BOTTOM
The sickness of the Russian navy

THE LAW OF NEGATIVE SELECTION
The commune is the mother of all kinds of socialism. It still persists in Russia where it has just passed into a different convolution of the spiral

STOPPED IN MIDFLIGHT
“I’m not considered an official poet”

THERE IS NOTHING TO OFFER THE POOR
And nothing to take from them either

AN EARLY DEMISE?
A sensational statement of Russia’s famous virologist on the future of the Net

EVERYONE’S AT THE MUSICAL
Russian musical building: from Philippo to Philipp

PROTEIN VS SILICON
In this game against the world’s favourite, Garry Kasparov, the machine is no longer out for its opponent’s blood

“ALL OF THIS LOOKS LIKE A PARABLE…”
David Samoilov and his diaries

THE INFLUENCE OF DISTORTED NOTIONS

RESTITUTION HAS TO BE DEFERRED
“The Bremen collection of Victor Baldin” was to have been returned to Bremen Kunsthalle at the end of March. But the plans were upset by a big scandal …

KURSK: A SIGNAL TO THE WHOLE WORLD
Hitler wanted to achieve at Kursk what Soviet troops did at Stalingrad, but suffered a smashing defeat

ZHORES ALFEROV: IT WAS SAID IN JEST THAT MY NOBEL PRIZE WAS WORTH 100 MILLION DOLLARS
New Times hosts Nobel Prize Laureate Zhores Alferov

UNLIVED YEARS
People in Russia are dying younger and younger. A low birth rate, a great number of unnatural deaths – fatal accidents, suicides, murders…What can be done to revive the nation?

THE RUSSIAN HUSBAND OF THE RUSSIAN WOMAN
What language is spoken in the hell

A RED-HOT WEDGE
The Self-Exposure of Alexander Solzhenitsyn. Second volume

THE TSAR’S SCRIBES
They wanted to improve and humanize the System, but it didn’t budge

“IF A BUNDESTAG DEPUTY SAID ANYTHING LIKE THIS, THERE WOULD BE A GREAT SCANDAL”

“PASSION HAMPERS UNBIASED THOUGHT”

“THERE WILL BE GREAT FLOODS IN VELIKY USTYUG”
The town of Father Frost, seafarers and master-crafsmen is at a crossroads in history

BEFORE and AFTER 1984
Big Brother Is with Us

A BRITON IN RUSSIA
About the complex relations between Orwell’s books and the Soviet regime. How Soviet censorship wanted to “disperse” his name, but failed

FROM THE SOVIET DREAM TO “TIN SETTLEMENTS”

TRIO FROM THE UTIN FAMILY
The footprints left by the children of a 19th-century Russian tycoon

LIVING IN THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD
“The possible is what can be. The accidental is what may or may not happen”

METROPOLITAN ANTHONY

THE END OF EXPATRIATION
We are left without Vasil Bykov, and there’ll unlikely be anyone to replace him

THE ADVENTURES OF GANGSTER CAPITALISM AT NEW TIMES
How to steal a building in the centre of Moscow

TWO LEVELS OF THE VERY SECONDARY SCHOOL
How to save the public schools from degradation and maintain a worthy elitist education

A HOME NOBODY CAN CALL HIS OWN

Alexei BALABANOV: “YOU CAN LEARN LOTS WHILE IN A DEEP PIT”
NT’s Igor RYABOV talks to the director of “Of Monsters and Folks”, “The War”, and the cult film “The Brothers” about the war in Chechnya, different truths, heroes, political correctness, Afro-Americans and Chinese, Russian and American movies, and ideas good and not so good

THE PARTY AND THE HANGOVER AFTERWARDS
We won the war but lost peace on the way

“THE KGB WERE NO FOOLS”
“They forgot nothing and learned nothing” – this could be the name for the series of memoirs by prominent functionaries of the Soviet era. The fire and water Vladimir Semichastny, the former head of the Komsomol and KGB chief, had lived through had no effect on his views laid out in his book

THE STRONG MEN FROM STOYALAYA STREET
“The barge haulers’ capital” of Russia and its role in the fate of Marilyn Monroe

GENNADY AIGUI: “A POET IS NO DIFFERENT FROM OTHER DOGS, EXCEPT THAT HE IS A TALKING DOG”
Vyacheslav Sergeyev talks to a Russian poet about artists, writers, terrorists, rhythms, television, avant-garde, postmodernism, and other hog-wash

THE MAID-SERVANT OF A CHIMERA
Spying, sneaking and informing on people broke the life not only of those who were ratted on, but also that of the informers and provocateurs themselves. Here is a true story of one personal letter to the higher-ups

AN ATTEMPT AT A FILM FESTIVAL
The Moscow public does not want to see films about Chechnya

ALICE WOULD BE BORED...

THE OCTOBER REVOLUTION TOOK PLACE YESTERDAY
On holidays on calendars, on Daltonism in reverse and on historical hypnosis

RUSTY MYTHS
Two different perceptions of the Great Patriotic war persist in Russians’ minds

“GOATS”, “ELEPHANTS” AND “PECHENEGS”
Ivan Fyodorov, Russia’s first book printer, would have been amazed to learn the changes in Moscow’s attitude to books within just one century, the 20th

DR. CRISIS
The great many surprises of the book publishing business

‘MONOPOLIS’
Yury Luzhkov in the role of an “equally distanced” oligarch

THE PAST AND PRESENT OF A MONASTERY
The Trinity-Sergius Lavra is full of the history of Russia, its joys and sorrows, its rises and falls

THE FLOCK OF THE DECEASED

A DISEASE THAT CAUSED A STIR FROM DAY ONE
The great battle over the cats and dogs that should not be eaten

Thinking on an Outer Space Scale
Two space events of 2003 have changed the situation in this field of man’s endeavours: the American shuttle disaster and China’s first successful launch of a man into outer space

GETTING RESULTS BY ANY MEANS
Russia has the champion it deserves

Vladimir Voinovich: “Russia has been unable to cope with freedom”
The country will not go back to the Soviet system. But it could return to a more distant past, even to monarchy, says the author of “The Soldier Ivan Chonkin” and “Moscow-2042”.

HERE IS TO THE FEW TRUE FRIENDS

A MOlE WHO INFLUENCED THE COURSE OF HISTORY
Alexander N. Yakovlev is 80. Non-jubilee remarks

THE MESSIAH WE HAVE LOST
Solzhenitsin’s dream has come true: the authorities seek his advice

A DOSE OF DISCORD
The government vs. the State Committee for Drugs Control: checking the possible level of resistance

CAN THEY STOP A GALLOPING HORSE?
The Roland Garros final turned into an all-Russian affair

IGOR STRAVINSKY. MUSICAL PROTEUS
Sound analogue of Pablo Picasso

GOD'S FOOL PARFENI ET AL.
To appeal to the state as the supreme authority is to act, in part, like a God's fool

DAYS OF OPEN MURDERS
Though there are not many of them and they are poorly organized, the fascists have become a force only because they meet with no rebuff on the part of the state

ON THE BRINK OF A COMMON GRAVE
The recently published results of the All-Russia population census for 2002 make it possible to judge the demographic future of Russia

Yury ANDROPOV. A POET OF THE ERA OF DINOSAURS
He lived in fear of death and of violence and horror in the face of a civil war. It determined his life and career

RUSSIA IS RULED NOT BY RESPONSIBLE POLITICIANS, BUT BY IRRESPONSIBLE BUREAUCRATS
The drawbacks of democracy stem from the Constitution -- such is the conclusion of Mikhail KRASNOV, the assistant on legal matters of the first President of the Russian Federation Boris Yeltsin. Mikhail Krasnov, D. Sc. (Law), is now the Vice- President of the Regional Public Foundation Informatics for Democracy (INDEM). Lyubov TSUKANOVA, an NT political analyst talked with him recently

MISHAPS OF HISTORIC REAL ESTATE
The Moscow Mayor’s Office and the Ministry of Culture of the Russian Federation are fighting for the right to own architectural monuments in the capital

THE VIRTUAL FEAST OF THE VICTORS
It is not important whether we deceive television or vice versa

A LOUD SILENCE
The mass media bosses secretly share the views of Bishop George Berkeley

A NATION OF WIDOWS AND MAIDENS
Great changes in family and love. How the GULAG affected the ratio of the sexes. Who finds it harder to meet the other half

COMMISSION FOR ADMISSION TO THE METRO
“The root of all evil lies not in reform itself, but in the incomplete reforming of the educational system”, says Anatoly PINSKY, the director of the School Development Centre at the Higher School of Economics

HOW TO RAISE A PRODIGY
The unique experience of the Knyazev family: Diana and Angela have earned a Master’s Degree by the age of 16

A RECORD IN BOOK PUBLISHING
At the 17th International Book Fair in Moscow the visitors could read the delightful Koran and learned that Russian is the main language for Jewish culture

TELL ME WHAT YOU READ...
and I shall tell you who you are. On the eve of the 17th International Book Fair in Moscow, noted writers, actors, cinema producers and a voyager talk about their favourite books – those which they read or have read again lately, which made them laugh or weep, influenced their fate, and perhaps even sharply changed their life

THE REFLECTION
We all are mirrors of each other, and we select these mirrors ourselves

A MUG OF BEER FOR A FREE MAN
The ban on advertising beer has caused no less of a stir than the abolition of privileges. Why did our parliamentarians deem this matter so timely?

THE LAST LINE OF DEFENSE
How I defended the Central Telegraph building

EVERYTHING’S FINE, MY BEAUTIFUL MARCHESA

AN INSTRUCTION FOR SALIERI
Yuri Luzhkov’s historical mistake

OKHOTNY RYAD DOES NOT LEAD TO THE TEMPLE

THE RUSSIAN QUESTION – THE JEWISH ANSWER

RUSSIANS ON THE MOVE
Who will pick up the baton after the Kremlin Cup?

THE ROAD TO MOGILEV
Some little known pages of Russian Jewry’s history in the reign of Nicholas I

THE FORMER ABOUT THE FUTURE
The Forum of World Politics: Mikhail Gorbachev gathered his political generation in Italy

THE TRIUMPH OF RISK
Rest in the mountains has turned into an extremely risky sport

LIFE WITH A BIG LETTER “M”
How to ride the Metro with the use for oneself and without harming others

Konstantin RAIKIN: “AUDIENCES SHOULD BE SHOCKED AND SURPRISED”
The Moscow Satirikon Theatre has opened its new season with a work which we all know only too well, but have not seen in a dramatized version on the stage for a long time. Konstantin Raikin about “The Country of Love,” theatrical passions, good taste, his audiences, about fathers and sons and the prices of theatre tickets

A WONDER OF THE WORLD IN THE HOUSE OF MUSIC
An organ inaugurated under the music of Bach

THE GOLD OF SWAMPS

SEARCING FOR A CRATER
Vasily Aksyonov has become a laureate of the Open Russia Booker Prize for 2004. This is the first Russian literary prize of this veteran writer

CORRECT TECHNOLOGIES OF ARTHUR HAILEY
A writer has died who could not write and had no imagination whatsoever. His books are read by millions of people

CAPITAL STYLE
How Moscow Is Turning Into a Big Potemkin Village

THE WHOLE WORLD CAME TO THE GREEKS
The scores, seconds and centimeters of the Russian team

SPECIFIC FEATURES OF NATIONAL CHILDBIRTH
Doubling the GDP is not going to double the birthrate

WOMEN’S LOT-2

THE STORY OF REST
Group and individual tourism from Soviet times to our days

THE EPITAPH SOUL STYLE

HOW THE CONSCIENCE OF A NATION WAS TEMPERED
Even the very best persons listen only to their own suffering. Letters of an anti-Nazi from the Nazi army

CONFLICTING DREAMS
The theory and practice of anti-Semitism. From “Bundist scum” to the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee

THE PATIENT IS INCURABLE AND IMMORTAL
A particular case of human madness

POLITICAL CORRECTNESS FOR CONSUMPTION OFF THE COUNTRY
President Putin felt ashamed of anti-Semitism in Russia. But this feeling was not strong enough to share it with his fellow-countrymen

HUNTING DOWN THE WANDERING JEW

“FOR ME, MAN’S EXIT INTO OUTER SPACE WAS NO MIRACLE”
Half a century of man’s odyssey in the outer space: have the great visionaries’ forecasts come true? Will humans or robots explore the Universe? When will extraterrestrial settlements appear? Such are the issues discussed by NT correspondent Valery Sharov and one of the initiators of the space medicine and biology, who had trained many people and animals for space flights, Academician Oleg GAZENKO of the Russian Academy of Sciences

IN THE HILLS NEAR MANCHURIA
Some stories about who contributed to our victory in the last war and how

TRIPLE CANNON
Free press which depends on a tycoon thrown into prison by the authorities

SKATING RINK WITH MUSIC
People are awaiting the restoration of totalitarianism – some with fear, others with hope. But there’ll be no restoration. It’s too late. Besides, there’s no money for it

AN UNKNOWN OCCUPATION
Horror in the eyes of babies

“THE DOCTORS’ CASE”: IGNORANCE OR MALICIOUS INTENT?
The court’s ruling has not eliminated the threat to doctors and science

CROSSMODERN
World development is like a lumpy old squash

VOICES IN THE WILDERNESS
Almost all Soviet intelligence agents warned Moscow of an imminent attack by Germany, but Stalin did not believe any of them

ICON OVER THE REICHSTAG

HOW CHECHEN BOOKS WERE PERSECUTED
A horrible method was devised in Soviet times: first total genocide was announced, to be followed by bibliocide, that is, the withdrawal and subsequent destruction of entire editions of books and other printed matter of a nation

“AS A POET I FIND PLEASURE IN FEELING MARGINAL”
Bakhyt KENZHEYEV talking about tragedy and drama, Moscow and Montreal, Brodsky and Pasternak, authoritarianism and dictatorship, about Sasha Sokolov and Sergei Dovlatov, with the author Slava SERGEYEV

LIFE IN THE CUPS
Drunkenness is a form of Russian excess and a form of genius

THE FATAL TRIANGLE of the PEOPLE, BUSINESS, and AUTHORITY

A NEAR-FATAL SPACE MISSION
The historic space flight of Alexei Leonov and Pavel Belyaev could be entered into the Guinness Book of Records for the number of emergencies they had

WAS THERE REALLY A TRIAL?
It is already for two thousand years now that the accusation of Christ’s death has plagued the Jewish people. Although they are not a bit to blame for that fateful execution

THE LITTLE ONES CRYING WITH LIFE
Children write to God

FREE FROM JEWS
The destruction of books, “bibliocide,” is almost always followed by genocide. How “Jewish” books were suppressed in Soviet times

A DIVIDED VICTORY
Was the defeat of Nazi Germany the ultimate aim of our army? What role was prepared for Hitler’s corpse? When did the Cold War begin?

AN ACT OF GOD IN THE HEAVENS
Almost nothing goes as planned in space. Vladimir Lyakhov, who has flown in spacecraft three times, knows this personally

METAMORPHOSES IN THE FIELD OF EDUCATION
Education and science between communism and technocracy

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