Historical Outline
Salomon Morel 

Creation of Concentration, Extermination and Labor Camps
Historical Outline

1902
In the aftermath of the Anglo-Boer/South African War (October 1899 - May 1902) the British use the tactic of the so-called burned soil while placing the civilians in concentration camps.

December 1917
Lenin presents the concept of using prisoners as a source of forced labor.

September 1918
First concentration camps (koncentracyonnyje lagieria) are being created in the Bolshevik Russia. The number of the persons imprisoned constitutes a few thousand during the early years and increases sharply during the collectivization period ( in 1934 - 500 thousand), during the so-called Great Purge ( in 1938 - 1 880 thousand), and reaches its pick at the final stage of Stalin's life ( in 1953 - 2 500 thousand). The administration of the camps is run by the NKWD - Glawnoje Uprawlenie Lagieriej - GULag.

20 March 1933
Upon Himmler's direct order, Dachau, the first concentration camp in Germany, is created. Additional camps are organized in Buchenwald, Flosenbürg, Mauthausen, Ravensbrück (women camp) and Sachcenhausen. Before the war brakes out, about 170 thousand people have gone through them - political enemies (communists, socialists, some catholic activists), and anti-social individuals (criminals, homosexuals, pacifists).

1940 
Germans open concentration camps in Oœwiêcim-Brzeznika, Treblinka, Majdanek, Be³¿ec, Che³mno by Ner, Sobibor, Teresin, and Stutthof. Since 1939, the nazi camp system have been developing and have taken a genocidal character.

September 1941
As the so-called Endlõsung program is being developed (the final solution to the Jewish question), extermination camps are being created on the territory of the already existing concentration camps.

3 September 1941
The first attempt to use the cyclone-B in order to mass-murder the prisoners in gas chambers, is made at the Auschwitz-Birkenau. Up to the end of the war, almost 6 million prisoners have been murdered in the German extermination camps.

7 June 1943
The first transport of the prisoners from Oœwiêcim reaches the Œwiêtochlowice-Zgoda camp.

1-24 January 1945
The closing of the German branch of the Oœwiêcim camp in Œwiêtoch³owice-Zgoda. The January offensive of the Red Army starts the liberation of the Upper Silesia from the German occupation.

 

Œwiêtoch³owice - Zgoda Labor Camp
Historical Outline

February 1945
Opening of the Œwiêtoch³owice - Zgoda forced labor camp under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Public Safety. The camp built for 1500 prisoners hold 2 500 - 2 700 persons - wrote the Camp's Head, Salomon Morel, while explaining the reasons for the break-up of the typhus epidemics. Out of about 6 000 persons over 300 days of the camp's existence, at least 1 855 persons lost their lives.

6 May 1945
Law on the exclusion of the enemy elements from the society is issued. Article 20 of the law said clearly that "ANYONE WHO HAS NOT FILED AN APPLICATION FOR REHABILITATION, OR WHO'S APPLICATION FOR REHABILITAION HAS BEEN DENIED, IS SUBJECT TO PLACEMENT IN SECLUSION (A CAMP) FOR AN UNSPECIFIED PERIOD OF TIME AND SUBJECT TO FORCED LABOR, AND FOREVER LOOSES PUBLIC AND HONORARY CITIZEN RIGHTS AND ALL PROPERTY."

16 May and 27 August 1945
Agreement between the General Board of Coal Industry and the Central Labor Camp in Jaworzno on the employment conditions of the prisoners. According to the wording of the agreement, the Central Labor Camp pledged to deliver 10 thousand prisoners to work in the coal mines.

November 1945
Closing of the Œwiêtoch³owice-Zgoda camp takes place. A notation is made in the inflows and outflows protocol saying that from the Zgoda camp to Jaworzno the following goods were delivered: 18 tons of wheat flour, 8.5 tons of potato flakes, 1.1 tons of sugar, 1.2 tons of fat and 1.5 tons of cereals.

10 December 1948
The third General Assembly session of the UN taking place in Paris passes the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The article no. 4 says: "SLAVERY AND IMPOSITION OF SERVITUDE IS HIGHLY FORBIDDEN..."

1954
The final closing of the forced labor camps in Poland takes place.

16 December 1966
Slavery and forced labor is forbidden as of the day of the proclamation of the UN Human Rights Pact by the General Assembly. Poland signs the pact on March 2, 1967.

February 20, 2002.


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