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The Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing is an academic center affiliated with the Division of Toxicological Sciences in the Department of Environmental Health Sciences of the Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health.

Animals and Alternatives in Testing: History, Science, and Ethics

Joanne Zurlo, Deborah Rudacille, and Alan M. Goldberg

Appendix C: Timeline of Tissue Culture

1801 Bichat investigates and names the tissues of the body and stresses the study of the different tissues that make up the organs.
1856 Ludwig maintains animal organs alive outside the body by pumping blood through them.
1885 Roux removes a portion of the medullary plate of a chick embryo and maintains it in a warm saline solution for a few days.
1907 Harrison demonstrates the in vitro growth of living animal tissue by explanting a fragment of nerve cord from a frog tadpole and placing it in a drop of frog lymph. Within hours nerve fibers begin to sprout from the cells in the cord.
1911-12 Burrows and Carrell succeed in growing explants from adult dogs, cats, rats, and guinea pigs and also in growing malignant tissues. Carrell begins a cell line, taken from the heart of a chick embryo, which is propagated by Albert H. Ebeling for 34 years. Ebeling uses the culture to test toxicity of germicides.
1913 Steinhardt, Israeli, and Lambert show that vaccinia virus can survive for several weeks in fragments of rabbit cornea.
1914 David Thompson begins to experiment with organ culture, explanting toes, feather germs, optic lens, and tail bud from embryonic chicks.
1922 Ebeling succeeds in culturing epithelial cells.
1923 Warburg develops a method of studying respiration in thin slices of tissue.
1925 Parker and Nye inoculate fragments of rabbit testes with vaccinia virus and cultivate them in plasma.
1929 Fell studies the development of bones and joints in vitro using fragments of developing organs from chick embryos.
1931 Goodpasture and associates note the possibilities for research and practical application in the use of developing chick embryos. Use of the chorioallantoic-membrane technique for the study of fowl-pox virus is described.
1946 Beveridge and Burnet describe the cultivation of viruses and rickettsiae in the chick embryo.

The Tissue Culture Conference held at Hershey, Pennsylvania initiates the founding of the American Tissue Culture Association.

Enders, Weller, and Robbins grow mump viruses in chick tissue using penicillin to prevent bacterial contamination.

1948 Enders, Weller, and Robbins prove that poliomyelitis virus can be cultivated in vitro in the absence of nerve tissue.

Sanford, Earle, and Likely establish clone cultures from single cells.

1954 Pomerat and Leake propose the use of tissue culture for toxicity studies.
1958 Harriss induces hybridization of cells on a large scale, with cells of widely different species as well as cells of widely differing types in the same species.

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Last updated: 6/21/2002
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