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A 2nd Opinion?

High School


A high school scheduling innovation that increases the amount of education available for all students is sweeping the country. High school educators are leading the way in a remarkable grassroots effort that is remaking the US education system to successfully prepare all students for the 21st Century.

Virginia Internet High School Sponsored by the Virginia Internet High School and C.M. Edwards, Jr., a leader in the 4x4 revolution, this web page presents the factors, both positive and negative, to be considered when moving to a 4x4. Updated -- 2/10/2002

WHY A 4x4?

High Schools that Lower College Costs 25% suggests the efficiency and flexibility of a 4x4 in developing the four-year 9-13 high school.

A "Free" Year of College or postsecondary study can be provided for every high school student at no additional cost to taxpayers; But critics say no!

The SOL Challenge -- Virginia's new "end-of-course" Standards of Learning tests raise the stakes for both students and schools.  The 4x4 affords high schools the flexibility and time needed for success with the new standards.

Data & Statistics collected by a Virginia 4x4 High School through 1997-98.

What We've Learned The "Center for Innovative School Scheduling" at UVA offered a list of its findings on Block Scheduling in September 1998.

The Power of Innovative Scheduling -- Canady (UVA) and Rettig (JMU) discuss the role of the schedule in remaking America's schools.

North Carolina 4x4 Study of end-of-course exams finds no difference comparing raw scores of semester block and non-block schools.

Directory of High School Scheduling Models in Virginia -- the 4x4 continues as the most popular schedule used in Virginia's 301 public high schools for 2001-2002.

Roy J. Wasson High School adopted its 4x4 schedule in the fall of '90.  Reports and data compiled during implementation of their 4x4 are located here.

Block Scheduling information compiled by the Center for Applied Research and Educational Improvement (CAREI) at the University of Minnesota.

The Change Process & Alternative Scheduling -- from the Wisconsin Education Association Council's (WEAC) Educational Issues Series

The Problem with Block Scheduling -- all the objections to longer periods and semester-length courses including two Canadian studies.  Elementary and college-level educators will note that effective teaching and learning can only be accomplished with 50-minute periods and year-long classes.

VMEA & Block Scheduling -- Traditional performing arts programs cite problems competing in some of the 97 Virginia high schools using a 4x4. Insisting on "business as usual," the Virginia Music Educators Association urges high schools to "Just Say No" to the 4x4.

Intensive Block Scheduling -- criticisms of the 4x4 including '95 Bateson and '96 Gore studies. In a startling reversal, Gore rejects single-year studies telling BC schools several years of pre and post data are needed to decide if changes in achievement are due to the schedule or other factors!

Research Spans Spectrum on Block Scheduling -- Education Week article reports on new findings that block schedules have no impact on test scores. Canadian researcher, David J. Bateson, advises that with the right teaching methods schools on a block may out-perform traditional schools.

Call for Redesign of Flawed Canadian Studies -- May testing stacks the deck in favor of all-year schools; '95 Bateson Study shows that no "opportunity to learn" lowered test scores of semester and quarter students.

A Longitudinal View -- this British Columbia high school used a block to increase the number of seniors tested and raise year-end Math 12 scores.

Block Scheduling: A Solution or a Problem? is an online Education World article for Secondary School Administrators.

Finding Time to Learn -- November 1995 block scheduling article by John O'Neil, an Educational Leadership senior editor.

Block Scheduling by David Vawter is still online.

New & Restored Links

Block Scheduling: The Key to Quality Learning Time (NAESP) January '01 issue of Principal Online -- Canady & Rettig

The Effects of Block Scheduling (AASA) March '99 issue of the School Administrator -- Canady & Rettig

Block Scheduling -- Prentice Hall Staff Developent "Hot Topic" presents a number of articles for those considering a block schedule.

Block Scheduling Articles National Association for Music Education

Block Scheduling Revisited by J. Allen Queen, November 2000, Kappan Online Article

Changing Times by Debra Viadero, October 3, 2001, Education Week

Block Scheduling Info Under One Roof! author unknown. Some broken links..


Download and unzip the pre-publication manuscripts of C.M. Edwards, Jr. These are MS Word files with tables and charts.

The Four-Period Day: Restructuring to Improve Student Performance presents the issues that must be addressed when converting to a 4x4 and explains the advantages of the 4x4 as a restructuring tool.

Table of Contents
Why Change? Advanced Studies/Year-long AP
The Four-Period Day A Common Core of Learning
The Student's Day Administrative Considerations
The Teacher's Day A 28-Credit Diploma
Year-long Classes Learning Incentives
Improving the Graduation Rate Extending the School Year

Virginia's 4x4 High Schools: High School, College, and More offers plan for remaking the American School System with current budgets.

Table of Contents
Need for Restructuring Postsecondary Scholarships
A 4x4 schedule & Early Results State Scholarship Proposed
Postsecondary Study -- AP & CC Perpetual School Improvement
Career Prep & Full Employment A Single School Calendar
Career Pathways  

The 4x4 Revolution charts the progress made in changing 9-12 high schools into four-year 9-13 high schools.

Table of Contents
A Simpler Schedule -- Four-period day and semester-length courses
Research Data -- A Progress Report on early findings
Four-year 9-13 High Schools -- Remaking our Schools
Post-Secondary Scholarships -- in lieu of High School Classes
Career Bound Students -- A Full-Employment Option
Reaction -- Policies on awarding College Credit and Transfers
Internet High School -- Choice for every student & teacher


"The Internet High School" introduces the innovation that is likely to have the greatest impact on American Education for the 21st Century.

Virginia Internet High School Virginia teachers, administrators, parents, and/or students seeking information about making their school offices and classroom Internet accessible for the 2002-03 school year should visit the Virginia Internet High School campus.

Address questions and comments to the 4x4 High School.
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