ENUkrainian version.
L'viv University as an institution of higher learning was founded in the 17th century but in fact its history is rooted in much earlier times.
In the 16th-17th centuries the church brotherhoods were in the centre of cultural life in Ukraine. Supported by commoners and clergy, the brotherhoods assisted in spreading the ideas of humanism, in developing science and education. The L'viv Dormition Brotherhood was the oldest one in Ukraine. It became a significant centre of Ukrainian culture. Since 1586 there had been a Brotherhood School, a kind of secondary educational establishment in L'viv. The school offered the following subjects: Church Slavonic, Greek, Latin and Polish, Mathematics, Grammar, Rhetoric, Astronomy, Philosophy. The members of L'viv Brotherhood had plans to turn their school into a higher educational establishment. Many eminent public and cultural figures of the second half of the 16th century – the first part of the 17th century were studying and then started teaching there. They are Lavrentiy Zyzaniy (Kukil'), his brother Stepan, Kyrylo Stavrovets'kyi, Ivan Borets'kyi and others.
Till the middle of the 17th century there had been no higher educational establishments in Ukraine. The Polish authorities were opposing to the idea of founding Ukrainian higher schools fearing that they might become undesirable political and cultural centres. Young Ukrainians could get their higher education only at the University of Kraków and other European towns.
According to the clauses of the Hadiach Agreement concluded between Ukraine and Poland (1658), the Polish Government pledged to open two higher schools in Ukraine. They were to be called Academies. One of them was to be founded in Kyiv and the other one at a suitable venue elsewhere. The Academies were promised to be granted the same rights enjoyed by Kraków University. Powerful political circles of Poland were conscious of the possibility that national Ukrainian schools of higher learning might appear by their own efforts. The Society of Jesuits that stood for the protection of Catholicism in Ukraine was rather powerful in L'viv. The Jesuits came to L'viv at the end of the 16th century and in 1608 they opened their secondary school (Collegium) here. By the middle of the 16th century the Collegium had lost its significance. Yet due to the support provided by Polish magnates, the Jesuits managed to preserve the Collegium. Realizing the possibility of converting the L'viv Brotherhood school into a University the Jesuits exerted powerful efforts aimed at granting their Collegium the status of the Academy. In the wake of numerous petitions on behalf of the Jesuits on January 20, 1661 King Jan Kazimierz II signed the Diploma granting the Jesuit Collegium of L'viv "the honour of the Academy and the title of the University" with the right to teach all contemporary university subjects and to certify the scientific degrees of Bachelor, Licentiate, Master and Doctor. Yet almost immediately this decision was opposed by Kraków University and some influential statesmen supporting it. Notwithstanding this rivalry the teaching at L'viv University was being conducted on the model of other European Academies. In 1758 the Polish King Augustus III confirmed the Diploma of January 20, 1661, issued by King Jan Kazimierz ²². From the time of its foundation till 1773 L'viv University was kept under the control of the Society of Jesuits and subordinated to the Superior General of Jesuits in Rome. The University was headed by Rector. The building of the University was located in the vicinity of today's Krakivs'ka Street. In the course of time the University was buying new premises. It also possessed a library and a printing mill. The University consisted of two departments: Philosophy and Theology. The role of the Collegium, a secondary educational establishment attached to the University, was to provide a preparatory course for those intending to proceed with their education. In 1667 there were about 500 students and 8 lecturers at the University. In the middle of the 18th century the number of students increased to 700 and that of the teaching staff up to twenty. Most of them (about 75%) were Polish.
Teaching was conducted in compliance with the Jesuit higher school curriculum that had been elaborated at the end of the 16th century. Only in the middle of the 18th century had some changes been introduced into the curriculum. The Philosophy Department was mostly concerned with Aristotle's philosophy which combined Logic, Physics and Metaphysics. Physics covered some elements of Mathematics, Astronomy, Biology, Meteorology; Metaphysics included problems of Psychology and Ethics. History, Geography, Ancient Greek and other subjects completed the curriculum. At the Philosophy Department the teaching course lasted for up to three years. The graduates of the department proceeded with their education within the realm of Theology. At the Theology Department the teaching course lasted for four years. The students were taught Church History, Old and New Testaments, Dogmatics, Church Law, Casuistry, Hebrew. All the University courses were taught by Professors.
In the second half of the 18th century considerable changes in the teaching process were brought about by the development of natural sciences. In 1744 the chair of Mathematics was founded by F. Hrodzicki, the author of a textbook in architecture and mathematics. A Laboratory of Mathematics and Physics was set up, the University's Astronomy Observatory was opened. Polish, French, German, Geography and History began to be taught as majors. Renowned scholars lectured here: K. Niesiecki, historian, F. Hrodzicki and T. Sekerzynski, mathematicians, G. Piramowicz, writer, I. Krasicki, author and philosopher.
After the Society of Jesuits was disbanded in 1773, the University of L'viv was closed. However, soon afterwards several departments of the Jesuit Academy became the foundation for the Józefian University in L'viv.
In 1772 Halychyna became a part of the Austrian monarchy. The government of Kaiser Jozef II was paying much attention to education (particularly to the higher one), partly proceeding from the assimilation aims. A university was to be founded in L'viv. Vacancies were to be filled in by competetive standards, irrespective of the contenders' confession or nationality.
The University was provided with the building of the former Order of Trinitarians adjoining Krakivs'ka Street. The staff and budget of the University were approved by the decision of the government of June 17, 1784. In October of the same year a Diploma was granted to the University administration. The Diploma decreed the four faculties: Philosophy, Law, Medicine, and Theology. The grand opening of the University took place on November 16, 1784.
Between 1805 and 1817 a lyceum was functioning in L'viv on the basis of the University. The latter was related to the reform of higher education in the Austrian State. Most subjects were taught in the full university scope there, and the same faculties operated.
The Senate was the highest governing board of the University. It consisted of Rector, Deans and Seniors (the oldest professors with the greatest tenure). The Senate was entitled to solve the most important general issues of the University life. All other affairs used to be settled by the encumbent deans who virtually were directors of faculties. The University was enjoying a certain degree of autonomy.
The preparation of would-be students of the University was carried out by the Gymnasium founded in 1784. Instruction was being provided in German and Latin for five years. General preparatory education was provided to all the University students through the Faculty of Philosophy for three years. On graduating from the Faculty of Philosophy students either continued studying there in order to improve their knowledge of certain disciplines, or moved to one of the higher faculties - that of Law, Medicine or Theology, where they studied for another four years. Instruction was provided in Latin, Polish and German. In 1825 the Chair of Polish Language and Literature was founded.
A two-year Ukrainian course provided teaching in Ukranian at the Faculty of Theology in the years 1787-1806. Such prominent figures of Ukranian national Rennaissance as Markiyan Shashkevych, Yakiv Holovats'kyi, Yuriy Venelin (Huts) were connected with the University of L'viv in the first decades of the 19th century.
In the second half of the 18th century and the first half of the 19th century Physics was represented at the University of L'viv by Professors F. Husman, I.J. Martinovics, A. Hiltenbrand, I. Zemanchyk, A. Hloisner, A. Kunzek and A.Zavadski. In particular, Professor I. Martinovics (1755-1795) wrote a two-volume manual in Experimental Physics. A two-volume description of the Earth from the point of view of physics was published in Vienna by F. Husman (1741-1806). I. Zemanchyk did a lot to increase the amount of equipment for the physical laboratory. Professor A. Kunzek (1795-1865) was interested both in Physics and Astronomy, he taught Mathematics and ancient languages, authored seven scientific research papers and textbooks, among them "On Light", "Popular Astronomy", "Popular Lectures on Meteorology".
B. S. Schiverek (1742-1807) was the first professor of Chemistry and Botany at the University of L'viv. The chief merits of his were the research of the Precarpathian mineral waters and the foundation of the Botanic Garden.
F. Kodesch (1761-1831) was one of the first experts in Mathematics at the University. The manual "Principles of Mechanics" brought fame to the noted Austrian mathematician L. Schulz von Straschnitzki (1803-1852), who taught at the University in the years 1834-1838. Natural Studies were taught at the University by Professor B. Hacquet (1740-1815). He became a pioneer in studying the geology of Halychyna.
P. Lodyj (1764-1829) was one of the most distinguished philosophers at the time. He was the author of textbooks "Metaphysics" and "Logical Instructions". A number of works in Philosophy were written by I. J. Hanush (1812-1869). L. E. Zehmark (1753-1814) was the first professor of History at the University. Being a specialist in supplementary historical disciplines, he published a manual on those problems. G. Uhlich (1743 -1794) was the first professor of supplementary historical disciplines: he founded a library in L'viv, wrote a textbook of Diplomatics and Numismatics, authored numerous works in History. J. Mauss (1778-1865), Professor of General History and History of Austria, enjoyed great respect by the students.
Classical Philology at the University, which was reopened in 1784, was taught by V.W. Hahn (1763-1816), who was interested not only in linguistics, but in aesthetics as well: he published a two-volume collection of his own verses, wrote several works on the history of literature. Professors I. Pollak (1785-1825) and L. Umlauch (1757- date of death unknown) were the outstanding linguists at the time.
In the twenties and the thirties of the 19th century research in the domain of ethnology and other humanities became more active. I. Mohyl'nyts'kyi (1777 - 1831) produced the first grammar of Ukrainian language in Halychyna which was published in 1829. Its foreword comprised a brief review of the history of Ukraine and singled out Ukrainian as a separate East Slavonic language. I. Lavrivs'kyi (1773 - 1846) Professor of the University of L'viv, compiled a six-volume Ukrainian-Polish-German Dictionary (still in a manuscript), translated "The Story of the Bygone Years" into the Polish language. Significant contribution to the area of Historical Studies was made by Professor M.Hrynevets'kyi. He collected first prints and other monuments of ancient times.
It was the so-called historical school of law which served as a basis for Law Studies at the University of L'viv at that time. Professor J. Winiwarter was a noted expert in Civil Law, he was teaching in L'viv in the years 1806-1827 and published several research papers.
The events of the Polish insurrection of 1830-1831, and, especially, those of the revolution of 1848, actively joined by the students, had a significant impact on the development of the University of L'viv. In November 1848 the building of the University caught fire and its valuable Scholarly Library containing over 51,000 volumes as well as some very old manuscripts was destroyed. All the University equipment got out of order which made it impossible to begin teaching for quite a long period of time.
During the second half of the 19th century the University expanded premises and since 1851 it had been housed in a building in Mykolai Street (now Hrushevs'kyi Street). In 1891 a separate building for chemical, pharmaceutical, geological and mineralogical schools was put up in Dlugosh Street (now Kyrylo and Methodiy Street). The construction of other buildings of the newly-created Medical Faculty (in Pekars'ka Street) and the Faculty of Physics was finished in 1894 and 1897 respectively. The University Library premises were built in 1905.
The highest governing body of the University at that time was the Academic Senate consisting of Rector, Vice-Rector, Deans, representatives of the faculties and a secretary. The Senate dealt with curriculum matters, scientific activities and research, awarding scientific degrees and solving management problems. Up till the end of the 19th century there were only 3 faculties at the University: those of Law, Philosophy and Theology with the Law being the leading one both for its number of students and teachers and priorities set by the state. In 1891 Franz Jozeph I after a long delay issued a Decree for the establishment of the Medical Faculty. Its inauguration was held on September 9, 1894. Each of the four faculties was governed by the council of professors which was a joint (collegiate) Board consisting of the Dean, his deputy, all the professors of the faculty and two elected representatives from among the docents (associate professors).
Departments as we see them now did not exist. The notion "department" was associated with a person of a professor who delivered a certain course of lectures. However, there were scientific institutes at the University approximately corresponding to modern departments. Such institutes had their permanent premises for seminars, laboratories and experimental works, their own equipment, libraries and service personnel. In September 1894 the University opened its own archive and all the books and other printed materials published before 1898 were transferred to its possession.
The teaching staff of the University consisted of professors, docents, assistant professors and lecturers. To have the right to teach at the University, i.e. to get a position of a docent one had to receive a doctoral degree first, go through the necessary habilitation and get certified by the Ministry of Education in Vienna.
The teaching staff of L'viv University continually grew in number. There were only 27 teachers in 1850-1851 academic year whereas in 1913-1914 their number reached 169. As far as the total number of students is concerned there were 699 of them in 1851 (the Law Faculty had 302, the Faculty of Theology had 308, and that of Philosophy had 89 students). In 1890-1891 academic year their number reached 1,255 (Law - 383, Theology - 358, Philosophy - 189). In 1900-1901 there were already 2,060 students (Law - 1,284, Theology - 340, Philosophy - 309, Medicine - 127). In 1913-1914 the total number of students reached 5,871 ( Law - 3,493, Philosophy - 1,229, Medicine - 971, Theology - 358 students). The students of L'viv University fell under different categories: there were ordinary, extraordinary students and supernumeraries, called "free listeners" who were allowed to attend lectures on non-official basis. The latter category was mainly female students who attended classes when permitted by teachers.
In the second half of the 19th century women continued upholding their rights for admission to the University. Since 1897 they had been allowed to apply for the Faculty of Philosophy and later in 1900 - for the Medical Faculty and its pharmaceutical department. Many times women came out with requirements for admission to the Faculty of Law but these were never met by the government.
The majority of students had to pay for their studies. Additional fees were charged for matriculation - a solemn ceremony of conferring the name of a student (studentship) upon successful applicants - for examinations, seminars, library membership etc. The exception was the Faculty of Theology where studies were fully free of charge. This privilege was also enjoyed by a certain category of students of other faculties (by those who submitted the so-called certificate of poverty, i.e. who came from poor families but showed very good results in their exams). Besides, there was also a students' grant fund created mainly on donations from private persons. The well-known were the grants named after K. Ludwig, Y. Slovacki and others. The University had its own halls of residence for students but the number of rooms was not sufficient.
The full course of studies at the faculties of Law and Theology lasted four years whereas the course of studies at the Medical Faculty continued for five years and up to 3 years at its Pharmaceutical department. Each academic year was divided into two semesters (terms): the winter term (from October 1 till around the end of March) and the summer term (from the end of April till the end of July). Students had the right of a free choice of subjects. Up to the 70s of the 19th century all the subjects were taught mainly in German in all the faculties with the exception of the Faculty of Theology with Latin being the main language of tuition. Several subjects were taught in Ukrainian and Polish. On April 27, 1869 Polish language was adopted as official one in the whole region by a special decree issued by the Emperor. It resulted in a gradual reposing of the domination of this language and Polish culture at L'viv University. In 1870 thirteen subjects were taught in Polish, while forty-six in German, thirteen in Latin and seven in Ukrainian. On July 4, 1871 Franz Joseph I issued another decree which removed limitations for delivering lectures in Polish and Ukrainian languages at the Faculties of the Law and Philosophy.
In the 70s of the 19th century Ivan Franko studied at L'viv University. He entered the world history as a well-known Ukrainian scholar, public figure, writer and translator. Among other famous personalities who studied at the educational establishment in the second half of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th centuries were M. Pavlyk, O. Terlets'kyi, V. Navrots'kyi, O. Makovei, J. Puzyna and others.
The scientific activities at L'viv University of that period were quite lively. New subjects were being introduced, new laboratories created. The University teachers were compiling a number of new textbooks, handbooks for students in different subjects, were carrying out solid and useful research, mainly in the sphere of Natural Sciences. Physics was represented by such professors as V. Pierre, W. Urbanski, A. Handl', T. Staniecki, I. Zakrzewski, M. Smoluchowski and others. V. Pierre restructed and enriched the material resourses of the laboratory of physics (which was later destroyed in 1848); W. Urbanski published a textbook "Scientific Physics". Professor of Experimental Physics T. Staniecki was the author of a number of textbooks in Mathematics and Physics for gymnasium. In 1899 the world-known physicist M. Smoluchowski started teaching at the University. His main works of this period were "The Average Movement of Gas Molecules and its Connection with the Theory of Diffusion", "On the Kinetic Theory of the Brownian Molecular Movement and Suspension".
Professors I. Lemoch, W. Zmurko, J. Puzyna, W. Sierpinski, Z. Janiszewski were the representatives of Mathematic School. Among their works of particular scientific value were textbooks on practical Geodesy by I. Lemoch, "A Course of Mathematics" by W. Zmurko, "The Theory of Analytical Functions" in two volumes by J. Puzyna and others.
The first department of Chemistry was opened at the University in the year 1901. Among the outstanding chemical scientists of that period were B.Radziszewski (1838-1914), S. Opolski (1886-1919), the author of a valuable textbook in organic chemistry, B. Lachowicz ( Head of the Inorganic Chemistry Department from the very beginning of its foundation in 1894 up till 1903), S.Tolloczko.
Geology was put on the list of the obligatory subjects to be taught at the Faculty of Philosophy in 1851. The Mineralogical Museum was opened in 1852 and the year 1864 saw the setting up of the Mineralogy Chair headed till 1868 by F. Zirkel (1838-1912), the founder of modern petrography, author of the textbook "Manual of Petrography". The early 1880s witnessed the foundation of the Geography Chair headed by Professor A. Rehmann (1840-1917), well-known for his works in the field of the physical geography of the Carpathians.The first doctoral scholar supervised by A. Rehmann was H. Velychko, a Ukrainian (his thesis was supported in 1889). A considerable contribution to the development of geography was made by E. Romer (1871-1954) and the Ukrainian scientist S. Rudnyts'kyi (1877-1937).
On the basis of the former Chair of Natural History the Chair of Zoology and that of Botany were founded in 1852. The development of Zoology at the University is mainly associated with the names of B. Dybowski (1833-1930), author of more than 350 research papers and J. Nusbaum-Hilarowicz (1859-1917), founder of the Polish evolutionary school.
The L'viv historical school had seen its great development over the period of time in question. The founder of the School was K. Liske (1838-1891). Prominent among historians were T. Wojciechowski (1833-1919), O. Balzer (1858-1933), a historian of law, B. Dembinski (1858-1939), L. Finkel (1858-1930) author of the three volume "Bibliography of the History of Poland" and "History of L'viv University"( in Polish).
The newly founded Chair of World History and the History of Eastern Europe was headed by Professor Mykhaylo Hrushevs'kyi (1866-1934), the most outstanding scholar of Ukrainian History, author of the ten-volume "History of Ukraine-Rus'", hundreds of works on History, History of Literature, Historiography, Source Studies, founder of the Ukrainian Historical School.
The legal science had in the second half of the 19th century overcome the narrow practicism in favour of an in-depth study of historical and legal as well as philosophical disciplines. In 1862 the following two departments with Ukrainian as the language of instruction began to function: that of Civil Law and that of Criminal Procedure Law. The scholars of Law such as T. Pilat, E. Till, O. Ohonovs'kyi, M. Allerhand, A. Dolinski, M. Chlamtacz, S. Szachowski, P. Dabkowski, J. Makarewicz, S. Dniestrzanski and others brought fame to the University.
Ukrainian Language and Literature have been taught at the University since 1848 when the Department of the Ukrainian Language and Literature was founded by Ya. Holovats'kyi (1814-1888), author of the works "A Grammar of the Ruthenian (Ukrainian) Language". He also contributed much to the Ukrainian Studies by collecting and publishing Ukrainian folk songs. In 1849 Ya. Holovats'kyi was appointed Rector of the University. His dedicated work was further developed by O. Ohonovs'kyi, whose greatest accomplishment was the six-volume "History of Ukrainian Literature"(in Ukrainian), K. Studyns'kyi, I. Svientsits'kyi, O. Kolessa.
The history of Polish Studies at the University is associated with the names of A. Malecki (1821-1913), R. Pilat (1846-1906), W. Bruchnalski (1859-1938), K. Wojciechowski (1872-1924), B. Gubrinowicz (1870-1933),as well as J. Kallenbach, J.Kleiner, W. Han and others.
The traditions of Classical Philology at the University of L'viv were very rich. The outstanding scholars of world-wide renown such as L. Cwiklinski (1852-1942), B. Kruczkiewicz (1849-1919) and S. Witkowski (1866-1950) were teaching there. It is owing to them that L'viv had become a prominent publishing centre in the domain of classical philology. Lectures on Romance Languages and Literatures were started in the late eighties of the 19th century.
Halychyna was invaded by Poland after the disintegration of Austria-Hungary. Already on November 18, 1918 the Ministry of Confessions and Education of Poland had decreed its own auspices over L'viv University and renamed it after the Polish King Jan Kazimierz. Polish became the only language of instruction, Latin being used to teach some disciplines at the Theological Department. Those departments where Ukrainian was the language of instruction were closed down. In the course of two or three years all the professors and docents of Ukrainian descent were ousted, restrictions were also imposed on the admission of the Ukrainian youth to the University.
The running of the University was done on the strength of the University Statute (the Statutes of 1924, 1929, and 1934). The Senate headed by Rector remained the only ruling body. Prior to 1924 there were four faculties at the University. According to the Decree of the Ministry dated October 31, 1924 the Faculty of Philosophy was divided into two separate ones: that of the Humanities and that of Mathematics and the Sciences.
The early 1920s saw 55 departments, 19 sections, 2 polyclinics, 6 clinics, the faculties' library, Scholarly Library with the University Archives, the Botanic Garden at the University.
Unfortunately, there was not a single department with Ukrainian as instruction language at the University, no professors, Ukrainian by birth, were teaching there. It was not until 1933 that Docent I. Svientsits'kyi was appointed to a teaching position. In the academic year of 1928-1929 the Department of Ukrainian Language and Literature headed by Professor I. Yaniv was opened at the University.
Numerically, by the strength of the student body, L'viv University was one of the largest in Poland. Over the period between the academic years 1919-1920 and 1937-1938 their number had increased from 2,647 to 5,026 persons. The principle of "numerus clausus" had been introduced following which the Ukrainians were discriminated when entering the University (not more than 15% of the applicants' total number, the Poles enjoying not less than the 50% quota at the same time). The beginning of the academic year fell on October 1 and the termination date was June 30, the year being divided into three parts or trimesters.
On April 23, 1923 ownership rights over the premises of the former Sejm of Halychyna were transferred to the University as its main building. Lack of accomodation made itself felt. A new hall of lectures seating 600 students, the so-called "Collegium Maximum" (now the Students' Club), was being built in 1928-1934.
The 1920s and the 1930s witnessed a very successful development of mathematics at L'viv University. Scholars of prominence such as W. Sierpinski, H. Steinhaus, S. Ruziewicz, E. Zylinski, S. Banach, W. Niklibor, J. Shauder, S. Kaczmarz, W. Orlicz, H. Auserbach and S. Mazur lectured here. They laid the foundations of the L'viv School of Mathematics headed by S. Banach (1892-1945), author of the work "Theory of the linear operations of fields"(in French).
The physical science was at the time represented by R. Negrusz, S. Loria, L. Infeld, W. Rubinowicz and some others. In the field of astronomy it was Professor E. Rybka who had been working here since 1932 as Chief of the Observatory. A number of distinguished scientists such as S. Tolloczko, W. Iszebiatowski, W. Kemula were researching in the field of chemistry. The newly opened Chair of Physical Chemistry was headed by W. Kemula in 1937.
Geology was claiming a certain amount of further success too. In 1921 Professor Z. Weiberg founded the Chair of Crystallography taken over by Professor I. Chrobak later on. The Department of Mineralogy and Petrography headed by Professor J. Tokarski was founded in 1924. Geography was greatly contributed to by a well-known scholar Professor E. Romer; working fruitfully in the field of economic geography was A. Zirhofer. The greatest contribution to the development of biology was made by Professor J. Hirschler (1883-1951). B. Fulinski (1881-1942), G. Poluszynski, R. Kuntze, J. Noskiewicz, L. Monne, I. Romanyshyn were working at the Institute of Zoology. The Comparative Anatomy Department was reorganized into the Institute in 1926. It was headed by Professor K. Kwietniewski (1873-1942).
The floral researcher T. Wilczynski as well as the botanical geographer and paleobotanist M. Koczwara worked at the Botany Department from 1918 till 1924. In 1924 S. Kulczynski became Head of the Department. The research work at the time was mainly concerned with floristics (S. Kulczynski, St. Tolpa, M. Kostyniuk, H. Koziy). Professor S. Krzemieniewski was a renowned specialist in the field of floral physiology.
During the interwar period a number of new departments were opened at the Faculty of Medicine, such as the Biology Department (1920), the Medicinal Technologies Department (1932), the Pharmaceutical Chemistry Department (1932), the Health Protection and Medical History Department (1930), the Department of Microbiology (1936).
The research works by I. Badian in the field of bacteriological cytology had become world famous. I. Lenartowicz was widely known as dermatologist. The Department of Microbiology was founded by N. Gasiorowski in 1936. A very serious research in the field of microbiology was conducted by Professor R. Weigl (1883-1957). Since 1922 the research and lecturing work at the Department of Biochemistry had been supervised by J. K. Parnas.
The L'viv-Warsaw Philosophical School founded by K. Twardowski (1866-1938) was known far beyond the borders of Poland. The Polish Philosophical Society (Polske Towarzystwo Filozoficzne) was very active at L'viv University doing a lot of editing and publishing work. J. Lukasiewicz, A. Tarski, I. Dabska, H. Melberg, L. Chwistek, M. Borowski, R. Ingarden, L. Blaustein and other scholars belonged to the L'viv - Warsaw Philosophical School.
History was represented by K. Chilinski (1880-1938), J. Ptasnik (1876-1930), E. Modelski (1881-1966), F. Bujak (1875-19530) as well as by many others. Working in the field of the history of law were Professor O. Balzer, Professor P. Dabkowski, Docent K. Koranyi; those engaged in the field of Civil Law and Civil Procedure were Professor M. Allerhand, Professor K. Stefko, Professor E. Till, Professor A. Dolinski.
Polish Studies were high on the list of the University priorities. E. Kucharski and K. Kolabuszewski continued working here. Language Studies were represented by A.A. Krynski, K. Nitsz, H. Ulaszyn, H. Gartner as well as by R. Pilat and W. Bruchnalski. "A Grammar of Present-Day Polish" compiled by H. Gartner (1892-1935) can be referred to as one of the most valuable works of that period.
Ukrainian language and literature at the University were taught by Professor I. Yaniv, the Classical Philology was represented by Professors S. Witkowski and R.Ganszyniec (1888-1958). German language Studies were dominated by the works of Z. Czerny.
In the twenties and thirties Arabic, Hebrew and Aramaic, Turkish, Mongolian, Sanskrit, Persian were taught. The students enjoyed an opportunity to get acquainted with Oriental History. Professors W. Kotwicz, Je. Kurylowicz, M. Szarr, H. Blatt, are remembered as outstanding scholars in the realm of Indoeuropean Studies.
In September 1939 the Soviet troops entered L'viv and soon Halychyna became part of Soviet Ukraine and, consequently, of the Soviet Union. L'viv University also underwent radical changes. In compliance with the Statute Books for Soviet Higher Schools the University was being reorganized, tuition became free of charge and available to all citizens. The Faculty of Theology was closed down, the Faculty of Medicine with the Department of Pharmaceutics was restructured into the Medical Institute. In October 1939 new chairs were set up: Marxism-Leninism, Dialectical and Historical Materialism, Political Economy, Ukrainian Language, Ukrainian Literature, Russian Language, Russian Literature, History of the USSR, History of Ukraine, Physical Training. They were responsible both for providing professional training of the would-be specialists, and bringing them up in the spirit of Marxist-Leninist ideology and materialistic outlook.
On December 2, 1940 the University Board adopted a new University Statute. Distinguished scholars were invited to teach at the University, in particular, M. Vozniak, a scholar in the History of Ukrainian Literature, V. Shchurat, a literature and folklore scholar and a poet, F. Kolessa, a musicologist and ethnographer, M. Rudnyts'kyi, a literary critic and author, I. Krypiakevych, a historian, M. Zaryts'kyi, a mathematician, and some others. People's Commissariat of Higher Education of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic assigned 45 specialists from Kyiv and Kharkiv to teach here. M. Marchenko, a docent of History, was appointed Rector.
The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic conferred the name of I. Franko to L'viv University by its Decree of January 8, 1940.
On January 15, 1940 the University started teaching in accordance with the Soviet curricula. Five faculties were functioning at that time: History, Law, Languages, and Literature (with the Departments of Ukrainian Language and Literature, Slavonic languages and Literature, Romance and Germanic Languages and Literature), Physics and Mathematics (with the Departments of Mathematics, Mechanics and Physics), Natural Sciences (with the Departments of Biology, Chemistry, Geology, Geography). The great University Board and its smaller counterparts at the faculties were resolving all the issues concerning educational, methodological and research work, conferred academic degrees and approved positions. The chair remained the principal teaching and research unit organizing education, developing syllabi of special courses and seminars, stimulating research.
The course of studies at the University took four years at the faculties of Humanities and five years at those of Natural Sciences. In 1940 extramural teaching was introduced at the faculties of History, Languages and Literature, Natural Sciences, Physics and Mathematics. A branch of the All-Union Extramural Institute of Law was launched at the Faculty of Law.
The scholars of the University proceeded with their research work. The First Research Conference of the teaching staff was held in January 1941; in April papers at the first students' research conference were read. In 1940 the first 33 post-graduate students began their courses.
In June 1941 the German-Soviet war broke out, and the entire work of the University was brought to a halt. On the very first days of the German ocupation 70 prominent scholars of the University, Politechnical and Medical institutes were arrested and shot dead, among them such noted figures as T.Boj-Zelenski, R. Longechamps de Berier, M. Allerhand, H. Auerbach, S. Sak.
The University was closed and the invaders went on the rampage looting the equipment and books. The library of the Chair of Folklore and Ethnography numbering 15,000 volumes was transported to Germany. The same fate struck the Scholarly Library of the University out of which 20,000 volumes of the most valuable books, about 5,000 incunabula and old prints, 500 valuable manuscripts had all been taken away with the main reading room damaged.
The University resumed its activity soon after the retreat of the German troops. A meeting of the teaching staff and technical personnel of the University took place on July 30, 1944. The participants called on the intellectuals to take an active part in rebuilding the economy and restarting the educational establishments in L'viv. In the second half of 1944 - the first half of 1945 the damaged University premises were being restored mainly owing to the voluntary work of the students and the teachers. The Observatory and the Botanic Garden was partially restored too.
On October 15, 1944 after an interval of more than three years, about two hundred students in their second to fourth years resumed their studies. The students enrolled for the first year went to their classrooms on November 1, 1944 (226 persons). At the end of March 1945 the University numbered 799 students. The work of training laboratories, the Observatory, the Botanic Garden, the Scholarly Library, the Geology and Botany Museum was resumed.
In 1948 Professor Heorhiy Savin, a well-known specialist in mechanics, was appointed Rector of the University. From 1951 to 1963 the University was headed by Professor Yevhen Lazarenko, a prominent scholar in geology, Academician of the Academy of Arts and Sciences of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. In 1963-1981 Professor M. Maksymovych, a specialist in electronical engineering, and in 1981-1990 Professor V. Chuhayov, a historian, were at the head of the University.
Some structural changes were introduced after the war. In 1945 the Faculty of Chemistry consisting of four chairs was opened. At the end of 1950 the Faculty of Foreign Languages arose on the basis of the Faculty of Languages and Literature as a separate structural unit, thus bringing the number of faculties to nine and the number of chairs to seventy-one. In 1953 two new faculties (Mechanics and Mathematics; Physics) were organized on the basis of the Faculty of Physics and Mathematics; in 1975 the Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics split into the Faculty of Mathematics and that of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics.
The Chair of Foreign Languages (English and German) for students of other faculties was set up in 1959. In order to have journalists trained, the Department of Journalism was opened within the Philological Faculty in 1953 and a year later a whole faculty was organized.
In 1966 the Faculty of Economics was founded on the basis of Kyiv Institute of National Economy (L'viv Affiliate) which consisted of the following departments: Economics, Organization and Planning of the National Economy, Finance, Accounting and Statistics, Mathematical Methods in Economics. In the academic year 1975-1976 there were thirteen faculties at the University. In the same year the Faculty for Foreign Students was launched, with the Departments of the Russian language and Natural Sciences.
With new faculties and chairs opened as well as new scientific and educational trends established, the requirements for expanding the existing facilities became apparent. In the academic year 1950-1951 the University owned 12 buildings, with th total area of 42,800 m.2; the extensions built on the premises of the Chemical Faculty in Lomonossov Street (1959-1962) partially solved that problem. At the end of the 1950s – the beginning of the 1960s the University was granted additional premises in Sichovykh Striltsiv Street, housing the Students Library, Faculties of Law and Geography as well as several science laboratories. In 1966 the University obtained a building at 18, Prospekt Svobody, which hosted the Faculty of Economics. In 1971 the construction of a new building of the Faculty of Physics in Drahomaniv Street was completed. The year 1984 witnessed another building in the same street granted to the University. In 1984 the total teaching area of the University premises exceeded 55,000m2.
The Botanic Garden being one of the oldest divisions of the University was granted the status of a scientific institution in 1970. Somewhat earlier a master plan of its reconstruction had been implemented and new sections of Introduction and Plant Biology had been set up.
The Scholarly Library of the University plays an important role in teaching and research. Since the Second World War its stock of books has increased fivefold bringing the total number of books to 2.7 million volumes in 1985.
The launching of the University Publishing House in 1947 marked a considerable headway in the development of teaching and research. In the course of fifty odd years of its existence a considerable number of books, manuals and periodicals have been published. Since 1989 the Publishing House has been functioning independently under the name of the "Svit" Publishers. The University faculties were quite active in launching the publishing projects. University Transactions began to come out in 1948. With time they came to cover all the major subject areas. There are other publishing facilities for printing mainly methodological literature. The automatic offset printing laboratory at the University has been functioning since 1959.
For decades after WW II the University has been cultivating and attracting highly qualified staff. Hundreds of candidate theses and quite a number of doctorates have been presented to the Qualification Councils in numerary specialties. The most prominent University scholars were awarded the highest titles of Corresponding and Acting Members of the respective Academies, among them O. Vyalov, B. Hnedenko, H. Savin, I. Krypiakevych, V. Sobolyev, O. Parassiuk, Y. Pidstryhach, I.Yukhnovs'kyi, V. Panassiuk, R. Kucher, M. Brodin, Y. Fradkin. Well-known Ukrainian authors such as R. Bratun', D. Pavlychko, R. Ivanychuk, R. Fedoriv, V. Luchuk were once University students here.
During the 1950s and 1960s major trends of research were being shaped, namely: theory of plastics and durability, differential equations, theoretical mineralogy, physical and chemical analyses of metal systems, etc. In the realm of the Humanities of particular importance were Slavonic Studies, Franko Studies, Folklore Studies, historical and cultural links of the Slavs, etc. These are but some of the areas nurturing a wider spectrum of the research interests of the University scholars.
Yearly admissions of first-year students were on the increase. The University has been offering two major forms of tuition – full-time and extramural. The preparatory department has been providing high quality courses for would-be students since 1969. Up till 1992 there was also a possibility for students to study in the evening. Since 1993 a part of the students have been admitted on the paying basis thus extending the budget allocated by the state. The enrollment of students each year tended to increase from 557 persons in 1950 to 1,300 persons in 1985.
The proclamation of the independence of Ukraine brought about radical changes in every sphere of University life. Professor, Doctor Ivan Vakarchuk, a renowned scholar in the field of Theoretical Physics, has been Rector of the University since 1990. Meeting the requirements arising in recent years new faculties and departments have been set up: the Faculty of International Relations and the Faculty of Philosophy (1992), the Faculty of Pre-Entrance University Preparation (1997)., the Chair of Translation Studies and Contrastive Linguistics (1998). In 1989 the Refreshment Course Institute was established. The Institute of Historical Research headed by Doctor of History Ya. Hrytsak was set up in 1992. It conducts research in Ukrainian history with a focus on Eastern and Central Europe with particular reference to modern times.
Since 1997 the following new units have come into existence within the teaching and research framework of the University: the Law College, The Humanities Centre, The Institute of Literature Studies, The Italian Language and Culture Resource Centre. The teaching staff of the University has increased amounting to 981, with scholarly degrees awarded to over two thirds of the entire teaching staff.
In the period between 1991 and 1997 thirty-two scholars presented their doctoral theses at the University, the number of candidate theses presented over the same period being four times as large. Teachers and research fellows from as many as one hundred chairs are involved in teaching and manifold scientific activities.
An important pedagogical and scientific work was carried out at 100 departments. There are over one hundred laboratories and working units as well as the Computing Centre functioning here. The Zoological, Geological, Mineralogical Museums together with those of Numismatics, Sphragistics and Archeology are stimulating the interests of students.
The Postgraduate Course providing training in 89 specialities in the field of the Humanities and Natural Sciences is a predominant form of the academic promotion of young scholars. In the academic year 1997-1998 the Postgraduate Course offered research opportunities for 505 full-time and 206 extramural students. In the current year 180 and 67 persons respectively were admitted to the two modes of Postgraduate Studies. The University major is open for 61 teaching, scholarly and engeneering specialities and 109 branches. 2,127 students were admitted for full-time and 710 for extramural studies. In February 1998 the overall number of full-time students amounted to 9,384 and those studying by correspondence numbered 3,466. Over two thousand students graduate from the University annually. A complete course of studies lasts five years. Special testing of countryside schools leavers claims approximately one-third of admittees.
To advertise specialities, the University arranges conferences in secondary schools and colleges, organizes Open-Door-Days for getting school-leavers acquainted with the system of entrance exams. Press coverage of entrance requirements is also provided. School Olympiads are run by the University too. Since 1978 the University teachers have been training secondary schools pupils in many sections of the L'viv Minor Academy encompassing about 1,000 students annually.
L'viv University has been expanding its ties with the higher schools of Hungary, Germany, the USA, Canada, France, Austria, Belgium, Great Britain, Russia, the Czech Republic, Bulgaria, Portugal, Roumania, Moldova. Bilateral scientific meetings are becoming more and more versatile and manifold.