From Dan: A Letter to the Bayosphere Community

Submitted by Dan Gillmor on Tue, 01/24/2006 - 6:30am.

A little over a year ago, I left the San Jose Mercury News to pursue my passion for what we've come to call "citizen media" -- the idea that anyone with something to say could use increasingly powerful and decreasingly expensive tools to say it, potentially for a global audience.

I left what I considered one of the two or three best gigs in the entire newspaper industry. But having published We The Media -- and seeing first-hand the application of bottom-up communications in all kinds of arenas, especially journalism -- I knew it was time to devote my full energies to this emergent phenomenon.

I learned some things last year, about media, about citizens, about myself. Although citizen media, broadly defined, was taking the world by storm, the experiment with Bayosphere didn’t turn out the way I had hoped. Many fewer citizens participated, they were less interested in collaborating with one another, and the response to our initiatives was underwhelming. I would do things differently if I was starting over.

I erred, in retrospect, by taking the standard Silicon Valley route. I was trying to figure out how to make this new phenomenon pay its own way out of the gate, just as the traditional, still deep-pocketed media, super-energized entrepreneurs and legions of talented "amateurs" -- a word I use in the most positive sense here -- were starting to jump seriously into the fray.

In February, Michael Goff joined Grassroots Media as my business partner. Michael is smart, energetic and creative, and had a long track record in the media business including founding Out magazine, launching Microsoft’s Sidewalk city guides, leading MSN as general manager, and as CEO of a tech investment partnership and a wireless company. He’d just finished leading the volunteer team in Haiti for Bill Clinton's AIDS Initiative.

We talked constantly about what might work with all the changes in the media sphere, and within the company's specific mission to support citizen journalism as a viable business while providing for its investors and employees. We blocked out the options and considered, among other things:

  • Consulting for newspapers and media entities;
  • Trade publishing for journalists and editors making the transition;
  • Publishing our own citizen media-driven sites;
  • Running conferences and education programs;
  • Creating an advertising network;
  • Creating an affiliated network of blogs and bloggers;
  • Selling “picks and shovels” -- a platform of tools for citizen journalist collaboration;
  • Creating a self-tagging system for bloggers to use in disclosing bias and tracking stories.

In the end, we opted for publishing. One reason was that I was keenest on the basic journalism mission. Another was that we figured we could best leverage our strengths, including my already successful blog. We decided to put up a site that would serve effectively as a test bed, to see if it would work and, perhaps, become a model for other things of its kind.

We envisioned Bayosphere as a place where people in the San Francisco Bay Area community could learn about and discuss the regional scene, with a focus on technology, the main economic driver. My tech and policy blogging would be an anchor, hopefully attracting some readers and, crucially, some self-selected citizen journalists who'd join a wider conversation.

The evidence strongly suggested early on that this was not likely to be a viable publishing venture for some considerable period without partnerships to bring in both readers and contributors. But long discussions with potential partners -- including several whose participation would have been game-changing in a journalistic and business-model sense -- didn't pan out. (It will be an exciting day when one or more of those folks tries a citizen-driven media venture.)

Even so, Bayosphere attracted quite a bit of traffic, and some heartening effort on the part of some citizen journalists. I'm grateful to them for trying. But as is obvious to anyone who's paid attention, the site didn't take off -- in large part, no question about it, because of my own miscues and shortcomings. My friend Esther Dyson says, wisely, "Always make new mistakes." Did I ever. But I learned from them, and from what did work. Here are some of the lessons:

  • Citizen journalism is, in a significant way, about owning your own words. That implies responsibilities as well as freedom. We asked people to read and agree to a "pledge" that briefly explained what we believed it meant to be a citizen journalist -- including principles such as thoroughness, fairness, accuracy and transparency. Although some cynics hooted that this was at best naive, we're convinced it was at least useful.
  • Limiting participation is not necessarily a bad idea. By asking for a valid e-mail address simply in order to post comments, you reduce the pool of commenters considerably, but you increase the quality of the postings. And by asking for real names and contact information, as we did with the citizen journalists, you reduce the pool by several orders of magnitude. Again, however, there appears to be a correlation between willingness to stand behind one's own words and the overall quality of what's said.
  • Citizen journalists need and deserve active collaboration and assistance. They want some direction and a framework, including a clear understanding of what the site's purpose is and what tasks are required. (I didn't do nearly a good enough job in this area.)
  • A framework doesn't mean a rigid structure, where the citizen journalist is only doing rote work such as filling in boxes.
  • The tools available today are interesting and surprisingly robust. But they remain largely aimed at people with serious technical skills -- which means too ornate and frequently incomprehensible to almost everyone else. Our tech expert, Jay Campbell, did a heroic job of trying to wrestle the software into submission to our goals. We still felt frustrated by the missing links.
  • Tools matter, but they're no substitute for community building. (This is a special skill that I'm only beginning to understand even now.)
  • Though not so much a lesson -- we were very clear on this going in -- it bears repeating that a business model can't say, "You do all the work and we'll take all the money, thank you very much." There must be clear incentives for participation, and genuine incentives require resources.
  • On several occasions, PR people offered to brief me on upcoming products or events that they hoped I'd cover in my capacity as a tech journalist, but were happy to give the slot to our citizen journalists. This testifies to a growing recognition among more clued-in PR folks that citizen journalism is here to stay.
  • Although the participants -- citizen journalists and commenters -- are essential, it's even more important to remember that publishing is about the audience in the end. Most people who come to the site are not participants. They're looking for the proverbial "clean, well-lighted place" where they can learn or be entertained, or both.
  • If you don't already have a thick skin, grow one.

A more personal lesson also emerged: As an entrepreneur, let's just say I wasn't in my element. The relentless focus on a single, limited project for long periods of time, combined with the inevitable compromises inherent in for-profit decision-making, turned out not to be my best skills. For almost 25 years I'd thrived on the constant deadlines and competition of journalism. So I assumed I'd easily handle the pressures of trying to create a business from scratch while also keeping my reporting and writing skills intact and helping other people join in. In reality, I was unprepared for what proved to be an entirely different kind of pressure, and didn't handle it nearly as well as I'd expected. I allowed myself to get distracted, moreover, by matters that were not directly relevant to the project.

During the summer, Michael and I realized that it was unlikely that we would land a key distribution deal in the immediate future, and without that we weren't finding the kind of business model for Bayosphere that justified raising more money beyond the seed financing. We had business ideas that might well have been funded, but they were not first and foremost aimed at boosting the citizen-journalism field, which was and remains my overriding goal. In September, we stopped spending our investors' money, and sustained Bayosphere ourselves on a relatively bare-bones budget from our own funds, putting in our own time.

We've never lost sight of this, however: A more democratized media is crucial our common future -- grassroots ideas, energy and talent. I believe this more than ever, as do Mitch Kapor and the folks at the Omidyar Network, who provided seed funding for the project. Their work is changing the world for the better, and I admire them.

As the Bayosphere project was playing out last fall, I concluded that I could do more for the citizen journalism movement by forming a nonprofit enterprise, a "Center for Citizen Media" where I could put my skills and passion for the genre to better use -- looking at lots of disparate elements and connecting the dots. (And as a friend accurately remarked when I told him not long ago about my planned shift toward the nonprofit arena, "Well, you've always struck me a more of a dot-org kind of guy than the dot-com kind.")

As mentioned, the dots I'm connecting include Bayosphere. We are talking with several folks who are interested in bringing the site under their own wings, as part of operations whose proprietors Michael and I respect. No promises here: But if we can keep Bayosphere going in a good way we'll work hard to make that happen.

I share the disappointment of some of our citizen journalists. And I respect their skepticism; we encouraged it, after all. It's definitely no fun to have disappointed folks (starting with Michael and our investors, and myself). Still, I owe those of you who participated and visited my thanks for being part of the experiment.

The shift in how we communicate and collaborate, how we learn what's going on in our world, has barely begun. Predicting the future is for other people, but I'm optimistic that we'll collectively figure this out. So now it's back to work, with the help of old and new friends and colleagues. What could be better than that?

Submitted by SiliconBeat (trackback) (not verified) on Tue, 01/24/2006 - 8:31am.

Dan GillmorWe've been following the noble efforts of Dan Gillmor, our former colleague at the Mercury News, as he left last year to build a new "citizen media" project called Bayosphere. He'd wanted to give tools to regular people so that they could become journalists, and Bayosphere was supposed to be a place where people in the San Francisco Bay Area could, via his site, produce great, bottom-up media -- learn and discuss the regional scene, with a focus on technology. But it just didn't work out. His full post is worth reading, but here is the crux: I learned some things last year, about media, about citizens, about myself. Although citizen media, broadly defined, was taking the world by storm, the experiment with Bayosphere didn't turn out the way I had hoped. Many fewer citizens participated, they were less interested in collaborating with one another, and the response to our initiatives was underwhelming. I would do things differently if I was starting over.... ...and under lessons learned: Tools matter, but they're no substitute for community building. (This is a special skill that I'm only beginning to understand even now.)...

Submitted by Mark Evans (trackback) (not verified) on Tue, 01/24/2006 - 1:56pm.

Dan Gillmore has a fascinating open letter about why Bayosphere, his citizen media start-up, has stopped spending VC money. It's a frank and insightful piece on the emerging citizen journalism trend and the trials and tribulations of running a start-up. A few things resonated with me: first, Gillmore's admission Bayosphere might have dropped the ball by trying to start with a quasi-business model rather than running as fast as possible out of the gate to attract a critical mass of users and then figuring out a way to make money - a challenge Memeorandum and Digg are going to ...

Submitted by The Lex Files (trackback) (not verified) on Tue, 01/24/2006 - 9:12am.

Dan Gillmor, author of "We the Media" and one of the principals behind the Bayosphere citizen-journalism initiative, is pulling out of Bayosphere. He talks about his reasons in a lengthy post, and he also talks about lessons he learned, some...

Submitted by SiliconBeat (trackback) (not verified) on Tue, 01/24/2006 - 9:13am.

Dan GillmorWe've been following the noble efforts of Dan Gillmor, our former colleague at the Mercury News, as he left last year to build a new "citizen media" project called Bayosphere. He'd wanted to give tools to regular people so that they could become journalists, and Bayosphere was supposed to be a place where people in the San Francisco Bay Area could, via his site, produce great, bottom-up media -- learn and discuss the regional scene, with a focus on technology. But it just didn't work out. His full post is worth reading, but here is the crux: I learned some things last year, about media, about citizens, about myself. Although citizen media, broadly defined, was taking the world by storm, the experiment with Bayosphere didn't turn out the way I had hoped. Many fewer citizens participated, they were less interested in collaborating with one another, and the response to our initiatives was underwhelming. I would do things differently if I was starting over.... ...and under lessons learned: Tools matter, but they're no substitute for community building. (This is a special skill that I'm only beginning to understand even now.) :Martin, in comment below, has a good point: [Dan] lists seven or eight completely different paths they considered early on, paths that don't show much in the way of concrete, real world practicality.....The point here is that editing style, vision and business sense should be the driving forces in creating a new media company, rather than amorphous idealism. Projects like Bayosphere need to be driven, from the outset, by a clear, unrelenting idea, rather than a shopping list of several possible directions that might pan out. (emphasis ours)...

Submitted by The Media Drop (trackback) (not verified) on Tue, 01/24/2006 - 11:43am.

This morning, Dan Gillmor published an open letter to the community of Bayosphere users, along with the rest of us who are interested (and part of) the citizen journalism community. It's a must-read, IMHO, and can shed some light on...

Submitted by William Luciw on Tue, 01/24/2006 - 12:15pm.


Thank you very much for your heartfelt letter. In response, I would like to share my own thoughts about the challenges of Citizen Journalism:

Although this may seem obvious, the proper selection, timing and staging of content is a delicate and complicated task. It is not random. Participatory journalism is still presumably journalism, and requires discipline of vision like any other worthwhile endeavor.

The fuel which drives any great work is passion for something, someone, some place, etc. Without this vital ingredient, inane and banal ramblings masquerade for the genuine article. It is precisely this form of passionless journalism which drives audiences away from mainstream media, in search of "something real."

We all have different skills, and not everyone is equally gifted in the art of expression. The challenge is to enable those who desire a voice but can't quite sing yet. This requires a drive to achieve and a submission to the discipline required to get there on the part of the would-be Citizen Journalist. In other words, one must become a "humble student" in order to truly learn anything of value, especially how to be a great journalist.

Everyone has an opinion, sometimes more than one. However, not everyone has the depth of background and experience to offer a valuable opinions which can add substance to a topic of discussion. Many popular journalists are cast, for better or worse, into a "pundit" role over the course of their years in covering specific topics with some depth. This doesn't mean we should ignore fresh new insights, but if those insights waste the audience's time by not providing value, then the whole effort is on shaky ground.

Screaming "fire" in a crowded theatre is ok if there really IS a fire. However, anonymous "bomb throwers" who engage in so-called 'yellow journalism' destroy the overall integrity of a publication, not to mention open it up for libel and slander. Defamation is not a valid form of promotion, and accountability of reporting and reporters holds this problem in check, although it doesn't completely eliminate the more subtler forms.

In most societies, "Time is Money" and Citizen Journalists, even fledgling ones, need to be properly compensated for their efforts if those efforts are to continue. Hobbies are just that: hobbies. In order to break through to a higher level of quality, there needs to be a fair system of compensation or the term "Citizen Journalist" will become synonymous with "Unemployed Journalist."

The role of the editor should be emphasized here. Without editorial direction, guidance and oversight, it is hard to deliver a quality publication. Even high school yearbooks have editors, and online publications are no different. There are various editorial styles and orientations, but they all share common journalistic ethics which define and shape the publication. Without this editorial leadership, whether it is in the form of an editor-in-chief or an editorial staff, the publication in question may never see its second issue. Perhaps this is just editorial Darwinism at work.

Great journalism is hard ... sloppy journalism isn't really journalism at all. And Citizen Journalism is quite challenging!

Best of luck with your future endeavors,

-+- William

"Be Big, Be A Builder"

Viewpoint West Partners, LLC
171 Main Street #251
Los Altos, California 94022

(650) 947-9524 voice
(650) 941-4534 fax

Submitted by Steven Zenith on Tue, 01/24/2006 - 2:59pm.

I agree ... mostly.

I am curious as to what you think the compensation model should be or how you think that could work. Advertising seems the likely route so tying my Adsense ID or Amazon Associates ID to my contributions might make sense - but then that conflicts with the goals of the aggregator.

I have always seen Bayosphere as an example of an aggregator. It aggregates Citizen Journalists or writers, like myself, interested in exploring the phenomenon.

I think we are a long way from making a syndication model work in these early stages - but, in my experience, it is some variant of established practice that eventually finds a way through.

With respect,

Submitted by Blogspotting (trackback) (not verified) on Tue, 01/24/2006 - 12:24pm.

A little about Dan Gillmor's open letter about the future of the citizens media startup that he started.

Submitted by Joe I. on Tue, 01/24/2006 - 12:54pm.

William makes great points.

In fact the two things that doom "citizen media" are credibility and position.

Unless you have a qualified opinion, just having on is not enough. I don't want to hear a stock broker go on about something in science etc...

Second I always thought that a unpaid journalist is just someone who couldn't get hired in the profession, so where compensation comes from is just as important as the who the journalist is. Dan no one will risk their money on something or persons amateur. You must have QUALIFIED paid professionals in this business.

Like William said if you aren't you are just an unemployed shmuck with a self grandising hobby.

Submitted by Bob Leonard on Tue, 01/24/2006 - 1:12pm.


Very well said - just a little ahead of the masses as most visionaries are. Standing the test of time is/was the key - letting the rest of the world evolve - it is coming.


Submitted by Tech Beat (trackback) (not verified) on Tue, 01/24/2006 - 1:35pm.

Dan Gillmor finally offers an explanation of what's happening (or, more lamentably, not happening) at his citizen journalism venture, Bayosphere. He's got a raft of reasons why the site hasn't taken off, and they're something of a laundry list of...

Submitted by Steven Zenith on Tue, 01/24/2006 - 2:18pm.

Thanks Dan - your comments here are overdue but most welcome. :-)

Being an entrepreneur has never been about winning - despite the romantic popular mythology held by those that are not entrepreneurs. It has always been about playing in the game.

Few actually do get lucky and turn the high profile results. Many of those only after persisting on the hardest of roads. Many of those are undeserving early wins. Fewer still are in the right place at the right time (Google, Yahoo). The rest of us just keep at it because of the creative dimension to it - because it is in our blood.

One year barely qualifies you - so I expect you will try again at some point. If you are an entrepreneur, you won't be able to help yourself no matter how critical/embarrassed you are of your first attempt (in my experience).

As to non-profits - I too have begun down that path this past year because what I want to do entrepreneurially falls outside of the mainstream activity of a Silicon Valley entrepreneur with time horizons well beyond the average goals here.

I firmly believe, however, that non-profit ventures of the kind that you and I are pursuing also present a road to significant commercial opportunity. It is simply a road for those with longer term objectives and single minded passions.

My best wishes and my continuing support and encouragement.

With respect,
Dr. Steven Ericsson-Zenith

Submitted by markus on Tue, 01/24/2006 - 3:40pm.

According to google i'm the largest individual adsense publisher in the world. What are you are doing here with adsense is SAD.

Get rid of the adsense ad on the side, put a leaderboard adsense ad on the top of this column. Change the background color of the ad to white, change the border to white. Once you do this it will be blended into the text. Next put a second leaderboard ad right before the comments start.

If you do these things, you will instantly increasing your earnings 3 to 5 fold. I suggest you do this right away as you have NOTHING to lose.

Submitted by BusinessPundit (trackback) (not verified) on Tue, 01/24/2006 - 4:04pm.

Excellent post about a business failure in citizen media. This is a must read for anyone interested in peer production models. I've been meaning to write about what I've learned from TBE, but it will be a long post and...

Submitted by (trackback) (not verified) on Tue, 01/24/2006 - 4:45pm.

Dan Gillmor skriver i ett �ppet brev r�tt �rligt om misslyckandet med att driva "citizen journalism"-projektet Bayosphere (som nog l�ggs...

Submitted by Stacy Jo McDermott on Tue, 01/24/2006 - 4:47pm.

and new visions is something that will always drive us forward. Now that I'm beginning to get traction on this there comes a change, but it's welcomed...nothing wrong with stepping into unknown territory Dan.

Stacy Jo
How you do anything is how you do everything

Submitted by Rodney Graves on Tue, 01/24/2006 - 6:31pm.

on a day to day basis?

Out Here
Rodney Graves

Submitted by Craig Weiler on Tue, 01/24/2006 - 8:14pm.

It's an interesting take Dan has on Bayosphere. Some things I noticed:

I have never been clear on what exactly the Bayosphere crew were trying to achieve. We are not only potential CJ's out here. We're also potential networking opportunities. The site should have a clear outline of what it is trying to achieve, including the numbers of articles, the kinds of articles and the number of CJ's it's trying to achieve. How can we help if we don't know what you want?

I've visited the Bayosphere Newsroom several times and I still have no frigging clue how it's supposed to work.

The site is not designed in a fashion that would enable anyone other than Dan to create an audience within Bayosphere. I think that this has been the single largest error of the site. On the left hand side you can find great sites and many blogs, but not one from Bayosphere CJ's. And if we do post, the only way we know someone saw the page is if they post comments.

Without the feedback, I personally couldn't justify the time it would require to do really good posts. This whole thing becomes an interesting diversion rather than a passion.

Craig Weiler

Submitted by The Power of Many (trackback) (not verified) on Tue, 01/24/2006 - 8:45pm.

It looks like Dan Gillmor is rebooting. Bayosphere didn't work out exactly as he had hoped, but he's got a new project already launched in cooperation with UC Berkeley's J-School and a star-studded cast of advisors. I wonder if the...

Submitted by Lea Barker on Wed, 01/25/2006 - 12:08am.

Thanks for leaving us your old sandbox to play in, Dan! We'll take good care of it.

Have fun in your brand spanking new sandbox, and look back in on us from time to time, won't you?


Submitted by stefan dill on Wed, 01/25/2006 - 1:36am.

Dear Dan,
sorry to see you leave this bold initiative, and I'm very much looking forward to seeing what you'll do at the new center.

The one thing Ive learned from trying to build reader participation in a journalism model is an extension of one of your own maxims: "readers know more than you do"...about what they want. i.e., the readership will decide how they want to interact. i tried to get readers to submit "citizen journalism" stories, but they 'd much rather get involved in news issues via comments, or perhaps blog abouthatever they want to blog about. Every community is different, so what works for us may not work where you are, but the point is, you cant lay down a preconceived idea or mission. I think these initiatives have to be somewhat organic. If you start with carfully chosen, quality, specific content first, focussed and germaine to your physical community, with a few feedback tools, the virtual community will grow up around it, and you go from there.
The other thing I would do (and will, when i get more staff) is to do some marketing analysis. Who has a need in your community to get a word out and isnt? Churches, schools, sports leagues? any civic organizations? start by approaching those. Its not sexy or sensational, but a central focussing point for true community activity would be a fertile ground for some expansion.

stefan dill

Submitted by Tim Bishop on Wed, 01/25/2006 - 2:00am.

My congratulations to you on having tried something big, and hopefully given it your best shot. Not everybody gets or makes that opportunity, I'm glad you did. And thanks for sharing your lessons. Luckily, here on the west coast most of us see failure as just another learning experience, the frequent price of trying something big. Often it sets the stage for the next big thing (The Merc did a great series about 5 years ago about the execs at a failed company I worked for, GO -- most of them went on to help found or run successful companies). I hope you have the same experience with your new venture.

I wish you luck in the next venture, and hope to run into you around Berkeley someday.


Submitted by nbd on Wed, 01/25/2006 - 7:41am.

As founder of the new, I'm facing the same issues as you did. I would like to add that there are several aspects missing in your formula (or perhaps I missed them).

The first and foremost is the selection of good articles against bad one.
In CoMagz, every CoMagazine article is voted upon by readers. This allows content to go to the mainpage while other content can get kicked out. I hope I'm not making a fool of myself here but I didn't notice such selection mechanism in Bayosphere.
The selection idea is the real power of the users to decide what's important and what's not. That's what makes a community magazine interesting and attractive to users. Otherwise it's just a blog.

Second is the selection of categories. I think that News, Work hard, Live Well and Change the world do not make good content filters for the scope of Bayosphere.

Regarding news- it's all over the web and I don't think Citizen Journalism should focus on news reporting. I know most people won't agree with me but: a. news usually do not have personal aspect. This is an important aspect in Citizen Journalism success. b. News is usually factual and copied from one place to another on the web with little space for added value coming from a citizen journalist

One may ask why CoMagz Linkadelic magazine has news section then? The answer is that since the CoMagazine is about "what's interesting on the web" which is a very wide subject. The news section serves more as an aggregator of the interesting items according to the preference of the collective of readers rather than the place to read exhaustive news. This does not work in Bayosphere because of lack of voting mechanism.

The other categories- Work Hard, Live Well, Change the World are too broad to focus the readers. If I was living in the Bay area, I'd be interested in stepping into Bayosphere, press "restaurants" tag and get the restaurants reviews ordered by people's voting.

The third issue is the user experience. In this posting I have to do a little html tagging to get the bold words right. Citizen Journalists should not be bothered with these kind of technicalities. There are online text editors to make life easier.

In case you find it interesting. Here is some information about CoMagz:
The purpose of CoMagz is to provide communities, groups and people with shared interest their own online magazine which is edited and rendered completely by its users.
CoMagz combines online magazine look and feel with simple bloglike submission mechanism for users' content. Editing of the magazines content is handled by voting system which allows the collective of users to decide what's interesting and promote it while throwing out improper content.
CoMagz magazines are designed to appeal to users who like to read and write about their subject of interest and reach large audience without the need to dedicate their time to maintain their own blogs and build audience progressively.

CoMagz Linkadelic magazine is the first CoMagazine. It's about what's interesting on the web. Recommended websites, Web related news, Stories. Users can also write their own column which serves as their blog. The blog entries are displayed as part of the magazine content in a way which expose it to many readers.

Good luck on future ventures.
Nir Ben-Dor

Submitted by Mike McDerment ... on Wed, 01/25/2006 - 8:55am.

One of the common traits (or so I am told) of sucessful entrepreneurs is honesty. This is a great post.

Submitted by raines on Wed, 01/25/2006 - 10:42am.

That's what I've learned in my experience with computer user groups over the past quarter century, and in online contexts, so it's heartening to see that reflected in one of your bullet items, Dan. I'm now applying that lesson in a new context: creating real-world residential communities, and helping give people tools (social and technological) to create it, wherever they are. I look forward to seeing you more around Berkeley!

Submitted by (trackback) (not verified) on Fri, 01/27/2006 - 12:15pm.

Cruelle d�ception pour l'auteur de We the media salu� comme un visionnaire pr�curseur du journalisme citoyen. Dans un billet intitul� "From Dan: A Letter to the Bayosphere Community", un peu plus d'un an apr�s avoir quitt� le quotidien San Jose...