TURKEY

BRIEF HISTORY

 
The Osmanli Dynasty traces its origins to Osman Khan Ghazi, founder of the Turkish Empire and son of Ertugrul, leader of the Kayi clan of the Oghuz tribe, during the late 13th century. The tribe reputedly descends from Noah, through his grandson, Oghuz.
 
Osman's successors remained conquerers for several generations, ever extending the boundaries of their Empire on all sides. The conquest of Constantinople in 1453, though the jewel in the crown and the pride of their posessions, did not serve as the culmination of their efforts. Baghdad, Jerusalem, Mecca and Medina, the Lavant, Syria, Mesopotamia, Egypt, Libya, Arabia, Algeria, Tunisia, the Crimea, Greece and the Balkans, and parts of Hungary all fell to their sway. The Osmanli dynasty had secured, for themselves, the position of the greatest Islamic dynasty in history. On two occasions, they threatened Western Europe itself. Vienna, capital of the Holy Roman Empire, faced two bitter sieges in 1529 and 1683. However, the failure of the last, proved to be the nadir of the empire.
 
The eighteenth and nineteenth centuries provided a long period of slow decline. New or re-invigorated European powers, in the form of Russia and Austria gnawed away at the western provinces of the Empire. In time this encouraged many of the subject races to assert their independence. By the end of the nineteenth century most of the European and Caucasian territories had been lost, save Bosnia, Albania, Macedonia and some parts of modern day Greece and Bulgaria. In the southern Meditterranean, Egypt and Cyprus were under British control, Crete and Samos under international supervision, and Algeria and Tunisia were under the French.
 
The dawn of the twentieth century saw further reverses and losses of territory in the Balkans, leaving Albania a lawless land, cut-off from Turkey proper. Italy entered the general scramble, siezing Rhodes and the Dodecanese and invading Cyrenaica and Tripoli. On the eve of the Great War, the first stirrings of the Arab renaissance were becoming apparent. Jewish migration and settlement in Palestine increased rapidly. The sick man of Europe was clearly on its last legs.
 
Disasterously, though perhaps understandably, the rulers of Turkey chose to side with the Central European powers on the outbreak of War. Believing in the magic of the Khalifate they proclaimed Holy War, expecting Muslims under British, French and Russian rule to rize up in their defence. Quite the reverse ensued. Not only did they fail to rise to the defence of the Khaliphate; they contributed very significantly in ensuring that their rulers would be victorius. Surrounded by enemies on all sides, Turkey saw its remaining subject peoples throwing in their lot with the allies, in hope of achieving nationhood.
 
Wars end left Turkey with little more than Turkey proper, Armenia and parts of Kurdistan. Nationalist generals, including Mustafa Kemal, seized power in the rest of the country and began a process of consolidating their position. When the old Sultan Muhammad V died in 1918, they saw their chance. The allies had occupied the seat of the Sultan, cutting him off from the rest of the country. A successful war against Greece entrenched the military oligarchy in the positions. They established their capital at Angora (Ankara) and began chipping away at the monarchy. After four years of steady effort, they succeeded in removing Sultan Muhammad VI from all temporal authority in the state. He abdicated in disgust and went into exile.
 
The anti religious Ankara regime then secured the election of Sultan 'Abdu'l-Majid Khan I as Khalif by the National Assembly in 1922. Clearly meant as a sop to secure the loyalty of tradional minded elements within the country, they tired of their own fiction within two years. They abolshed the Kaliphate and expelled the entire Ottoman dynasty on the 3rd ofMarch 1924. The regime then established the Turkish republic with Mustafa Kemal Pasha, transformed into Kemal Ataturk, as President, Father of the Nation and dictator, with democratic pretensions.
 
After their expulsion from Turkey, the Imperial family dispersed to several destinations, San Remo and the South of France, Beirut and Alexandria, being the favoured places of exile. They were not permitted to return to Turkey until 1953, when Ataturk and his lieutenants were safely at peace with his maker.
 
STYLES AND TITLES:
The Sovereign: Sultan (given name) Khan, Sovereign of the House of Osman, Sultan of Sultans, Khan of Khans, Commander of the Faithful and Successor of the Prophet of the Lord of the Universe, Protector of the Holy Cities of Mecca, Medina and Jerusalem, Emperor of The Three Cities of Constantinople, Andrinopole and Bursa, and of the Cities of Damascus and Cairo, of all Azerbaijan, of the Magris, of Barka, of Kairuan, of Aleppo, of Arabic Iraq and of Ajim, of Basra, of El Hasa, of Dilen, of Raka, of Mosul, of Parthia, of Diyarbakir, of Cicilia, of the Vilayets of Erzurum, of Sivas, of Adana, of Karaman, Van, of Barbary, of Abyssinia, of Tunisia, of Tripoli, of Damascus, of Cyprus, of Rhodes, of Candia, of the Vilayet of the Morea, of the Marmara Sea, the Black Sea and also its coasts, of Anatolia, of Rumelia, Baghdad, Kurdistan, Greece, Turkistan, Tartary, Circassia, of the two regions of Kabarda, of Georgia, of the plain of Kypshak, of the whole country of the Tartars, of Kefa and of all the neighbouring countries, of Bosnia and its dependencies, of the City and Fort of Belgrade, of the Vilayet of Serbia, with all the castles, forts and cities, of all Albania, of all Iflak and Bogdania, as well as all the dependencies and borders, and many others countries and cities.
The Heir Apparent: Daulatlu Najabatlu Vali Ahad-i-Sultanat (given name) Effendi Hazlatlari, i.e. Crown Prince, with the style of His Imperial Highness.
The senior wives of the Heir Apparent: Vali Ahad Zevcesi, equivalent to Crown Princess, but not normally translated.
The mother of the reigning Sovereign: Daulatlu Ismatlu (given name) Validi Sultana 'Aliyat us-Shan Hazratlari, with the style of Her Majesty.
The first four official wives of the Sovereign, according to Islamic law: Daulatlu Ismatlu (given name) Bash Kadin Effendi Hazratlari, Daulatlu Ismatlu (given name) 2nd Kadin Effendi Hazratlari, Daulatlu Ismatlu (given name) 3rd Kadin Effendi Hazratlari, and Daulatlu Ismatlu (given name) 4th Kadin Effendi Hazratlari, with the style of Her Majesty. They were additionally styled Haseki Sultana if they had born a son to the Sultan, Haseki Kadin Effendi if they had only borne daughters.
The next four favourite wives of the Sovereign: Daulatlu Bash Iqbal (given name) Khanum Effendi Hazratlari, Daulatlu 2nd Iqbal (given name) Khanum Effendi Hazratlari, Daulatlu 3rd Iqbal (given name) Khanum Effendi Hazratlari, and Daulatlu 4th Iqbal (given name) Khanum Effendi Hazratlari, with the style of Her Highness. Usually promoted to official wife (Kadin Effendi), on the death of one of the latter. Also borne by the mothers of sons of a Sovereign.
The next four ladies of the Sovereign's harem: styled (given name) Bash Gozde, 2nd Gozde, 3rd Gozde, and 4th Gozde.
The next four junior ladies of the Sovereign's harem: styled (given name) Bash Paik, 2nd Paik, 3rd Paik, and 4th Paik.
Male descendants of a Sovereign in the male line: Daulatlu Najabatlu Shahzada Sultan (given name) Hazretleri Effendi, i.e. Prince (given name) Effendi, with the style of His Imperial Highness.
Female descendants of a sovereign in the male line: Daulatlu Ismatlu (given name) Sultana 'Aliyat us-Shan Hazratleri, i.e. Princess with the style of Her Imperial Highness.
The first four official wives of Imperial Princes: (given name) Khanum Effendi Effendi Hazratlari.
The husbands of Imperial Princesses: Damad-i-Shahyari (given name) Bey Effendi, the latter, only if not posessed of a higher rank or title, with the style of His Highness.
The sons of Imperial Princesses: Sultanzada (given name) Bey-Effendi, i.e. Prince, with the style of His Highness.
The sons of Imperial Princesses: (given name) Khanum-Sultana, i.e. Princess, with the style of Her Highness.
The grandsons of Imperial Princesses in the male line: (given name) Bey.
The granddaughters of Imperial Princesses in the male line: (given name) Khanum.
 
RULES OF SUCCESSION:
Hereditary, in order of birth, from one brother to the next, or one cousin to another, until all the survivors of a generation have succeeded in turn. On the death of the last brother, the succession passes to the eldest born son of the deceased males of the previous generation (not necessarily the eldest son of the eldest brother).
 
ORDERS AND DECORATIONS:
The Exalted Order of the House of Osman (Hanedan-i-Ali-Osman Nishani): founded by Sultan 'Abdu'l-Hamid Khan II on 31st August 1893. Awarded in one class (in brilliants), to senior male and female members of the Imperial family and foreign heads of state. Only 50 sets were awarded between 1893 and 1922.
 

Copyright� H.M. The Queen

Badge and Collar (Copyright� H.M. The Queen)

The Order of the August Portrait (Tasvir-i Humayun Nishani): founded by Sultan Mahmud II in 1832. Awarded in one class (in brilliants).
The Order of Ertugrul (Ertogrul Nishani): founded by Sultan 'Abdu'l-Hamid Khan II on 26th February 1903.
The Order of the Red Crescent (Hilal Nishani): founded by Sultan Selim Khan III Ilhami in 1790. Conferred on foreigners for services rendered during the Napoleonic wars, but fell into disuse.
The Order of Glory (Atiq Nishan-i-Iftikhar): founded by Sultan Mahmud Khan II on 19th August 1831. Awarded in one class (in brilliants). A medal of the order was instituted in 1887.
 

Badge and Star (Copyright� Sotherby's London)

The Exalted Order of Honour (Nishan-Ali-Imtiaz): First founded by Sultan 'Abdu'l-Majid Khan I and revived and reformed by Sultan 'Abdu'l-Hamid Khan II on 17th December 1878. Awarded in one class (in brilliants). A medal for gallantry was attached to the order from 11th September 1883 and awarded in gold and silver.
The Order of Excellence (Maziyyat Nishani): founded by Sultan Muhammad V Rashad Khan on 3rd May 1910. Awarded in five classes.
The Imperial Order of Osmania or the Osmans (Nishan-i-Osmania): founded by Sultan 'Abdu'l-Aziz Khan I on 9th December 1861. Awarded in three classes from its inception, extended to four classes and an additional class in brilliants, in 1867.
 

Copyright� H.M. The Queen

1st class Badge (Copyright� H.M. The Queen). xx Murassa Military star (Copyright� John D. Clarke)

The Imperial Order of the Majidi or Nobility (Nishan-i-Majidia): founded by Sultan 'Abdu'l-Majid Khan on 17th September 1852. Awarded in five classes with an additional class is brilliants. Conferred on both ladies and gentlemen.
 

3rd class Badge (Copyright� C.M. King)

The Order of Charity (Nishan-i-Shafakat): founded by Sultan 'Abdu'l-Hamid Khan II in September 1878 and awarded in three classes to ladies, the first two classes in brilliants.

1st class Star (Copyright� C.M. King)

The Order of Education (Ma'araf Nishani):founded by Sultan Muhammad V Rashad Khan on 3rd May 1910. Awarded in three classes, all recipients being required to ascend from the lowest class.
The Parliamentary Order: (Majlisi Mabusan Azalarina Mahsus Nishan): founded by Sultan Muhammad V Rashad Khan in 1914.
 
GLOSSARY:
Agha (or Agha): commander, a title junior to Bey and conferred on military officers on a personal basis.
Alp: brave warrior, a title coferred during the early years of Ottoman rule.
Amir ul-Muminin: Commander of the Faithful, one of the many titles of the Sultan of Turkey.
Bey: a title junior to Pasha and conferred on civil and military officers on a personal basis; also borne as a curtesy title for the sons of a Pasha.
Bey Effendi: part of the title of a husband and sons of an Imperial Princess.
Beylerbeyi (or Beglerbegi): Lord of Lords. An office signifying rule over a great province, equivalent to Governor-General. The office entitled the holder to the personal title of Pasha.
Beyzade: son of a Bey, a courtesy title borne by a son of a Bey Effendi.
Bimbashi: Major (army) or Commander (navy). The holder of the rank enjoyed the title of Effendi.
Khalif (also Caliph or Khalifa): Successor (of the Prophet).
Khalif ur-Rasul Rub al-A'alimin: Successor of the Prophet of the Lord of the Universe. The highest earthly title of the Muslim world, enjoyed by the Sultans of Turkey after their conquest of Egypt in 1517.
Damad (or Damad-i-Shahriyari): Imperial son-in-law, title conferred on the husbands of Imperial Princesses.
Effendi: master, title equivalent to Esquire; frequntly used together with higher titles in order to indicate signify enhanced status. Used by the sons of Sultans from the reign of Sultan 'Abdu'l Majid I.
Ferik: Lieutenant-General (army) or Vice-Admiral (navy). The holder of the rank enjoyed the title of Pasha.
Firman: Imperial decree or edict.
Ghazi: victorious, a title conferred on leaders who distingusihed in war.
G�zde: noticed (by the Sultan). Style borne by junior ladies of the Harem when first gaining favour from the Sultan.
Khadim ul-Haramain us-Sharifain: Protector of the Holy Cities of Mecca and Medina, a title awarded to Salim I by the Sherif of Mecca.
Haji (or Hacci): honorific used for men who have made the pigrimage to Mecca.
Hakhan ul-Barrayun wa al-Bahrain: Lord of the Lands and Seas, one of the many titles of the Sultan.
Harem (or Haram): fobidden, term used by Europeans to collectively describe the wives and concubines in a Muslim household.
Haseki Kadin Effendi: Lady favourite, title borne by junior ladies of the Harem, who had borne a daughter to a Sultan.
Haseki Sultana: Princess favourite, title borne by junior ladies of the Harem, who had borne a son to a Sultan, usually limited to the first four or six to become mothers.
Hazretleri: style equivalent to Highness.
Jihad: Holy War.
Kaimakam: Lieutenant-Colonel (army) or Commander (navy).The holder of the rank enjoyed the title of Bey.
Khan (or H�n): a title signifying sovereign or ruler in Turkey, but a very junior title signifying a male noble, or even a mere name, in other parts of the Muslim world.
Khakhan: Khan of Khans, one of the many titles of the Sultan of Turkey.
Khanum: female of Khan, equivalent to Lady.
Khanum Effendi: title borne by the official wives of Imperial Princes.
Khanum Sultana: Princess Lady, title borne by the daughters of Imperial Princesses.
Kizlar Aghasi: Chief of the Eunuchs. The office entitled the holder to the style of His Highness.
Iqbal (or Ikhal): fortunate, title borne by the favourite Harem ladies of a Sultan.
Iqbal Effendi (or Ikhal Effendi): title borne by an official favourite wife of a Sultan.
Kapudan Pasha: Grand Admiral or Admiral of the Fleet.The holder of the rank enjoyed the title of Pasha.
Lewa (or Liva): Major-General (army) or Rear-Admiral (navy).The holder of the rank enjoyed the title of Pasha.
Mahd-i Ulya-i-Sultanat: crade of the great Sultan, another title for the Sultan's mother.
Miralai: Colonel (army) or Captain (navy).The holder of the rank enjoyed the title of Bey.
Mulazim Awal: Lieutenant (army) or Sub-Lieutenant (navy). The holder of the rank enjoyed the title of Effendi.
Mulazim Tani: Second Lieutenant (army) or Midshipman (navy).The holder of the rank enjoyed the title of Effendi.
Mushir: Field Marshal.The holder of the rank enjoyed the title of Pasha.
Nishan (or Nichan): order of chivalry or decoration of honour.
Padshah (or Padishah): Emperor, one of the many titles of the Sultan of Turkey.
Pasha: Lord, a title senior to that of Bey and conferred on a personal basis on senior civil officials and military officers. Awarded in several grades, signified by a whip, the highest rank being a whip of five Yaks tails.
Pashazada: son of a Pasha, used as an alternative curtesy title to Bey.
Sadaf-i-Durr-i-Khilafat: shell of the pearl of the caliphate, another title for the mother of the Sultan.
Saraskar: C-in-C.
Shah: King, title of Persian origin.
Shah-i-Alam Panah: King, refuge of the world, one of the titles of the Sultan.
Shahzada (or Shahzade): son of the King, title used for the sons of Sultans from the reign of Muhammad I.
Shahzada Hazratlari (or Shahzade Hazretleri): Imperial Highness.
Shaikh ul-Islam: the title held by the highest ranking Muslim religious official below the Khalif. The office entitled the holder to the personal title of Pasha together the style of His Highness.
Shalabi (or Cecebi): gracious lord, title borne by sons of the Sultan until the reign of Muhammad II.
Silahadar: Master-General of the Ordnance.
Sipah Salar: General of Cavalry.
Sultan: title borne by male members of the Imperial family, particularly after then reign of Muhammad II. When it is used before the given name, together with Khan after the name, it signifies ruler. When used before the name, Imperial Prince. When used after the name, Imperial Princess.
Sultan Khan: The Grand Sultan, the chief title borne by the ruler of Turkey and the Ottoman empire, equivalent to Emperor.
Sultana: title of an Imperial Princess.
Sultan us-Selatin: Sultan of Sultan, one of the many titles of the Sultan of Turkey.
Sultanzada (or Sultanzade): son of a Sultan, the title borne by the sons of Imperial Princesses.
Tughra: the distinctive monogram of a Sultan.
Vali: Governor. The office entitled the holder to the personal title of Pasha.
Vali Ahad (or Veliaht): Heir Apparent or Presumptive usually translated as Crown Prince.
Vali Ahad Zevcesi: Heir Apparent's wife, the title borne by the official wifes of the Heir Apparent, equivalent to Crown Princess but not usually translated.
Valide Sultana: Princess Mother, the title borne by the mother of a reigning Sultan.
Vizier: bearer of the burden, i.e. Minister.
Vizier-i-Azam: Grand Vizier, the title borne by the incumbant Prime Minister. The office entitled the holder to the personal title of Pasha together the style of His Highness.
Yuzbashi (or Youzbashi): Captain (army) or Lieutenant (navy).The holder of the rank enjoyed the title of Effendi..
 
SOURCES:
A.D. Alderson, The Structure of the Ottoman Dynasty. Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1956.
Almanach de Gotha: annuaire g�n�alogique, diplomatique et statistique, Justes Perthes, Gotha, 1880-1944.
Burke's Royal Families of the World, Volume II: Africa & The Middle East, Burke's Peerage Ltd., London, 1980.
Philip Mansel, Sultans in Splendour. Andr� Deutsch Limited, London, 1988.
Yilmaz Oztuna, Devletler ve Hanedanlar Turkiye 1074-1990. Ankara, 1989.
Julian Raby (ed.), The Sultan's Portrait; Picturing the House of Osman. Turkiye Is Bankasi, Istanbul, 2000.
Osman Selaheddin Osmanoglu, Osmanli Devleti'nin Kurulusunun 700. Yilinda Osmanly Hanedani. Islam Tarih, Sanat ve Kultur Arastirma Vakfi (ISAR), Istanbul, 1999.
Emine Fuat Tugay, Three Centuries: Family Chronicles of Turkey and Egypt. Oxford, 1963.
Prof. Ismail Hakki Uzuncarsili (ed.), Osmanli Tarihi: Volumes 1-10. Turk Tarih Kurumu Basimevi, Ankara, 1988-1998.
 
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I would be grateful to hear from anyone who may have changes, corrections or additions to contribute. If you do, please be kind enough to send me an e-mail using the contact details at: Copyright� Christopher Buyers
 
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Copyright�Christopher Buyers, December 2000 - April 2003