History of Botanical Exploration for Floyd County, Georgia, United States

A HISTORY OF BOTANICAL OBSERVATIONS FOR FLOYD COUNTY, GEORGIA

Records of botanical findings in Floyd County began in 1540 with written reports by Rodrigo Ranjel and Garcilasso de la Vega who were members of a Spanish expedition lead by Ferdinand DeSoto. Their noted that Mississippian Native Americans in Ichiaha place (present-day Rome) used food crops such as maize (corn), pumpkins and beans.
Aycock, Roger. All Roads To Rome. Rome: 1981: 17.


George Michael Lavender (1800-1839), came to this area in 1825, and opened the trading post at the foot hill of the Lavender Mountain. He exchanged goods with Native Cherokee Americans for medicinal plants such as: Pinkroot (Spigelia L.), Serpentaria (Aristolochia serpentaria L), Senega (Polygala senega L), and Ginseng (Panax.L.). Lavender then transported plants to Augusta, Georgia. The Lavender Mountain in Floyd County was named after him.
Battey, Robert. " Remarks upon the Medicinal Plants of Cherokee Georgia." The American Journal of Pharmacy 29. 5 (1857) (Archive, Sara Hightower Regional Library, Rome)
Harris, John L. Letter to Miss Lewis Lipps, November 3, 1956. (Archive, Sara Hightower Regional Library, Rome)

Robert Battey (1828-1895), a citizen of Rome, was a surgeon with an international reputation as well as a pharmacist. In 1848 he came to work in Rome’s drugstores. Nine years later, in 1857, he published a report about native and cultivated medicinal plants from this area. Battey recorded an abundance of growth of the following plants : Anthemis cotula L., Dog Fennel, Eupatorium perfoliatum L., Bonesset, Cassia marilandica L. ,Wild Senna, Chenopodium ambrosioides var anthelminticum (L.) Gray, Wormseed, Chimaphila umbellate (L.) W. Bart., Pipsissewa, Datura L., Stramonium, Frasera Walt. ( Syn. Swertia caroliniensis (Walter) Kuntze), Columbo, Monarda L., Monarda, Podophyllum peltatum L., May-Apple, Sanguinaria L.,Bloodroot, Spigelia L., Pinkroot, Menispermum canadensis L., Moonseed, Cornus florida L, Flowering Dogwood, Prunus virginiana L., Choke-Cherry, and Sassafras Nees, Sassafras.
Battey, Robert. " Remarks upon the Medicinal Plants of Cherokee Georgia." The American Journal of Pharmacy 29. 5 ( 1857)
Harris, John L. Letter to Miss Lewis Lipps, November 3, 1956. (Archive, Sara Hightower Regional Library, Rome)


Alvan (Alvin) Wentworth Chapman (1809-1899) lived in Apalachicola, Florida for the main part of his life. He was a physician, and also a botanist who defined 144 species. In 1860 Chapman published the first edition of "Flora of the Southern United States", followed by second edition in 1883 and a third in 1897. Dr Chapman had a family member that lived in south Rome so his visits to Rome were often. The collection years of his specimens from Floyd County bare the dates 1872, 1882 and 1891. The collections of those plants were represented in his manual. In Floyd County Dr Chapman made first discovery of : Aureolaria patula (Chapman) Pennell, (Syn. Dasystoma patula Chapm.), Spreading Yellow Foxglove, Rudbeckia fulgida Ait. var. fulgida, (Syn. Rudbeckia truncata Small), Orange Coneflower, Rudbeckia fulgida Ait. var.umbrosa (C.L. Boynt. & Beadle) Cronq., (Syn. Rudbeckia chapmanii C.L. Boynt. & Beadle), Orange Coneflower Solidago flaccidifolia Small , Mountain Goldenrod, Scutellaria incana Biehler var. punctata (Chapm.) Mohr, (Syn. Scutellaria canescens Nutt. var. punctata Chapm.), Skullcap, Scutellaria montana Chapm., Large-Flowered Skullcap, Salvia azurea subsp. mediaEpling C.C., Sage, Isoetes appalachiana D.F. Brunton & D.M. Britton), (Syn. Isotes Engelmanni var. Georgiana Engelm.), Appalachian Quillwort, Ilex longipes Chapman ex Trel., Georgia Holly, Viburnum bracteatum Rehder, Limerock Arrow-Wood, Crataegus calpodendron (Ehrh.) Madic., (Syn. Crataegus tomentosa L. var microcarpa, and Crataegus chapmanii Beadle), Pear Hawthorn, and Crataegus triflora, Three-Flower Hawthorn.
Some of his other collections from Floyd County are: Amorpha cyanostachya M.A. Curtis, (Syn. Amorpha herbacea Walt. var. herbacea), Clusterspike False Indigo, Arabis hirsuta (L.) Scop., Hairy Rockcress Symphyotrichum puniceum (L.) A.& D. Löve var. puniceum, (Syn. Aster puniceus L. var. firmus (Nees) Torr. & Gray) Purplestem Aster, Carex grayi Carey, Gray's Sedge, Chelone glabra L., White Turtlehead, Conobea multifida (Michx.) Benth., (Syn. Leucospora multifida (Michx.) Nutt.), Narrowleaf Paleseed, Delphinium carolinianum Walt. ssp. virescens (Nutt.) Brooks, (Syn. Delphinium virescens Nutt), Carolina Larkspur, Gratiola floridana Nutt., Florida hedgehyssop, Gratiola viscidula Pennell var. typical, Short's Hedgehyssop, Hybanthus concolor (T.F. Forst.) Spreng., (Syn.Cubelium concolor (T.F. Forst.) Raf.), Eastern Greenviolet, Liatris pilosa (Ait.) Willd. var. elegantula (Greene) Kartesz, comb. nov. ined., (Syn.Liatris graminifolia Willd. var. elegantula (Greene) K. Schum.),Shaggy Blazing Star, Matelea obliqua (Jacq.) Woods, (Syn. Gonolobus shortii Gray), Climbing Milkvine Paronychia montana (Small) Pax & K. Hoffmann, (Syn. Paronychia fastigiata (Raf.) Fern. var. pumila (Wood) Fern.), Mountain Nailwort Polygonatum biflorum (Walt.) Ell. var. commutatum (J.A. & J.H. Schultes) Morong, (Syn. Polygonatum commutatum (J.A. & J.H. Schultes) A. Dietr.), Smooth Solomon's Seal, Scrophularia marilandica L., Carpenter's Square, Solidago caesia L., Wreath Goldenrod, Spiranthes ovalis Lindl. (Syn. Spiranthes cernua var. parviflora Chapm.), October ladies'-tresses Thalictrum debile Buckl., Southern Meadow-rue, Verbena officinalis L., European Varvain, Veronicastrum virginicum (L.) Farw., Culver's Root, and Viburnum molle Michx., Softleaf Arrowwood
Dr. Chapman noted that the Large-flowered Skullcap was collected in the "dry woods and margin fields in the mountains of Georgia," the Spreading Yellow Foxglove were found in the “Valley of the Coosa River, near Rome, Georgia” and on the “banks of Horse-leg Creek, a tributary of the Coosa River.” In the slow-moving water of the Horseleg Creek, near the Coosa River, Dr. Chapman collected the first specimen of Appalachian quillwort.
Presently, Scutellaria montana Chapm., and Viburnum bracteatum Rehder, Limerock Arrow-Wood, are endangered species.
Beadle, Chauncey D. " Notes on the Botany of the Southeastern States, II." Botanical Gazette, Vol. 25, No. 5. (1898) : 360. Beadle, Chauncey D. " Studies in Crataegus. I."Botanical Gazette, Vol. 28, No. 6. (1899) : 410-412.
Boom, Brian M., " Synopsis of Isoetes in the Southeastern United States." Castanea 47 (1982): 41-42.
Boivin, Bernard. “ American Thalictra and Their Old World Allies.” Rhodora Vol. 46. No. 551. (1944): 433.
Chapman, A. W. "An Enumeration of Some Plants-Chiefly From the Semi-Thropical Regions of Florida-Which are Either New, or Which Have Not Hitherto Been Recorded as Belonging to the Flora or the Southern States." Botanical Gazette, Vol. 3, No. 2. (Feb., 1878) : 10-12.
Chapman, A. W. Flora of the southern United States: 3rd ed. New York: American Book Company, 1897: 09, 26, 139, 190, 223, 488, 572, 604, 641.
Chapman, A. W. Flora of the southern United States: 2nd ed. Supplement. New York: American Book Company, 1884: 636, 643.
Core, Earl L. "The North American Species of Paronychia." American Midland Naturalist Vol. 26, No. 2 (1941): 380.
Eames, Edwin H. "Cubelium concolor." Rhodora Vol.32. No. 379. (1930): 142.
Epling, Carl C. “The American species of Scutellaria.” University of California Publications in Botany Vol. 20. (1942): 80-81.
Gaiser, Lulu O. “The Genus Liatris.” Rhodora Vol. 48. No. 573 (1946): 247, 254.
Gates, G. G. "A Revision of the Genus Polygonatum in North America." Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club Vol.44. No. 3 ( 1917): 123.
Pennell, Francis W. The Scrophulariaceae Of Eastern Temperate North America. Monographs No.1 Philadelphia: The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 1935: 82, 86, 191, 287, 326.
Perry, Lily M. " A Revision of the North American Species of Verbena" Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, Vol. 20, No. 2. (1933): 262.
Perry, Lily M. “ I. Gonolobus within the Gray’s Manual Range. Contributions from the Gray Herbarium Of Harvard University- No.CXXIII.” Rhodora Vol. 40. No. 476. (1938): 287.
Sargent, Charles S. Trees and Shrubs, Illustrations of New and Little Known Ligneous Plant Vol.I & Vol.II Boston and New York: Houghton Millinand Comp. 1905: 135.
Schneider Camillo K. " Conspectus Generis Amorphae." Botanical Gazette, Vol. 43, No. 5. (1907) : 302.
Small, John K. " Studies in the Botany of the Southeastern Unted States-XIV" Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, Vol. 25, No. 9. (1898) : 477-479.


Henry William Ravenel (1814-1887), a botanist, an author of many extensive works on fungi, and plantation owner from South Carolina visited Floyd County in July 1872. On July 4, he met Dr. Chapman in Rome, Georgia, and they botanized along the banks and the cliffs of the Coosa River. Ravenel collected: Arabis georgiana Harper, (Arabis pycnocarpa sensu Hopkins), Georgia's Rockcress, Arabis laevigata (Muhl. ex Willd.) Poir., Smooth Rockcress, Lobelia spicata Lam., Palespike Lobelia, Paronichyia canadensis (L.) Wood, Forked Chickweed, Paronichyia fastigiata (Raf.) Fern, Forked Chickweed, Polygonatum biflorum (Walt.) Ell. var. commutatum (J.A. & J.H. Schultes) Morong, (Syn. Polygonatum commutatum (J.A. & J.H. Schultes) A. Dietr.), Smooth Solomon's Seal, and Polygonatum pubescens (Wild.) Pursh., Solomon’s Seal, from Floyd County.
Core, Earl L. "The North American Species of Paronychia." American Midland Naturalist Vol. 26, No. 2 (1941): 378. Data obtained from Ihsan A. Al-Shehbaz, Head, Department of Asian Botany at Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, Missouri, on March 9, 2005.
Hopkins, Milton. "Arabis in Eastern and Central North America." Rhodora Vol. 39. No. 460 (1937): 113, 162.
McVaugh, Rogers. "Studies in the Taxonomy and Distribution of the Eastern North American Species of Lobelia" Rhodora Vol. 38, No.453 (September, 1936.) : 312.
Ownbey, Ruth P. "The Liliaceous Genus Polygonatum in North America." Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 31 (1944) : 389, 407.
Ravenel, Henry W. The Private Journal of Henry William Ravenel 1859-1887: 360-361. Edited by Arney Robinson. Childs, Columbia: University of South Carolina, 1947.



Julien Deby (1826-1895), was a Belgium collector of the diatoms and the shells. His collections included the diatoms from the Antarctic Ocean, Southern Ocean, Mediterranean Sea, France, Belgium and Untied States. In 1877 he explored the Oostanula River in Floyd County and noticed on the river banks the cane barriers of Arundinaria gigantea (Walt.) Chapm. ( Syn. Arundinaria macrosperma Michx.) 7.5 m high.
Deby, Julien. " Relation succincte d'une excursion faite. Aux Bords De L'Oostanaula En Georgie." Extrait des Bulletins de la Societe Malacologique de Belgique 12 (1877): 4.

John Muir (1838-1914), was the most famous conservationist and the naturalist of the United States. Muir also known as The Father of National Parks and Wilderness Prophet was in Rome on the rainy October 1, 1898(7). He was in the company of Charles S. Sargent and William M. Canby. They botanized along the Coosa River and on the “bluff of river”. In his journal Muir noted that the trees that he found there were "5 and ½ doz. new to me or nearly so."
Muir, John. "Botany Trip with Sargent and Canby" AMSS journal, John Muir Papers, Jul-Nov 1897(8), Microfilm Edition, Reel 28, 03506

Charles Sprague Sargent (1841-1927), a botanist and Director of the Arnold Arboretum at Harvard University, botanically observed Floyd County in 1898, 1899, and 1900. In his work, "Manual of the Trees of North America (Exclusive of Mexico)", which was published in two volumes in 1905 and in 1922, Sargent recorded the species of the trees he and others found in Floyd County. One of Sargent's collection from Floyd County was a specimen in bud of Viburnum bracteatum Rehder, Limerock Arrow-Wood, for the gardens at Biltmore, North Carolina. In 1989, Sargent discovered in Floyd County Crataegus sargenti Beadle, Sargent's Hawthorn. Sargent also recorded Carya ovata (Miller) K. Koch, Scaly Bark-Hickory from Rome.
Beadle, Chauncey D. " Studies in Crataegus. I."Botanical Gazette, Vol. 28, No. 6. (1899) : 407-408
Sargent, Charles S. Trees and Shrubs, Illustrations of New and Little Known Ligneous Plant Vol.I & Vol.II Boston and New York: Houghton Millinand Comp. 1905: 135.
Sargent, Charles S. "New or Little Known North American Trees" Botanical Gazette Vol. 2 (1899): 92-94.
Sargent, Charles S. "New or Little Known North American Trees. IV." Botanical Gazette Vol. 33, No. 2. (1902): 113-114.
Sargent, Charles S. "Notes on North American Trees.II. Carya" Botanical Gazette Vol.66, No. 3 (1918): 234.
Sargent, Charles S. Manual of the Trees of North America (Exclusive of Mexico) Vol.I New York: Dover Publications, Inc. 1965: 14-15, 244, 315-316, 405, 406.
Sargent, Charles S. Manual of the Trees of North America (Exclusive of Mexico) Vol.II New York: Dover Publications, Inc. 1965: 450-451, 510, 520, 706, 709.



William Marriott Canby (1831-1904), a plant collector and businessman from Delaware, observed the vegetation in Floyd County in 1898 and 1899. Some of his collected plants ware Lobelia puberula Mich. var. glabella Hooker, Downy Lobelia, and Arabis laevigata (Muhl. ex Willd.) Poir., Smooth Rockcress.
Hopkins, Milton. "Arabis in Eastern and Central North America." Rhodora Vol. 39. No. 460 (1937): 162.
Data obtained from Robert F.C. Naczi, Curator, Claude E. Phillips Herbarium (DOV), Delaware State University, Dover, DE 19901., on October 25, 2004.
Data obtained from James C. Solomon, a Curator of the Herbarium Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, Missouri, on March 17, 2005.
McVaugh, Rogers. "Studies in the Taxonomy and Distribution of the Eastern North American Species of Lobelia" Rhodora Vol. 38, No.452 (August, 1936) : 294.



Chauncey Delos Beadle (1866-1950), a botanist from the Biltmore Herbarium in North Carolina made a visit to Rome in May and September of 1899, and discovered: Crataegus iracunda Beadle, Stolonbearing Hawthorn, Crataegus sororia Beadle, Crataegus aemula Beadle, Rome Hawthorn. Stolonbearing Hawthorn and Rome Hawthorn were discovered in " flat woods and Valley of Horse-leg creek" near Rome. In Floyd County Beadle also found the first specimens of Philadelphus floridus Beadle, Florida Mock Orange. He also collected Acer leucoderme Small, Chalk Maple, in Rome.
Beadle, Chauncey D. " Studies in Crataegus. I."Botanical Gazette, Vol. 28, No. 6. (1899) : 407-409, 416-417.
Beadle, Chauncey D. " Studies in Crataegus. II."Botanical Gazette, Vol. 30, No. 5. (1900) : 336-337.
Beadle, Chauncey D. " New species of thorns from the Southeastern States, II ." Biltmore Botanical Studies 1. (1902a.) : 53-54, 84-85, 124, 134-135, 144-145. (Archive, Shorter College Library, Rome)
Beadle, Chauncey D. " Studies in Philadelphus." Biltmore Botanical Studies 1. (1902b.): 159-160. (Archive, Shorter College Library, Rome)



Charles Lawrence Boynton (1864-1943) was a collector for the Biltmore Herbarium of the George W. Vanderbilt estate and a research companion of Beadle. Boynton found Georgia's first Ulmus serotina Sarg., September Elm, on the hills in the neighborhood of Rome and Crataegus tristis Beadle, Minute Hawthorn. In May of 1899, Boynton also made the first Georgia collections of Crataegus engelmannii Sarg., Engelmann's Hawthorn from Rome, Georgia. Beadle, Chauncey D. " New species of thorns from the Southeastern States, II ." Biltmore Botanical Studies 1. (1902a.) : 84-85.
Sargent, Charles S. "New or Little Known North American Trees. II." Botanical Gazette Vol. 31, No. 1. (1901): 2-3.


Biltmore Herbarium collectors from Biltmore, North Carolina found Oenothera tetragona Roth var. longistipata (Pennell) Munz, (Syn. Oenothera fruticosa L. ssp. fruticosa), Narrowleaf Evening-Primrose, and Sisyrinchium tenellum EP Bicknell, Blue-Eyed Grass in Floyd County in 1899.
Bicknell, Eugene P. " Studies in Sisyrinchium-VI: Additional New Species from Southern States" Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, Vol. 26, No. 12. (1899) : 605-616.
Munz, Philip A. " Studies in Onagraceae X. The Subgenus Kueiffa ( Genus Oenothera) and Miscellaneous New Species of Oenothera" Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, Vol. 64, No. 5. (1937) : 287-306.


Charles Thedore Mohr (1824 - 1901), an author of Plant Life Of Alabama, a naturalist, and a botanist from Mobile Alabama, botanically observed this area in June 1881, and collected Arabis patens Sullivant, Spreading Rockcress near Cave Spring in Floyd County.
Hopkins, Milton. "Arabis in Eastern and Central North America." Rhodora Vol. 39. No. 460 (1937): 162.
Mohr, Charles. Plant Life Of Alabama. Contributions From U.S. National Herbarium. Vol.VI. July 31, 1901. Washington: U.S. Department Of Agriculture, 1901; 528.


Willard Webster Eggleston (1836-1935), a botanist and a plant collector, came in April and August of 1900, 1901 and in 1908 to Rome where he collected some Hawthorn specimens and a specimen of a Pellaea atropurpurea (L.) Link., Purple Cliff-Brake Fern.
Herbarium Collections from Floyd County, Georgia at University of North Carolina Herbarium (http://www.herbarium.unc.edu/)., University of North Carolina Herbarium, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3280

Ronald McMillan Harper (1878-1966), was a field botanist, plant collector, and professor at Columbia University in New York. He spent ten years of his childhood in Northwest Georgia. In January 1904 when Harper was working on The Catalogue of Georgia Trees, he observed population of Pinus palustris P. Mill., Longleaf Pine, on Horseleg and Heath Mountains in Floyd County. He also found a variety of species on the banks of the Coosa River including: Nyssa uniflora Wang., ( syn. Nyssa aquatica L. ), Tupelogum, Acer saccharium L., White Silver Maple, and Rhus glabra L., Smooth Sumac. Sumac stems were 9 m tall with the diameters of 18 cm, a record for this specie. Near the Coosa River, a 1.9 m diameter Quercus michauxii Nut., (syn. Quercus lyrata Walt.), Swamp Chestnut Oak was found. On the banks of the Etowa River, Harper found specimens of Catalpa bignonioides Walter, Catawba, with a 76cm trunk diameter and Staphylea trifolia L., Bladder-Nut, with a 15cm trunk diameter. In the bottoms of the creeks, trunk dimensions of Aesculus flava Ait., (Syn: Aesculus octandra Marsh ), Yellow Buckey reached 30 cm in diameter and 12 m in height.
Some of the other records were: Mohrodendron carolinum L. ( syn. Halesia carolina L. ), Cottonwood, Gleditsia aquatica Marsh., Water Locust, Prunus americana Marsh, American Plum, Pyrus angustifolia Aiton., ( syn. Malus angustifolia (Aiton.) Michaux. ), Crab-Apple, Platanus occidentalis L., Sycamore, Morus rubra L., Red Mulberry, Celtis occidentalis L., Hackberry, Quercus nigra L., Water Oak, Quercus phellos L., Willow Oak, Juglans nigra L., Black Walnut, Juglans cinerea L., White Walnut, Juniperus virginiana L., Red Cedar, and Pinus taeda L., Loblolly Pine.
Harper, Roland M. Southern Woodlands 5 (1907) 13: The Georgia Forest Association.
Harper, Roland M. “Some Noteworthy Stations For Pinus palustris.” Torreya Vol.5, No.4 (1905): 57.


Thomas Grant Harbison (1862-1936), was a botanist and collector of southern woody plants for the Arnold Arboretum and C. S. Sargent. He visited Rome in September and October of 1910 and collected a specimen of Carya cordiformis (Wangenh.) K. Koch, (Syn. Carya cordiformis (Wangenh.) K. Koch var. latifolia Sarg.), Bitternut Hickory.
Sargent, Charles S. Trees and Shrubs, Illustrations of New and Little Known Ligneous Plant Vol.I & Vol.II Boston and New York: Houghton Millinand Comp. 1905: 206.


Francis Whittier Pennell (1886-1952), was a botanist from Philadelphia and the author of "The Scrophulariaceae". Pennell observed the flora of this region in August of 1912. His collections ware the specimens of: Commelina virginica L., Virginia Dayflower, Echinacea angustifolia DC. ( Syn. Echinacea pallida (Nutt.) Britton.), Blacksamson Echinacea, Lobelia spicata Lam. var. leptostachys (A. DC.) Mackenzie & Bush, Palespike Lobelia, and Mecardonia acuminata (Walt.) Small var. acuminate, (Syn: Pagesia acuminata (Walt.) Pennell; Bacopa acuminata (Walt.) B.L. Robins ), Axiflower.
Duncan, Wilbur H. “ Preliminary Reports on the Flora of Georgia-4. Notes on the Distribution of Flowering Plants Including Species New to the State.” Castanea, Vol. 15, No.4 (1950): 157.
McVaugh, Rogers. "Studies in the Taxonomy and Distribution of the Eastern North American Species of Lobelia" Rhodora Vol. 38, No.453 (September, 1936.) : 307.
Pennell, Francis W. "Notes on Plants of the Southern United States-I." Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club Vol.43 No. 2 ( Feb. 1916): 102-104.
Pennell, Francis W. The Scrophulariaceae Of Eastern Temperate North America. Monographs No.1 Philadelphia: The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 1935: 67.


Eliza Frances Andrews (1840-1931), a writer, a teacher, and botanist, was also a citizen of Rome in Georgia. Her book, "A Practical Course in Botany", was translated in French in 1911, and used in France’s schools. In Floyd County, Andrews observed: Lonicera japonica Thunb., Japanese Honeysuckle, Pleopeltis polypodioides (L.) Andrews & Windham ssp. polypodioides, (Syn. Polypodium polypodioides (L.) Watt), Resurrection Fern, Opuntia humifusa (Raf.) Raf., Devil's-tongue, and White Oak. On the Lavander Mountain in Floyd County, Andrews recorded Galax urceolata (Poir.) Brummitt, (Syn. Galax aphylla auct. non L.), Beetleweed, and Pinus palustris P. Mill., Longleaf Pine.
Andrews, Eliza F. “The Galax Odor.” Torreya Vol.15. No.1 (1915): 16-18.
Andrews, Eliza F. " Agency of Fire in Propagation of Longleaf Pines." Botanical Gazette, Vol. 64, No. 6. (1917) : 497-508.
Andrews, Eliza F. “The Japanese Honeysuckle in the Eastern United States.” Torreya Vol.19. No.3 (1919): 38.
Andrews, Eliza F. “Habits and Habitats of the North American Resurrection Fern.” Torreya Vol.20. No.5 (1920): 95-96.
Andrews, Eliza F. “Remarkable Behavior of A Veteran White Oak.” Torreya Vol.26. No.3 (1926): 54-55.
Andrews, Eliza F. (Archive, Sara Hightower Regional Library, Rome, GA)


Rogers McVaugh, a prominent botanist, professor Emeritus of Botany at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor is author of many books including the "Ferns of Georgia". McVaugh visited Floyd County in July of 1938. In the company of Harold C. Jones he searched Lavender Mountain, Mt. Berry, Georgia for fern specimens.
McVaugh Rogers., and Joseph H. Pyron. Ferns of Georgia. Athens: The University of Georgia Press, 1951: 96.

Harold Charles Jones (1903-1994), a professor at Woman's College in Milledgeville, Georgia studied the plant ecology of the Berry College Campus, from 1937-1941. Jones recorded 604 species and 124 families of vascular plants. Some of his ferns’ records were: Ophioglossum engelmannii Prantl, Limestone Adderstongue, Ophioglossum vulgatum L., Southern Adderstongue, Botrychium dissectum Spreng., Cutleaf Grapefern, Dryopteris marginalis (L.) Gray, Marginal Woodfern, Asplenium bradleyi D.C. Eat, Bradley's spleewort, Woodwardia areolata (L.) T. Moore, Netted Chainfern, Cheilanthes tomentosa Link, Woolly Lipfern, and Cheilanthes lanosa (Michx.) D.C. Eat. Hairy Lipfern. Jones also collected Carex brunnescens (Pers) Poir., Brownish Sedge, and on April 9, 1939 Viola pubescens Ait. var. pubescens, (Syn. Viola eriocarpa Schwein.), Downy Yellow Violet at the property of the Berry Schools, Mount Berry, Georgia.
Duncan, Wilbur H. “ Preliminary Reports on the Flora of Georgia-4. Notes on the Distribution of Flowering Plants Including Species New to the State.” Castanea, Vol. 15, No.4 (1950): 155.
Hermann, F. J. “ Addenda to North American Carices” American Midland Naturalist Vol. 51, No. 1 (1954) : 266-267.
Jones, Harold C. "Plant Ecology Of The Berry Schools Property, Floyd County, Georgia: 1940 " Diss. George Peabody College, Nashville, 1941.


George Andrew Dorsey (1907-1991) was a naturalist, a botanist, and the president of the Floyd County Audubon Society. From 1943 he was a science teacher at Darlington School until his retirement. In 1960 Dorsey collected Ilex longipes Chapman ex Trel., Georgia Holly, and Dicentra cucullaria (L.) Bernh., Dutchman’s Breeches in Floyd County. In his "Preliminary list of Floyd County Trees and Shrubs" (1959) some of Dorsey’s records were: Quercus muehlenbergii Engelm., Chinkapin Oak, Castanea pumila (L.) P. Mill., Chinkapin, Castanea dentate (Marsh.) Borkh., American chestnut, Magnolia tripetala (L.) L., Umbrella-Tree, Hydrangea quercifolia Bartr., Oakleaf Hydrangea, and Hydrangea cinerea Small, Ashy Hydrangea.
Dorsey, George Andrew. " Preliminary list of Floyd County Trees." 1959.


Wilbur Howard Duncan, an eminent botanist and Professor Emeritus at the University of Georgia and the author of numerous guides about the plants of Georgia and other Southeastern states, botanically observed this area on many occasions. In October of 1952, Duncan collected Calycocarpum lyonii (Pursh) Gray, Cupseed, Dicliptera brachiata (Pursh) Spreng., Branched Foldwing, and Sicyos angulatus L. Duncan also made collections of : Osmorhiza longistylis (Torr.) DC., Longstyle Sweetroot, Danthonia spicata (L.) Beauv. ex Roemer & J.A. Schultes, Poverty Oatgrass, and Cystopteris bulbifera (L.) Bernh., Bulblet Bladderfern, and Festuca obtuse Biehler (Festuca subverticillata (Pers.) Alexeev, Nodding Fescue in May of 1953.
Duncan, Wilbur H." New Records for Georgia Ferns." American Fern Journal 45 (1955): 6.
Duncan, Wilbur H., and John T. Kartesz. Vascular Flora of Georgia. An Annotated Checklist. Athens: The University of Georgia Press, 1981.


Emma Lewis Lipps (1919-1996) was a Professor of Biology, an ecologist, and a paleontologist. Lipps came to Rome in 1944 to join the biology faculty at Shorter College. In 1966, Lipps completed, for her doctoral dissertation, a study of the plants in Marshall Forest, a virgin forest in Rome. With the help of botany and ecology students from Shorter College, Lipps recorded 300 species of vascular plants in Marshall Forest. In the distinct tree communities of pine-oak, chestnut oak, and mixed hardwood, Lipps found 55 different tree species. In those communities the dominant tree species were: Pinus echinata P. Mill., Shortleaf Pine, Quercus velutina Lam., Black Oak, Quercus stellata Wangenh., Post Oak, Quercus prinus L., Chestnut Oak, Quercus rubra L., Northern Red Oak, Quercus alba L., White Oak, Carya alba (L.) Nutt. ex Ell., Mockernut Hickory, (Syn. Carya tomentosa (Lam. ex Poir.) Nutt.), Carya ovata (P. Mill.) K. Koch, Shagbark Hickory, Carya pallida (Ashe) Engl. & Graebn., Sand Hickory, Pinus taeda L., Loblolly Pine, Pinus palustris P. Mill., Longleaf Pine, Oxydendrum arboreum (L.) DC., Sourwood, Acer rubrum L., Red Maple, and Liriodendron tulipifera L., Tuliptree. Under Dr Lipps's leadership, Marshall Forest was preserved as a National Landmark in 1966. Dr. Emma L. Lipps also initiated the preservation of the Black’s Bluff Preserve and its oak-hickory forest.
Lipps, Emma, Lewis., and H. R. De Selm. " The Vascular Flora of the Marshall Forest, Rome, Georgia." Castanea 34 (1969) : 414-432.
Lipps, Emma, Lewis. (Archive papers, Shorter College Library, Rome)


Philip F-C Greear was: a botanist, a college professor, head of Biology and Earth Sciences Department, a pioneer of ecology, a president of Georgia Academy of Science in 1974, and a poet. He came to Shorter College in Rome in 1961 and remained until his retirement in 1994. Together with Emma L. Lipps Greer worked on the identification of plants and the conservation of the Marshall Forest's natural area and Black's Bluff. Greer also recorded the sagponds' plant community in Floyd County.
Philip F-C Greear. (Archive papers, Shorter College Library, Rome)


Elizabeth A. Dutton was a student of Emma L. Lipps’s at Shorter College in Rome in 1964 when she recorded plants species and created a collection of more than 100 plants from Black’s Bluff in Floyd County.
Elizabeth A. Dutton. (Archive papers, Shorter College Library, Rome)


Hal R. De Selm, was a Professor of Botany, and a Professor in the Graduate Program of Ecology at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, until his retirement in 1990. Emma L. Lipps completed her degree in Ecology under his direction. Professor De Selm was very supportive and helpful in the preservation of Marshall Forest and Black's Bluff. De Selm botanically observed Black's Bluff (also known as Cliffs of the Coosa) in July of 1979. In 1984, Professor DeSelm wrote an ecological report for the potential National Natural Landmarks of the Appalachian Parks and he enumerated the Black's Bluff as a possible site.
Hal R. De Selm. Personal interview. November 29, 2004.
De Selm, Hal R. "Potential National Natural Landmarks Of The Appalachian Ranges Natural Region." Ecological Report Prepared for the U.S. Department of Interior National Park Service in fulfillment of Contact No. CX-0001-10079. The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, September, 1984.
Lipps, Emma, Lewis., and H. R. De Selm. " The Vascular Flora of the Marshall Forest, Rome, Georgia." Castanea 34 (1969) : 414-432.


Delzie Demaree (1889-1987), a botanist, author of the catalog of the vascular plants of Arkansas, and well known plant collector was in Rome in May, 1965. Demaree and Emma L. Lipps botanized along the creek banks in Livingston, and Demaree collected Carex normalis Mack. It was his 50,102nd plant collection.
Herbarium Collections from Floyd County, Georgia at University of North Carolina Herbarium (http://www.herbarium.unc.edu/)., University of North Carolina Herbarium, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3280


Robert Kral a botanist and professor emeritus at Vanderbilt University, Tennessee discovered a small population of Hyris tennesseensis Kral, Tennesee Yellow-Eyed Grass in Gordon County in 1973. In Floyd County Kral observed the effect of quarrying dolomitic limestones along the Coosa River on locality of Viburnum bracteatum Rehd., Southeastern Viburnum, and Aureolaria patula (Chapman) Pennell, Spreding Yellow Foxglove.
Kral, Robert. A Report on Some Rare, Threatened, or Endangered Forest-Related Vascular Plants of the South. Vol. I and II. Technical Publication R8-TP 2 Atlanta: USDA Forest Service, 1983: 1035-1036, 1082-1083.


Charles H. Wharton (1923-2004), was a Professor at Georgia State University, an eminent conservationist, field biologist, botanist, and the author of several publications. In the 1970’s Wharton studied the environment of Floyd County for his survey "The Natural Environments of Georgia" which was published in 1977.
Wharton, Charles H. The Natural Environments of Georgia Georgia Department of Natural Resources: Atlanta 1977.


Frederick G. Meyer, a botanist at U.S. National Arboretum, Agricultural Research Service, visited the Berry College Campus in 1977 and collected voucher herbarium specimens of cultivated woody plants.
U.S. National Arboretum Herbarium, Washington,D.C


Rob Nicholson, a botanist at Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University, in October of 1987 collected a living specimen of Viburnum bracteatum Rehder, Limerock Arrow-Wood, and the seeds of Ilex longipes Chapman ex Trel., Georgia Holly, and Carya ovata (P. Mill.) K. Koch, Shagbark Hickory, from Black’s Bluff in Floyd County, Georgia.
The Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University (http://www.arboretum.harvard.edu/plants/inventory.html)., 125 Arborway, Jamaica Plain, MA 02130


James B. Phipps, an authority on the Crataegus species, was a Director of the Sherwood Fox Arboretum in Western Ontario, Canada. Dr. Phipps is a committee member for the Flora of North America. In the mid-1980’s, Dr. Phipps visited Floyd County many times and researched Hawthorn species of the region. Currently, Dr. Phipps has been exploring the Crategus species of Saskatchewan and Alberta.
Phipps, James B. Personal interview. September 10, 2004.


Ron W. Lance, a native plant specialist, an author, and a Chimney Rock Park Curator from North Carolina has been studying species of Crataegus, Hawthorn, in Floyd County since1990. Lance collected Amorpha nitens F. E. Boynt, Shining Indigo-bush, at the Black’s Bluff in Floyd County. In the spring of 2004 at the Black’s Bluff, Lance again noted presence of Crataegus triflora Chapman, Threeflower Hawthorn, and Crataegus sargentii Beadle, Sargent's Hawthorn. Lance also found in the spring of 2004 Crataegus aemula Beadle, Rome Hawthorn, Crataegus triflora Chapman, Threeflower Hawthorn, Crataegus spathulata Michx., Littlehip Hawthorn, Crataegus marshallii Egglest., Parsley Hawthorn, Crataegus crus-gallii L., Cockspur Hawthorn, and Crataegus iracunda Beadle, Stolonbearing Hawthorn near McGee Bend of the Coosa River in Floyd County.
Lance, Ron W. Personal interview. August 19, 2004.


James Robert Allison, a former botanist from Georgia Natural Heritage Program, Georgia Department of Natural Resources, discovered the Coosa Valley Prairies on the Temple-Inland Inc. property in 1991. Same year Allison made first Georgia collection of Marshallia mohrii Beadle & F.E. Boynton, Coosa Barbara Buttons, an endeared species, in Floyd County. Since Allison discovered a few additional state records, such as the first Georgia collections of: Juncus filipendulus Buckl, Texas Plains Rush, Oligoneuron riddellii Frank ex Riddell, Riddell's goldenrod, Callirhoe digitata Nutt., Finger poppy-Mallow, Erigeron strigosus var. calcicola J. Allison, Glade Daisy Fleabane, Myosotis scorpioides L., "True" Forget-me-not, Carex careyana Torr. ex Dewey, Ivory Sedge, Baptisia australis (L.) R. Br. ex Ait. f. var. australis, Streamside Blue Wild Indigo, Jamesianthus alabamensis Blake & Sherff, Jamesianthus, Carex eburnean Boott, Ivory Sedge, and Spartina pectinataBosc ex Link, Prairie Cordgrass,. "Floyd County has been very good to me!"- James R. Allison.
Allison, James R. Personal interview. September 26, 2003.
Matthews, James F., James R. Allison, Richard T. Ware, Sr., and Carl Nordman. " Helianthus verticillatus Small (Asteraceae) Rediscovered and Redescribed." Castanea 67(1) (2002) : 13-24


Richard T. Ware, a local botanist from Rome in 1994 made rediscovery of the 100 years lost Helianthus verticillatus Small, in wet prairie of Coosa Valley, and Allison identified the specie. Ware and his wife Teresa also discovered in the Floyd County the first Georgia's records of: Amelanchier alabamensis Britt., Alabama Serviceberry, Asclepias purpurascens L., Purple Milkweed, Clematis fremontii S. Wats. , Fremont's Leatherflower, Clematis socialis Kral, Alabama Leatherflower, Lilium michiganense Farw. , Michigan Lily, Prenanthes barbata (Torr. & Gray) Milstead, Prairie Lion's Foot, Carya myristiciformis (Michx. f.) Nutt., Nutmeg Hickory and Quercus imbricaria Michx., Shingle Oak.
Matthews, James F., James R. Allison, Richard T. Ware, Sr., and Carl Nordman. " Helianthus verticillatus Small (Asteraceae) Rediscovered and Redescribed." Castanea 67(1) (2002) : 13-24
Ware, Richard T. Personal interview. October 6, 2003.
Ware, Richard T. Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Floyd County Georgia. Richard T. Ware, 1999.


Malcolm Hodges, a conservation ecologist and Nate Thomas, a field representative at Nature Conservancy have been active in botanical management efforts of the Conservancy’s sites in Floyd County, Northwest Georgia.
Hodges, Malcolm. Personal interview. October 10, 2003.


Images:
1. The picture of Cucurbita pepo L., Field Pumpkin, was taken on September 9, 2000 in the flatwoods of the Berry College Campus.
3. The Black’s Bluff Creek enters the Coosa River. The picture was taken on December 25, 2004.
Acknowledgments:
This work was made possible by the help of :
Sara Hightower Regional Library, Rome, Georgia
Shorter College Library, Rome, Georgia
Reference:
Venard, Haskell. "Bibliography of Georgia Botany." Castanea Vol. 34, No. 3 (September, 1969.) : 267-307.

Last updated on January 09, 2006.


BOTANICAL SITE: FLOYD COUNTY, GEORGIA, U.S.A.
FLATWOODS IN FLOYD COUNTY
PROTECTED PLANTS FOR FLOYD COUNTY
TYPE SPECIMENS
A.W. CHAPMAN'S COLLECTIONS
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