of the century. The penny booklet, like a penny match, set all Europe afire. It was entitled
The Protocols of the Elders of Zion.
The whole world knows about The Protocols. Anti-Semites consider them the main proof
that there is a "global conspiracy of Jews". Today, after numerous thorough investigations,
we know that The Protocols were written or, rather, faked at the end of the 19th century.
The first public mention of them dates back to April 1, 1902 when an extensive article, "A
Conspiracy Against Mankind", was published by a renowned essayist of the time,
M.Menshikov, in St.Petersburg's conservative Novoye Vremya (New Times) daily
newspaper that belonged to Russia's biggest publisher, A.Suvorin.
The feverish brain
The article said that a venerable lady of the beau monde had suggested the author read a
small booklet, The Protocols of the Elders of Zion. Making no secret of his skepticism
regarding the authenticity of The Protocols, Menshikov concentrated all his journalistic zeal
on "the magic array of the awesome Utopias" from the Pan-Britainism and Pan-Germanism
to Pan-Turkism and Pan-Slavism that were a real menace to mankind and that indeed
included ideas of global domination.
As to The Protocols, Menshikov put their authors and spreaders in the category of "people
with brain fever". History has confirmed subsequently the amazing accuracy of the
journalist's diagnosis. Regrettably, the accuracy and depth of Menshikov's appraisal was a
voice crying in the wilderness. Nobody heard him or paid any attention to his words.
The time of triumph of The Protocols came somewhat later when they flooded Europe and
America and their indices surpassed all records. Their sales were many times above the
figures of all significant works of the 20th century. The literature accompanying them was
even greater. The most striking fact is that The Protocols are undergoing a virtual
renaissance in our days. "Brain fever" turned out to be an incurable disease.
From the Zionist "conspiracy" to the Nazi conspiracy
While languishing in his comfortable prison cell after his comical attempt at a coup d'etat
known as the Beer Hall Putsch in Munich in November 1923, Adolf Hitler, a very small
"fuhrer" of the just as small then National Socialist Party, commenced dictating his
thoughts to his stenographer. After subsequent editorial polishing to meet German
grammar and lexical standards, they became the notorious Mein Kampf, the Nazis' sacred
The Protocols of the Elders of Zion were a source of inspiration for Hitler. A large portion of
his Mein Kampf is just a free rendering of The Protocols or the commentaries on it: how
the Jews were seeking world domination and how they were to be stopped; how they had
already subjugated Russia with the help of Bolshevism and were using their financial
capital to make Germany's ruling class serve their ends, while at the same time
manipulating the lower classes with the help of the press that they had taken over.
According to Hitler (and The Protocols), capitalism, democracy and liberalism were the
methods the Jews employed first to make the bourgeoisie overthrow the aristocracy and
then make the proletariat overthrow the bourgeoisie.
"According to The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, the Jewry are to starve nations into
submission", we read in Hitler's book. "In our times, the Jews' goal is a second revolution
under the Star of David. When this book becomes well known to people, the Jewish
danger can be considered overcome forever."
By that time The Protocols of the Elders of Zion was already a bestseller in Germany.
Right after the end of the First World War, six organizations were selling it in Germany: two
in Berlin, three in Hamburg, one in Leipzig, and as many as 12 newspapers. With Hitler
coming to power in 1933, a veritable orgy commenced. The minister of education of the
new, fully Nazified Germany declared The Protocols a must to read in schools. They
became, in effect, a kind of a symbol of faith, the very dream of the obsessed author of
Mein Kampf that would have been better entitled Mein Kampf Mit Juden (My Struggle
Against the Jews).
"I have read The Protocols of the Elders of Zion and was horrified!" confessed Hitler. "The
stealthiness of the ubiquitous enemy! I realized at once that we must follow their example,
but in our own way, of course..." And he added to his armoury the plan of world domination
detailed in The Protocols of the Elders of Zion.
Rachkovsky and Co.
The Protocols got to Germany from Russia in the throes of the Civil War. In 1903, exactly
four months after the infamous pogrom in Kishinev, Znamya, the Black Hundred's principal
newspaper, ran The Protocols in its issues from August 28 to September 7. The paper's
editor and publisher was the notorious Pavel Krushevan. He had initiated the Kishinev
pogrom and would later become one of chiefs of the Black Hundred.
At about the same time The Protocols got into the hands of Sergei Nilus, a religious and
mystic writer of renown. He got it in a round-about way through the same lady of the beau
monde as the author of Novoye Vremya had. The lady was Yustina Glinka, a follower of
Helena Blavatsky and a lady-in-waiting of the Empress. She was the daughter of a high-
ranking official, Dmitry Glinka, a philosopher and diplomat who was a tutor of Grand
Princes Nicholas and Mikhail. He taught Russian literature to them and to other offspring of
the royal family. Yustina's father and his brothers, Fyodor, a mystic poet, and Sergei, a
publicist, were an influential clan of ultra-conservatives who had shaped Yustina's
worldview. Nilus was introduced to her by Grand Princess Yelizaveta, a sister of Empress
Alexandra. At the time, Yelizaveta tried to get him into the circle of Emperor Nicholas II's
spouse in place of a certain French adventurer by the name of Philippe, formerly a
butcher's assistant in Lyons. Philippe had been brought into the Empress' circle by the
sisters of her closest friends. These sisters, Militsa and Anastasia, were the daughters of
the Prince of Montenegro, and both were enthusiastic spiritualists and occultists. By the
way, they were the ones who later "unearthed" Rasputin as well.
Nilus was unable to overcome the "Montenegro barrier" even after marrying the Empress's
maid-in-waiting, Yelena Ozerova – it was arranged by Grand Princess Yelizaveta. He
retired to Optina hermitage with his lawful wife and Natalya Volodimerskaya, his former
mistress. Naturally, such a menage-a-trois could not please the Optina elders who
energetically prevented his being ordained. Later, in 1911 he was expelled from the
monastery after the latter-day prophet started telling the other monks that the Antichrist
was coming in 1920.
The cherished manuscript reached Nilus, and not by chance. Back in 1903 he had
published the book The Great in the Small which won him recognition in church circles.
However, it was not his writings but his fanatical belief in the forthcoming appearance of
the anti-christ and a fanatical conviction that Jews were involved in it that brought him
renown in high society which he had penetrated with the help of the emperor's sister. So
The Protocols were like manna from heaven for him. But he did not suspect that he himself
was a true godsend for the owners of the manuscript. In December of 1905, Nilus, as he
was aspiring to the position of the royal couple's confessor, published a second edition of
his book. It was the first publication of the complete text of The Protocols. In a footnote the
author gave this explanation of their origin: "These protocols have been secretly extracted
(or stolen) from a volume of protocols. A correspondent of mine obtained all of this from a
secret repository of the Zion Chancellery that is now on French territory".
It was a finely printed book stating that its publisher was The Red Cross Office in the town
of Krasnoye Selo where the Tsar's residence was. Written along the lines of mystical
works admired by Tsar Nicholas, it was intended primarily for his eyes. The publishers hit
the mark: the tsar read the Nilus opus and The Protocols most attentively, as evidenced by
the numerous notes he made in the margins: "What precise execution of their
programme!"; "Our 1905 was clearly orchestrated by the Zion Elders!". "The Jews' guiding
and destroying hand is visible everywhere". The royal conclusion was unequivocal: "There
can be no doubt of their authenticity".
On learning this, Krushevan, Shmakov, Markov II, and other leaders of the Union of the
Russian People approached the newly appointed Minister–President Stolypin with a
suggestion to make wide use of The Protocols in the fight against enemies of the
autocracy, first of all against Jews who figured prominently in their list. A tough and cruel
man completely loyal to the autocracy, Stolypin did not have much sympathy for the Jews
but he did have clarity of thought and common sense. Having read The Protocols, he saw
at once that the book was utter gibberish, and immediately ordered the Okhranka (security
service) to find out where it had come from. Since the orders were urgent and highly
confidential, the case was investigated by top officials of the police department. They
discovered that The Protocols had been authored not by the mysterious "Elders of Zion"
but by operatives of the Okhrana field headquarters in Paris. The details of the
investigation were known to very few people to avoid compromising the network of agents
set up in Paris by Pyotr Rachkovsky.
That man, in his own way, was a person worthy of a novelist's pen. For almost two
decades he ran the foreign branches of the Okhranka. Everywhere – in France, Britain,
Austia–Hungary, Germany, and Switzerland –- his men kept Russian revolutionaries under
surveillance. Rachkovsky had the reputation of being an unrivalled master of intrigues and
provocation. One of his favourite methods was fabrication of letters and pamphlets. For
example, in 1902 he made a letter look as if it as written by George Plekhanov, the
patriarch of the Russian Social Democracy. It accused The Peoples Will (Narodnaya
Volya) leaders of treachery, cooperation with the British Intelligence Service and other
sins. To make the letter convincing, Plekhanov's signature was faked. Afterwards it took
Plekhanov a lot of time and effort to wash off all this dirt and to prove that he had had
nothing to do with the fraud.
Unfortunately, Rachkovsky, like Nilus, was a pathological anti-Semite. Since many of the
Russian ОmigrО revolutionaries were Jews, his anti-Semitic sentiments found fertile soil
for application. Nicholas II was highly displeased to learn that The Protocols were a fake,
and made this note about Nilus's book: "The Protocols should be confiscated, a good
cause cannot be defended by dirty means". It is not hard to guess what the emperor meant
by "a good cause": he never made a secret of his dislike of Jews.
Of course, nobody began confiscating Nilus' book despite the tsar's instructions. It was re-
published several times in old Russia under a new title Right at the Door. The last time was
in 1916. Nilus survived the revolution, the civil war and died a natural death in 1929 at the
age of 68 in the village of Krutets in the Vladimir Region.
Rachkovsky had a gift for provocation, no doubt about it, but neither he nor his men
possessed literary talents. However, The Protocols were rendered in excellent French. It
was found out who the true author was only in July of 1921. One year earlier, the most
influential daily, The Times of London, published an editorial on the just published English
translation of The Protocols. While noting that the book facilitated the growth of the rabid
anti-Semitism in Europe and energetically promoted in France, Britain and the USA, its
editors thought that the book put forward a hypothesis that was too original, attractive and
sensational to be bypassed by the country's not particularly happy or satisfied public. The
editorial ended with a sacred question: Had we fought all those tragic years for the
destruction and uprooting of German domination only to discover behind it another one
even more dangerous because it was more secret? Had we made an all out effort to
escape the yoke of the Pan-Germanic Union only to get ensnared by an All-Jewish
Alliance? Presumably they (The Protocols) had been written by Jews for the Jews. If so,
then under what conditions were they created, and what inner Jewish problems were they
Just like in a detective story, it so happened that exactly one year later in Istanbul, The
Times local correspondent Philip Graves bought a tattered volume in French for ‡337 from
a White Russian ОmigrО landowner from Saratov, Mikhail Roslovlev. He suggested that
Graves should compare it with The Protocols. The volume was a political pamphlet,
Dialogue in Hell between Montesquieu and Machiavelli. It was a criticism of Napoleon III in
disguise because any open denouncement of his dictatorship was persecuted and cruelly
punished. The author of the Dialogue, Parisian lawyer and writer by the name of Maurice
Jolie, printed his book in Brussels in 1864 and tried to smuggle it into France. However, he
underestimated Napoleon's secret police: all copies were seized by the police at the
border crossing. The author was arrested, put on trial and sentenced to 15 months in jail:
the censor had seen through whom and what Jolie meant.
The compilers of The Protocols simply ascribed all that Jolie's Machiavelli said to some
mythical Elders of Zion. With his perfect knowledge of French, Graves was astonished by
the barefaced impudence of the plagiarizers. "It is amazing" he wrote in a Times article,
"that the plagiarizer made no effort to conceal the plagiarism. The original text is re-told in
a very careless way: parts of sentences and sometimes whole sentences are identical, and
the train of thought of the arguments is similar."
Indeed, when the editors compared the two texts, it was clear that over 160 extracts from
The Protocols, that is, two thirds of the text, were carbon copies of the Dialogue. In nine
chapters, more than a half, sometimes as much as three quarters of the text was
borrowed, and Protocol VII was copied in full.
For a long time it was a mystery how and why Rachkovsky had come upon Jolie's book,
unknown as it was and with almost every copy destroyed. The mystery was solved only
recently. A year ago Academician Skuratovsky published his book, The Question of the
Authorship of The Protocols of the Elders of Zion in Kiev. After a scrupulous and extensive
literary, historical and linguistic analysis of the Russian third of The Protocols, the
Ukrainian scholar proved that it had been penned by Matvei Golovinsky, a second-rate
journalist whom the fate had brought to Paris and there he had found a job with Le Figaro.
There Rachkovsky noticed him and hired him to edit all the false texts cooked up in the
resident spy's kitchen. Academician Skuratovsky discovered one small but essential fact
that settles the matter. Early in 1902, just two months before publication of Menshikov's
article, Novoye Vremya reported that the Le Figaro correspondent Charles Jolie, a son of
the very poor Maurice Jolie had paid a visit to St.Petersburg. It was logical to assume that
Charles and Golovinsky had become close as they worked for the same paper, and that
the Frenchman had shown his father's book to his Russian colleague. It is just amazing
how great the role of chance in history can sometimes be.
Process in Bern
On coming to power in Germany, the Nazis channeled their frenzied anti–Jew propaganda
to the neighbouring countries, first of all to Austria and Switzerland. The only serious
attempt to halt that flood of lies and hate was a trial in Bern. The formal reason for it was a
Nazi rally in a local casino on June 13, 1933. There the leaders of the National Front (the
party of Swiss Nazis who had publicly announced they were Adolf Hitler's followers) had
made pogrom-style speeches and The Protocols of
the Elders of Zion had been openly on sale and quoted through loudspeakers for the
crowds to hear. That was the first ever case of this kind in Switzerland.
On June 26, leaders of the Swiss Jewish Community (SJC) lodged a complaint with a court
of law but not against the organizers of the rally: Switzerland had no legislation to prohibit
propaganda and incitement of national enmity. The SJC sued the publishers of the book,
for it was actually a fraud, in other words, a deception of the customer, in this case the
reader. The appointed judge was Walter Meyer, a respectable Christian and a stranger to
politics. He had not even heard of The Protocols. The trial of the fraudulent book was, in
fact, a trial of the false ideology whose brown fog was enveloping Europe. The trial lasted
for nearly two years and attracted the attention of the whole world. It denounced the myth
about some global conspiracy of the Jews and about
The Protocols in which the "Elders of Zion" allegedly had recorded it. Reading the verdict
The Protocols as "obscene literature", Judge Meyer concluded his speech with a wrathful
rebuff of the obscurant racists. "I hope", he said, "the time will come when nobody will be
able to understand how in 1935 nearly a dozen sane and responsible men (he meant
representatives of the defendant, that is Swiss and German Nazis – V.K.) were able for
two weeks to mock the intellect of the Bern court discussing the authenticity of the so-
called Protocols, the very Protocols that, harmful as they have been and will be, are
nothing but laughable nonsense". The wise and honest judge could not foresee that bloody
and not-too-distant future when that "laughable nonsense" would bring about the
destruction of six million Jews under Hitler's rule.
The trial in Bern is described in a book that reads like a thriller. Its title is The Lie That
Does Not Want to Die and is published by now in six languages: Hebrew, German, Dutch,
Hungarian, Romanian and now in Russian. The book was written by Hadassa Ben-Itto, a
Polish Jewess who as a child had emigrated with her parents to Palestine. On graduation
from a law school in 1955, Hadassa worked as a lawyer, then for 31 years was a judge.
She was the first woman to be a member of Israel's Supreme Court, but in 1991 when she
first saw The Protocols she retired from that lofty position to devote six years of her life to
studying all the nuances of the Bern trial.
A long line of witnesses testified at the trial, including former members of Russia's beau
monde, Rachkovsky's operatives who were already free to tell the truth, and even
Alexander Kerensky. Actually, he did not come to Bern, instead he sent his testimony in
writing from the USA where he was living as an ОmigrО. He reported, by the way, that he
was not Jewish (the Nazis maintained that the real name of the ex-head of the Provisional
Government was Kibris. Here one cannot help recalling that our neo-Nazis did the same
with Yeltsin's name), and that several generations of the Kerenskys were Orthodox priests.
The crafty manner in which Rachkovsky's fabrication was palmed off to Nilus so that that
man would never doubt the authenticity of The Protocols also became known. And many
other fascinating things can be learned from Hadassa Ben-Itto's book.
Anti-Semitism at the door It is a tragic fact that
The Protocols get reprinted and are still believed, at least in Russia, notwithstanding the
denunciations made by Stolypin, repeated by Graves and systematised by the Bern Trial,
and despite the splendid book of Hadassa Ben-Itto.
The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, and even Hitler's Mein Kampf can be freely bought in
democratic Russia, but this fact does not worry the authorities. Early in the 1990s when
The Protocols were re-adopted by our Black Hundred, or National Patriots as they call
themselves, such books as the following were also published in Russia: a book by the well-
known British scholar Norman Cohen entitled A Blessing for Genocide dealing with the
conversion of Dialogue in Hell into The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, Savely Dudakov's
book The History of a Myth resulting from his thorough research into the matter, and,
lastly, a book by the Russian journalist Vladimir Burtsev, Chasing the Provocateurs. The
Protocols of the Elders of Zion Proved to Be a Fraud first published in Paris in 1938.Have
they stopped our National Patriots? In 2000, when the second edition of Cohen's book was
published, two new editions of Nilus' book Right at the Door appeared as well. It should be
noted that the reprints were made in St.Petersburg by the North-Western Centre of
Orthodox Literature Dioptra "with the blessing of Archbishop Afanasy of Perm and
Solikamsk," as it says on its flyleaf. That means it was officially sanctioned by the Russian
Orthodox Church. It is hard to believe that the reverend hierarch did not know what he was
doing when he gave his blessing to the work of the devil, for The Protocols – the full text of
these is included in the book of Nilus – is certainly such a deed. But Nilus had been
deceived by Rachkovsky. Yet how could he, a highly experienced archbishop who was
considered one of the best educated hierarchs of the Russian Orthodox Church, have
yielded to temptation?
Actually, he is not the only one to succumb to temptation. This year another publishing
house in St.Petersburg, Tsarskoye Delo, brought out The Secret of Lawlesness, the larger
part of which is the same Right at the Door. The book has the blessing of Bishop Veniamin
of Vladivostok and Primorye, who is known for his firm belief in the existence of a global
conspiracy against Russia, and is an ardent champion of restoration of the monarchy
and... of canonization of Rasputin. Another fervent upholder of The Protocols was the late
Mitropolitan Ioann (Snychev) of St.Petersburg and Ladoga. He blessed and supported the
"Orthodox St.Petersburg" society that instituted the literary prize Sergei Nilus. The Statute
of the prize notes the principal merit of the author: "He is known to Orthodox Russians
above all as the publisher of The Protocols of the Elders of Zion".
But, as noted above, Nilus did not, and could not have known what he should have and,
most probably, was known well by the initiators of the prize: that The Protocols had been
fabricated by the Okhrana, and that they are a fraud! That it was this great lie about the
Jews that provided the ideological basis for Hitler's exterminating the Jews.
The six million Jews were not the only victims of the Holocaust. The German Nazis
unleashed World War II which took the lives of over 40 million Germans, Russians, Poles,
French, Italians, and other European men and women of all faiths. Is it not what the Holy
Book says about the wicked who "hath conceived mischief and brought forth falsehood. He
made a pit, and digged it, and is fallen into the ditch which he made". (Psalms, 7:14-15).
Dialogue in Hell
Everywhere in Europe, and through its relations on the other continents, we must provoke
disturbances, dissension and enmity. This has two advantages: first, in this way we keep
the respect of all countries because they are well aware of our capacity to generate
disorders at will or to bring orderliness... Secondly, our intrigues will make a tangle of all
the threads of ours to all governments' offices...
I would set up, for instance, huge financial monopolies as accumulators of the
government's wealth which all private fortunes would depend on so heavily that they might
be absorbed along with government credits the day following any political upheaval. You
are an economist, Montesquieu, so you just assess the importance of this combination!
The Protocols of the Elders of Zion
t is necessary to incite revolutionary turmoil abroad, from one end of Europe to the other...
It will yield two advantages: the liberal propaganda abroad will be helpful in justifying
repression at home. Moreover, in this way it will be possible to subjugate all states and to
start conflicts or establish order in them at will.
We will soon start setting up huge monopolies accumulating tremendous wealth. Even the
big boys' fortunes will depend so heavily on them that they would sink along with
governments' credits the second day after a political upheaval... Messieurs economists
present here, please assess the importance of this combination!