Sanguo Zhi Biography - Zhu Huan (Xiumu)

Translated by Sun Bofu

Zhu Huan styled Xiumu was a man from Wu in Wujun. When Sun Quan served as a general, [Zhu] Huan was involved in the affairs of the prefecture. At one time there was an epidemic in the valley. The cure was very expensive and hard to find. [Zhu] Huan divided up the government’s supply and passed it along. Thus he won the people’s hearts. Later he became the Colonel Who Agitates the Bandits and was granted 2,000 soldiers. He was sent as part of Wu armies to solidify two commandaries and with [He] Qi they gathered 10,000 men. Later bandits in Dan Yang and Po Yang rose up. They attacked the city, but the city did not have outerwalls. They killed the magistrate. [Zhu] Huan supervised various officers to go around and to punish them. All was recaptured. Later he became an Auxilery General and was conferred as the Marquis of Xin Cheng Pavilion.


Later he replaced Zhou Tai as the Commander of Ru Xu. In the 1st year of Huang Wu [222], Wei dispatched their Commander-in-Chief Cao Ren to march and ride several tens of thousands of troops towards Ru Xu. [Cao] Ren wished to attack and use his troops to capture the head of the province. He had rumors spread that he wished to attack Xianqi. [Zhu] Huan divided his troops and sent some to Xianqi. The troops had already been sent out when [Cao] Ren troops began their advance on Ru Xu from 70 li out. [Zhu] Huan sent a messenger to pursue the soldiers sent to XIanqi to summon them back, but before they could arrive, [Cao] Ren reached Ru Xu. At this time [Zhu] Huan was underhanded and only had 5,000 soldiers. All the officers were worried so [Zhu] Huan said, “Whenever two armies meet, victory rests on the ability of the general, not on the size of their forces. The Art of War says that the value of one soldier who inhabits the place equals that of two soldiers who come from afar; and those who are hosts, however in small number, can overcome those who are guests. Now the enemy is weary from a long march, and I and you, my men, can hold this place together. We have the Great River to defend us on the south, and we are backed by the mountains on the north. Success should be ours easily, and we are as hosts at home awaiting the arrival of our weary visitors. This will give us victory in every fight. Even if Cao Pi comes, we need feel no anxiety. How much less care we for Cao Ren and his troops?" [Zhu] Huan then took down the banner and stopped the drums. On the outside he made his position look very weak in order to intice [Cao] Ren. Finally [Cao] Ren sent his son [Cao] Tai to attack Ru Xu city. He then sent General Chen Diao to command Zhuge Qian and Wang Shuan to ride Yao Chuan (i) [boats] down the river to raid the center of the province [Yangzhou]. [Cao] Ren himself took 10,000 troops to the river to serve as a rear guard for [Cao] Tai. [Zhu] Huan sent some of his troops to capture the Yao Chuan and then they attacked [Chen] Diao. [Zhu] Huan himself resisted [Cao] Tai and then burned his camp. [Chen] Diao was captured with [Wang] Shuang and then sent off for Wu Chang. The number of men beheaded and drowned totaled over 10,000. [Sun] Quan was overjoyed by [Zhu] Huan’s accomplishment and conferred him as the Marquis of Jiaxing and became the General Who Exherts Prowess as well as receiving Peng Cheng.

i. This is a type of boat to carry troops.

In the 7th year of Huang Wu [228], the Grand Administrator of Po Yang, Zhou Fang, enticed Wei’s Commander-in-Chief Cao Xiu tt march and ride 10,000 troops to Wan Cheng to be welcome be Fang. At this time, Lu Xun was the head commander. Quan Cong and [Zhu] Huan served as left and right commanders. They each led 30,000 troops to strike [Cao] Xiu. [Cao] Xiu realized he had been tricked and led his force to retreat. [Zhu Huan] led his force and inticed him to engage in battle saying, “Cao Xiu is neither able nor bold. He holds office because he is of the blood. He has fallen into the trap laid by Zhou Fang and marched too far to be able to withdraw. If the Commander-in-Chief will smite, Cao Xiu must be defeated. Defeated, he must flee along two roads, one Jiashi on the left, the other Guichi on the right, both of which are precipitous and narrow. Let me and my colleague go to prepare an ambush in these roads. We will block them and so cut off their escape. If this Cao Xiu could be captured, and a hasty advance made, success would be easy and sure. We should get Shouchun, whence Xuchang and Luoyang can be seen. This is the one chance in the thousand. We cannot lose.” [Sun] Quan and Lu Xun discussed this plan. [Lu] Xun did not think it was feasible and thus the plan was not put into action.
In the 1st year of Huang Long [229], was given the rank of General of the Front and the Governership of Qingzhou. Furthermore, he received Jie (ii). In the 6th year of Jia He [237], Wei’s Secretarist of Lu Jiang, Lu Xi desired for a large army to come and greet him so he could open the gates [and switch sides]. [Zhu] Huan and the General of the Guards, Quan Cong, to meet with him. They had already arrived when, the plan was exposed and they had to withdraw. One li away from the castle there was a mountain stream. It was 30 zhang (iii) wide, 8 chi deep, though it was shallow for half of it. This river the troops had to cross while [Zhu] Huan acted as a rear guard. At this time the Grand Administrator of Lu Jiang, Li Yang, prepared his Cavalry. He desired to allow half the troops to cross then to strike them. When he came to attack the soldiers saw [Zhu] Huan hiding in the rear and they did not dare go out, shrinking away in fear.

ii. Jie is a special reward given to officers which allows them to execute officers under martial law without having to send them to the capital.

iii. A Zhang is approx. a meter however that has changed over time. A chi is a little less then a foot, but that also has changed over time.

At this time, Quan Cong served as a Commander when [Sun] Quan dispatched Liutentient-General Hu Zong to summon as a military advisor. [Quan] Cong thus led his army out to Wuhuo. He desired to split his army up so that he could lay an ambush. [Zhu] Huan saw that he was leading only a smaller part of the army and then he saw [Quan] Cong’s rank and troops and became very angry. [Quan] Cong tried to explain, “Those higher up command that [Hu] Zong serve as a commander and that is what is right.” This made [Zhu] Huan very angry and thus he sent a letter to [Hu] Zong. [Hu] Zong came to gates and [Zhu] Huan came out to greet him. He looked all around then called, “I put out my hand and you run away.” Then [some of Hu Zong’s] attendants came out. [Zhu] Huan went out and looked all around and could not find [Hu] Zong. In a fit of rage he killed the attendents. [Zhu] Huan then turned himself over the authorities. He pleaded that he was insane. He then decided to take ‘sick leave’ and went to Jian Ye. When he arrived [Sun] Quan remembered his earlier achievements and thus pitied him and did not charge him with a crime. (1) [Zhu] Huan’s son [Zhu] Yi was sent to absorb his father’s forces and hold a defence. After several days he returned and sent off to the center of the province. [Sun] Quan himseld came out to send him off and said, “Today the bandits capture Shangcun. Wang Tu is not alone. I hope for you command 50,000 troops to conquer this region. If you liege becomes ill do not return.” [Zhu] Huan responded, “The heaven’s choose you to rule and conquer the 4 corners of the world. I will eliminate the bandits, illness or no.” (2)

1. Sun Sheng said, “[Zhu] Huan was a traitor but he was let go, why is this? There is an expression the says, “[you can] keep one man but you will lose a nation”. If laws are not kept how can the state function?”

2. Wu Lu: [Zhu] Huan received wine and said [to Sun Quan], “Your minister is now to go far away, but first he would like to stroke the beard of his lord.” [Zhu] Huan advanced and stroked [Sun] Quan’s beard then said, “Now I can actually say I have stroked the tiger’s beard!” Sun Quan laughed out loud.

When [Zhu] Huan came down with an illness his whole encampment was saddened. At the age of 62 in the 1st year of Chi Wu [238], he died. His household did not possess much wealth so [Sun] Quan bestowed 5,000 Hu to give him a proper funeral. His son [Zhu] Yi succeeded him.

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