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LaTeX with TIPA for Phoneticians and Linguists

Created: 29 July 2005
Last update:  18 December 2005

For Linux users

There are various distribtions on Linux and FreeBSD. It is almost impossible to cover all distributions here. I just would like to mention a couple of things in case if you would like to use pLaTeX for Japanese documents. If you only would like to use English, you may jump to BibTeX or B.Downloading and Installing TIPA

First of all you have to find platex if it is not part of the Linux distribution you use. On the ground it is available, check the following things as a system operator not as a user.

1.Find the vfontcap and change the following lines in the beginning:









2. To generate Japanese documents, you may have to use kterm and type .

The tex ((p)LaTeX and (p)LaTeX2e) source files end with tex, not txt.
When you display dvi files, use xdvi from the command line. In case of Japanse documents, use platex and pxdvi. To be specific, it is a mater of sty files. If you specify jarticle or other styles beginning with j, you need to load platex and pxdvi.

For Ms-Windows users

Downloading TeX

There are many possibilities about packages. One of them is to use
MikTeX. Everything you need is to be installed very easily.

Japanese TeX
Win32TeX by Prof Kakuto, School of Humanity-Oriented Science and Engineering Kinki University.

Thanks to the new installer, TeX installer, downloading and installing (p)LaTeX, dviout, and GhostScript can be done very easily. May I congratulate the devoloper, Noriyuki Abe. Though the relevant comments are in Japanese in the insaller, it is easy to follow except modulation of folder structures. To download the installer click here. The process of the download and installation is semi-automatic. 


It is rather easier for me to use latex and platex from the DOS prompt or command line. However, you may wish to use more GUI(=Graphical User Interface). My recommendation goes to WinShell for Microsoft Windows users. You can opeate platex for Japanese by specifying platex under the exe-File section in Option->Program Calls.


JabRef  If you wish to buy database software for academic purposes personally, I would like to recommend JabRef. It is free. It is a Java program so that it runs on virtually all platforms. One of the exceptions may be B-TRON based systems. JabRef has functions of database and citation.

Downloading and Installing TIPA

TIPA is developed by Prof Rei FUKUI (U of Tokyo). TIPA is a package consisting of phonetic fonts and macros. Sections on istalling TIPA is OS independent. That is, the information herein applies to other LaTeX packages for other operating systems with some modifications depending on the differences of the folder strucuters.

For instance, there are the types: ¥usr¥share¥texmf¥, ¥usr¥local¥share¥texmf¥ and C:¥tex. If you used the installer mentioned above, it is C:¥tex. In any way, please check your own system.

1. Create a folder and download tipaman.pdf . When you wish to create your own phonetic fonts, tipaface.pdf is very useful reference though the size of the file is huge.

2. Note: a way introduced here is for beginners and takes a bit of patience. Please follow the steps one by one.

Create the following folders and download files.
2-1. C:¥usr¥local¥share¥texmf¥tex¥latex¥tipa
2-1a.Download all the files in here or (ftp) onto the folder created in 2-1.
In case of Microsoft Windows, sh files (=shell files) are not necessary.

2-2. C:¥usr¥local¥share¥texmf¥fonts¥source¥tipa
2-2a. Download all the files in here or (ftp) onto the folder created in 2-2.
2-3. After this, change the diretory to the folder created in 2-2 using cd command in the command line or DOS Prompt and type mktexlsr
2-4. Download files in here or here onto an appropriate directory.
2-5. Comple 'tipaman.tex' (TIPA Manual) from the command line.

latex tipaman
Initial compilation may take longer than expected, you are now able to see a TIPA dvi. Practically, it is better to use the command line in the initial tipa documents as generation of tfm files take very long with WinShell.
2-6. To output dvi, find the dviout, already installed, for Microsoft Windows or xdvi for Linux.

Converting LaTeX documents containing TIPA into PDF

Create the following folders and download files.
1. Create C:¥usr¥local¥share¥texmf¥dvips¥config
and download tipa.map file here on the file just created. Warning: Some systems automatically change the extension to htm. In this case, change the extension when download.

2.Create C:¥usr¥local¥share¥texmf¥fonts¥type1¥tipa and download all the files here onto the folder just created.
3.Then, go to the folder C:¥usr¥local¥share¥texmf¥fonts¥type1¥tipa using cd command in the command line or DOS Prompt and operate mktexlsr
4.Open config.ps and/or config.pdf file(s) in C:¥usr¥local¥share¥texmf¥dvips¥config with an editor and add the following line in the near end.
p +tipa.map
Then convert tipa.dvi into PDF by

dvipdf tipaman
dvipdfx tipaman
In case of generating a PostScript file, type
dvips tipaman

Examples using LaTeX and TIPA

There are two input methods provided in TIPA. In case of showing the symbol for voiceless labiovelar fricative, the methods are as follows.
input 1:  ¥textturnw
input 2:  ¥*w
After the letter %, it is commented out and does not affect compiling process.

¥usepackage[tone, extra]{tipa} % This line specifies the TIPA style file.
The symbol for voiced bilabial implosive is [¥textipa{!b}]. The simultaneous articulation of 1) voiced bilabial trill, 2) voiced alveolar trill and 3) voiced uvular trill is shown by [¥texttoptiebar{¥textscb r¥textscr}].

Vowel charts with LaTeX and TIPA

1.In some cases you may have to copy some sty files in the C:¥usr¥local¥share¥texmf¥tex¥latex¥tipa to the working directory.
2.The same procedure may be needed for D.Packages for Linguistics.

¥usepackage[tone, extra]{tipa}
¥usepackage{vowel} % This specifies the vowel.sty.
Detailed information on how to display vowel charts is shown in a separate page.

Tonetic Marks for O'Connor and Arnold (1973)

Examples for showing tonetic marks used in J.D.O'Connor & G.F.Arnold (1973) Intonation of Colloquial English, Longman Group Limited are shown in a separate page. Available from Amazon Japan

Packages for Linguistics

Visit A Guide to LaTeX for Linguists.

Stylesheets for Phonetics and Linguistics

About the choice of stylesheet, one possibility is adopt that for American Psychological Association (APA). Whose stylesheet is known as APA Style. The style similar to that of APA is utlised with some modifications in several academic journals in phonetics and linguistics. Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Fifth Edition is available at Amazon.com, Amazon Japan or Amazon.co.uk

Several APA related sty files and bst files are now available in the Internet. Here I would like to mention apacite. Any sty file is described as in ¥usepackage{times, apacite} in the preamble. And sty files are placed in a folder under /usr/share/texmf/tex/latex/. As for bst files, /usr/share/texmf/bibtex/bst would be the place.

Problems with apacite

Several APA related sty files and bst files are available in the Internet. Here I would like to mention apacite. Any sty file is described as in ¥usepackage{times, apacite}in the preamble. Sty files are placed in a folder under /usr/share/texmf/tex/latex/. As for bst files,/usr/share/texmf/bibtex/bst/ would be the place.

I think two of the problems at the time of writing this article seem to be very problematic. It is in relation to latex2html and hyperref. The former is to convert a latex document to an html document. It does not produce a list of reference properly nor citation in the text when the combination of apacite and latex2html is used. The latter is to include hypertext links in an html document. This affects both citation in the text and in the list of reference.
The combination of apacite and dvipdf does NOT produce a problem so that you can produce a PDF with the apacite style file together with TIPA.

Options to solve these problems may be as follows.
1. For documents hypertext linkage is necessary, use a style file OTHER than apacite. If you have to and/or would like to use apacite, delete ¥hyperref command from the TEXdocument. This leaves plain text information on the linkage.
2. The other other possibility is to use other conversion programme OTHER than latex2html.

See also:
IEEE:The IEEE,the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., (See IEEE Transactions LaTeX and Microsoft Word Style Files section)
ASJ: Acoustical Society of Japan offers the LATEX style file in their webpage.
IPSJ: Information Processing Society of Japan
The style sheet for MLA, Modern Language Association is provided in CTAN

About Examples

Examples are shown in a separate page.

Books on TeX, LaTeX2e

TeX(Amazon.com) LaTeX(Amazon.com) Metafont(Amazon.com) TeX(Amazon.co.uk) LaTeX(Amazon.co.uk) Metafont(Amazon.co.uk) Japanese TeX (Amazon.co.jp)

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Yoshinari (=Yoshi) Fujino