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HUGUENOT & PROTESTANT REFORMED CHRONOLOGY


Date            Event

1440-1455       Guttenberg's invention of moveable type enabled printing
                and distribution of Bible and other information to the
                masses, which enabled works of Martin Luther and other
                reformers to be circulated throughout Europe.

ca. 1500        Erasmus (1467-1563) begins to write and preach to
                reform the church.

1512            Jacques le Fevre (Jacobus Faber) writes Aaneti Pauli
                Epistolas.

1515            Accession of Francis I of France.

1516            Concordat of Bologna.

1521            Martin Luther proclaims documents of Reformation.

1523            First French translation of the Bible.

After 1525      John Calvin led Protestant Reformation in France and
                Switzerland.

1526            Tyndale's English version of the New Testament printed in
                Antwerp.

1529            Louis de Berquin burnt at the stake.

1534            Protestant placard campaign in Paris.  Calvin settles in
                Basle, Switzerland.

1535            Edict banning all heretics in France. First refugees leave
                France.  Publication of Tyndale and Coverdale Bible in
                English in Hamburg.

1538            Foundation of the French Protestant church at Strasbourg.

1539            Bernard Palissy settles at Saintes.

1540            First substantial Huguenot settlements in Kent and Suxxes,
                England. French trading station established at Sheepshead
                Bay, NY.  (Called Angouleine).

1541            French forts established near Quebec.

1545            Jean de Maynier, baron d'Oppede, ordrs massacre of
                Waldensians at Merindol and Cabrieres.  Protestants
                massacreed in 22 French towns and 14 members of Protestant
                church at Mejux burned at stake over religion.

1547            Death of Henry VIII of England; accesion of Edward VI.
                Death of Francis I of France; accesion of Henry II.
                Protestantism established officially in England.
                Increased immigration of Huguenots to Kent, especially
                Canterbury.  Chambre Ardente established in Paris.

1548            Large groups of French Huguenots began escaping to Channel
                Islands.  First Huguenot congregation estalised at
                Canterbury by Jan Utehove and Francois de la Riviere of
                Orleans.

1550            Temple of Jesus licensed, earliest foreign Protestant
                Church in London.  Church of St. Anthony's Hospital in
                Threeadneedle Street, London, given to French Huguenots.

June 27, 1551   Edict of Chateaubriand placed severe restrictions on
                Protestants, including loss of one-third of property to
                informers and confiscation of all property of those who
                left France.  "Heretical" books were forbidden or censored.

1553            Death of Edward VI; accesion of Mary I of England.
                Dispersion of London Protestants; persecution of English
                Protestants begins.

1555            French Admiral Gaspard de Coligny, Huguenot leader,
                envisions French Portestant colony in Brazil.  King Henry
                II consented and colony was wiped out in 1557 by the
                Portuguese.  First Huguenot consistory in Paris.

Sept., 1555     First Protestant Church in Paris, France, organized in a
                home.  Date sometimes given as 1556.

1556            Philip II succeeds to throne of Spain.

1558            Death of Mary I of England; accession of Elizabeth I.

1559            Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis.
                First national synod of the Reformed Churches of France in
                Paris at which 15 Protestant churches are represented.
                Death of Henry II; accession of Francis II of France..

1560            Conspiracy of Amboise to kill the king of France fails.
                Edict of Romorantin lays interdict on Protestantism.
                Meeting of States General at Orleans.  Death of Francis II;
                accession of Charles IX of France.

July, 1561      Royal edict authorizes imprisonment and confiscation of
                property upon all who attend any "heretical" (non-Roman
                Catholic) public or private worship service.  Beginning of
                new influx of refugees to Kent from Low Countries, Picardy,
                Artois and Flanders.  Coiloque of Poissy attempts to bring
                about a modus vevendi between Catholics and Protestants in
                France.

Jan., 1562      Royal edict of Saint-Germain recognizes new religion as
                legal and offers some protection.  Massacre of Vassy.
                First battle of civil war in France at Dreux.  Siege of
                Rouen.

Feb. 18, 1562   French colonists, mostly Protestants, set sail to start
                colony in Florida.

Mar., 1562      Masacree of Protestants at Vassy starts first Civil War in
                France over religion.  Forces of Duke of Guise attachedd a
                Protestant assembly in one of the towns of Champagne and
                killed some 50 to 60 worshipers. First battle of civil war
                at Dreux.

1563            Assassination of Francis, duke of Guise.
                Pacification of Amboise.

1564            French settlement at Fort Caroline, Florida, founded.
                Treaty of Troyes.

Sept., 1565     Spanish forces captured Fort Caroline and slaughtered all
                inhabitants.

1567            Seige of Saint-Denis.
                Death of Montmorency.

1567-1568       Huguenot thread and lace makers established in Maidstone,
                England.  Others escaped to Cranfield in Bedfordshire and
                others to the shires of Oxford, Northampton and Cambridge.
                Huguenots established glassworks in London during this
                period.

1568            Treaty of Longjumeau.
                Fort Caroline recaptured by French.

1569            Battle of Jarnac.  Death of Conde.  Battle of Montcontour.
                Peace of St. Germain.

1570            Henry of Navarre affianced to Marguerite de Valois.

1572            Anglo-French Treaty of Blois.  Death of Jeanne d'Albret,
                queen of Navarre.  Marriage of Henry of Navarre and
                Marguerite de Valois.  Aug. 24, 1572   St. Bartholomew's
                Day massacre in Paris and elsewhere in France in which
                thousands of Huguenots were lulled into a sense of false
                safety by King Charles IX and Queen Mother Catherine and
                slaughtered.  Duc de Guise (Henri I de Lorraine) personally
                killed Admiral Gaspard de Coligny.  Slaughter continues
                until October.  Civil War Begins.

1573            Duke of Anjou elected king of Poland.  Edict of Boulonge.

1574            Death of Charles IX; accession of Henry III of France.
                Huguenot settlement at Winchester, England, moved to
                Canterbury.  Truce with Huguenots in France.

1575            Confederation of Milhaud.

1576            Formation of the Holy League.  Peace of Monsieur and defeat
                of Henry III.  War renewed.

1577            Peace of Bergerac.

1579            Peace of Fleix.  Ordonnance of Blois.

1584            Death of duke of Anjou; Henry of Navarre becomes heir to
                the throne of France.  Duke of Guise proclaims Cardinal de
                Bourbon heir apparent.  Treaty of Joinville.

1585            Henry III forced to surrender to the League and the Guises.
                Treaty of Nemours.  Outbreak of the War of the Three
                Henrys.

1586            Truce of Saint-Brice.

1587            Execution of Mary, queen of Scots.  Battle of Coutras.
                Battle of Auneau.

1588            Day of the Barricades.  Spanish Armada.  Edict of Union.
                Duke of Guise and cardinal of Guise assassinated at Blois.

1589            Henry III assassinated; accession of Henry of Navarre as
                Henry IV of France.  Death of Catherine de Medici.  Battle
                of Arques.  Death of Cardinal de Bourbon (Charles X).

1590            Battle of Ivy.  Seige of Paris.

1592            Battle of Aumale.

1593            States General meet in Paris to elect king.  Henry IV
                converted to Catholicism.

1594            Henry IV crowned at Cartres.  Henry IV enters Paris.

1595            Defeat of Spanish at Fontaine-Francaise.

1596            Conference of Notables at Rouen.

1597            Spanish capture Amiens.  French recapture Amiens.

1598            Peace of Vervins.  Death of Philip II of Spain.  Apr. 13,
                1598   Edict of Nantes proclaimed returning civil and
                religious freedom to Protestants.  So strong were
                Protestants in LaRochelle that Roman Catholic mass had not
                been said in 40 years.  Huguenots, for a time, became a
                strong political power in France.  End of Franco-Spanish
                War.  Sable Island colony of Nova Scotia founded.

1599            Pierre Charivia was commissioned by King Henry IV to
                colonize North America and established trading posts on St.
                Lawrence River in Canada.

1600            Tadoussac on the St. Lawrence founded.  Spanish defeated at
                Nieuport.

1603            Pierre du Gua, sieur de Monts, a Huguenot, was granted
                royal permission to possess and settle North America from
                the 40th to 46th degree North Latitude for 10 years.
                (Acadia, later Nova Scotia).  Death of Elizabeth I of
                England and acession of James I.

1605--1613      Several French refugee merchants had settled in Dublin and
                Waterford in Ireland.

1607            Jamestown, VA, English colony established.

Summer, 1607    Trade priviliges for de Monts withdrawn by king and Port
                Royal abandoned.

Summer, 1608    Samuel de Champlain landed at what is now Quebec City and
                established trading post.  Religious liberty was
                unrestricted and trade prospered.

1609            Group of Flemish Huguenots settled in Canongate, Scotland.
                Disrupted succession to the duchy of Cleves.

By 1609         French Huguenots established manufacture of cloth in north
                and west of England in Worcester, Evesham, Droitwich,
                Kiddeminster, Stroud and Glastonbury and in east at
                Colchester, Hereford and Stamford.  Colchester had 1,300
                Walloon citizens by 1609.  In the north of England,
                Huguenot establishments made coatings at Manchester, Bolton
                and Halifax and cloth caps and woollen stockings at Kendal.

May 14, 1610    King Henry IV of France killed by assassin; accession ov
                Louis XIII.  Duke de Rohan becomes leader of the Huguenots.
                Alliance with Evangelical Union of Swabisch.  De Monts
                surrendered his colonization rights in North America which
                were purchased by Antoinette de Pons, a lady of honor to
                the queen and an intense devotee of Church of Rome and
                supporter of Society of Jesus (Jesuits).

1613            By this time Jesuits controlled religion in Acadia and
                restricted Protestants.

1614            Jean Dankerts (Jean Verassen) was first white man born on
                Manhattan island.

1616            Treaty of Loudon.

1618            Cardinal Richelieu publishes "Principal Points of Faith of
                the Catholic Church."

1619            Sir William Sandys reports on "our Frenchmen" in the
                Virginia colony.  Huguenot Church of Bearn rejects Decree
                of Restitution.  La Rochelle supports Bearnaise resistance
                to Louis XIII.

1620            Sieges of Montauban and Montpellier.  Death of duke of
                Luynes.  Defection of Sully, La Force and Chatillion to the
                Catholics.

1621            Jesse de Forest's request to settle in English colonies
                turned down by Sir Dudley Carleton.  Instead they were
                directed to NY.

Sept., 1621     English under King James I, laid claim to much of Canada
                east of St. Croix River and south of St. Lawrence,
                including much of Acadia (Nova Scotia).

1621 to 1627    Religious toleration still existed in Quebec and area and
                Huguenot merchants prospered.

1622            Archbishoip Laud attempts to compel refugees to conform to
                Angelican liturgy.  Siege of Montpellier abandoned and
                peace signed.

March, 1623     Sailing ship New Nederlandt sailed with 30 families from
                Texel River, Holland, for New Amsterdam.  Four Huguenot
                families left New Amsterdam and settled settled near
                "Trenton Falls" on the Delaware River in Delaware, but
                returned to New Amsterdam because of Indian attacks.  Other
                later early settlements were destroyed by Indians.

1624            Richelieu given seat on Royal Council and appointed chief
                minister to Louis XIII.

1625            Huguenot settlers established along the James River in VA.

1625-1686       Huguenots sought refuge in French colonies in Lesser
                Antilles of Caribbean -- St. Christopher, Guadeloupe,
                Martinique.

1626            Jesuits joined Franciscans in Quebec and religious turmoil
                began as privileges were withdrawn for Huguenots.  Trade
                declined.  Cardinal Richelieu was rising to power in France
                as he moved to reduce the political power of Huguenots.
                Siege of La Rochelle begins.  Manhattan Island bought from
                Indians by Peter Minuet, a Huguenot.  Permanent settlement
                established at Salem, MA, included Huguenots.

1627            King Charles I of England declared himself a friend of
                French Huguenots.

1628            English fleet sent to relieve Huguenots at La Rochelle,
                which had been under blockade by French troops under Louis
                XIII.  Relief failed and La Rochelle fell to French troops
                on Oct.  8, 1628.  Acadia (Nova Scotia) fell to English.

By 1628         There were 300 inhabitants of New Amsterdam, mostly
                Huguenots.  First Huguenot Church established on Manhattan
                Island.

1629            Huguenots in England ask for permission from King Charles I
                to settle in Carolinas and set sail in 1630, but were
                landed in VA.  Massachusetts Bay Company charter granted.

Jan. 1629       Some 50 settlers left England to establish, Charlestown,
                MA.  Sir Robert Heath's Carolina charter granted.
                Baltimore decides to settle on the Chesapeake.  Peace of
                Alais ends civil war in France and Huguenots cease to exist
                as a political force.

June 27, 1629   French King Charles I, granted to Baron de Sauce permission
                to establish a colony on the lower James River in VA.

July 20, 1629   Quebec surrendered to English forces after the English war
                with France was officially over.

Sept. 24, 1630  First ship of de Sauce's French emigrants arrived at
                Southampton Hundred on the James River, but the colony did
                not prosper and they believed to have dispersed.

1632            English returned Quebec to France with Emery de Caen, son
                of Gullaume, sieur de la Mothe, as governor.  Lord
                Baltimore's Maryland charter granted.  Louis XIII bans all
                Huguenots from Canada.

23 May, 1633    Champlain again appointed governor of French Canada and
                returned Jesuits to religious power.  From this time,
                Canada was formerly closed to Protestant colonists.  While
                some Huguenot traders were allowed to remain, permanent
                residency was granted to none but Frenchmen of the Roman
                Catholic faith, marking the beginning of a steady decline
                of the economy with some Huguenots escaping to Nova Scotia
                and the British colonies.  Huguenot merchants in France
                continued to trade with those remaining in Quebec.

1633            Archbishop Laud appointed to head commission for regulating
                colonies.

By 1634         Some 20 villages established in Boston, MA, area, including
                Charlestown, Newton, Watertown, Roxbury and Dorchester.

1642            Death of Richelieu.

1643            Death of Louis XIII; accession of Louis XIV.  Louis XIV
                guarantees Edict of Nantes.  Mazarin prevents clamour for
                revocation.

1647            Dutch establish refreshment station at Table Bay.

1648            Outbreak of Fronde in France.  Treaty of Westphalia.

1650            Jan van Riebeck established permanent settlement at Table
                Bay.

Feb. 25, 1651   Acadia (Nova Scotia) again surrendered to English.

1654            Beginning of Huguenot emigration on a large scale to North
                America.

1658            New Harlem founded.

1659            Treaty of the Pyrenees.

1659 & 1671     Virginia passed acts allowing for naturalization of non-
                British in the colony.

1660            Restoration of Charles II to English throne.

1661            Death of Cardinal Mazarin.  Beginning of serious
                persecution of Huguenots and infringement of Edict of
                Nantes.

From 1661       Series of proclamations seriously restricted terms of Edict
                of Nantes.  Protestant schools and churches were abolished
                and "dragonnardes" began, billeting French troops in
                Huguenot homes to spy upon the inhabitants.  Escaping
                Huguenots were welcomed in many countries of Europe --
                England, Holland, Germany, Switzerland, Sweden.  At one
                time, more French resided in Berlin than Germans.

1662            Jean Touton's colony in Massachusetts founded.

1663            Carolinas Grant from King Charles II of England to eight
                proprietors.

6 Sept., 1664   New Netherland became an English colony and name changed to
                New York.

1665            First Dutch church registers in South Africa.

1670            Three ships arrived in Carolinas carrying settlers from
                London, mostly Huguenots.

1677            Huguenots purchased land on which New Platz, NY,
                established.

1678            Peace of Nijmegen.  Attacks on Huguenots across France.

Apr. 30, 1680   Ship "Richmond" arrives from England at Charles Town, SC,
                with 75 French Protestants.

1681            William Penn Jr. receives grant of Pennsylvania England's
                King Charles II.  Collections made in England for needy
                French refugees.

1682            Pierre Daile sent to minister to American Huguenots.

Oct., 1682      Penn made Philadelphia the capital of the Province of
                Pennsylvania.

1683            Dragonnardes organized to harass Huguenots in France.

Apr. 18, 1685   Landgrave Charles of Hesse-Cassel was the first of the
                German princes to offer asylum to the Huguenots from
                France.

Oct., 1685      Revocation of the Edict of Nantes by King Louis XIV.  Many
                more Canadian Huguenots escaped to New England, from where
                they continued to trade with Canada.

                After Revocation, some 80,000 French manufacturers and
                workmen fled to the British Isles, bring such industries
                as paper making, silk makers, tanners, furniture making,
                silver smithing.  England became an exporter, rather
                than an importer of such items as velvets, satins, silks,
                taffetas, laces, gloves, buttons, serge cloth, beaver
                and felt hats, linen, ironware, cutlery, feathers, fans,
                girdles, pins, needles, combs, soap, viengar and many more
                items manufacturered by the new Huguenot citizens.  But
                life in another country was not without its problems, not
                only of language but also when the hard-working, frugal
                Huguenots came into competition with the citizens.

Oct., 1686      Group of French Huguenots established Frenchtown, RI, 10
                miles inland from Narragansett Bay.  By 1691, their
                neighbors had driven all but two families from the town.

1687            Huguenot Relief Committee in London aided 600 Huguenots in
                their move to VA.

1687            Huguenots granted permission for Huguenot church in Boston
                on Nov. 24, 1687. Was completed in 1716.  It later became
                an Anglican Church and later a Roman Catholic Church and
                the site now is occupied by a Boston bank.

1687            Huguenots had built their church in Charlestown, SC.

1690            French Huguenots from VA established permanent settlement
                on the Pamlico River in NC.

1692            William Penn Jr. was given land which became Delaware by
                the Duke of York.

1700            Some 700 emigrants led by Marquis de la Muce landed in
                Virginia and started Manakintown settlement.  First ship to
                land was the "Mary Ann," which cleared from London on April
                19, 1700, and arrived at Hampton, VA, on July 23.  The
                "Peter and Anthony" landed Oct. 6, 1700; and the fourth was
                the "Nassau" or "Nasseau," which landed March 5, 1701.
                Little is known of the third ship.

1704            French Huguenots founded town of Bath, NC, on Pamlico
                River.

By 1707         400 refugee Huguenot families had settled in Scotland.
                Helped establish the Scottish weaving trade.

1710            Huguenots settled on the Trent and Neuse Rivers in NC and
                other Huguenots from Switzerland and Palatine Germany
                established New Bern, NC, soon thereafter.

Jan. 1733       Gen. James Oglethorp, chief trustee of Georgia, arrived
                with 120 settlers, many of whom were Huguenots, at Yamacraw
                Bluffs on the Savannah River.  Within four years the
                population had grown to 1,000.

1740            By act of English Parliament, alien immigrants into the
                colonies receive British citizenship.

1755            Acadians expelled from Nova Scotia.

1763            Treaty of Paris gave Britain control over 13 colonies.

1775            British government suspends emigration upon outbreak of
                hostilities in the colonies.

1790            First official census in the United States was 3,277,000
                inhabitants.


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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