Ohio State University Extension Bulletin
North American Maple Syrup Producers Manual
Bulletin 856
Produced by:

The Ohio State University Extension
in Cooperation with
The North American Maple Syrup Council

Editors

Melvin R. Koelling, Ph.D.
Michigan State University

Randall B. Heiligmann, Ph.D.
The Ohio State University

Production Team

Ohio State University Extension,
Section of Communications and Technology
David E. Scardena, Editor
Ed Maceyko, Graphic Design
Mary Hoffelt, Illustration

Copyright 1996, The Ohio State University

Acknowledgments

For more than three decades, maple producers have depended on and have been well-served by the Maple Sirup Producers Manual, written first by C. O. Willits1 and then by C.O. Willits and Claude H. Hills2. During that time, there have been many changes in the maple industry including changes in technology, in maple markets and marketing strategies, and even in the character of maple producers. In the early 1990s the North American Maple Council recognized the need for an updated manual and appointed a committee to oversee its preparation. That committee was composed of Mr. Clarence Coons, Mr. Russell M. Davenport, Dr. Mariafranca Morselli, Mr. Roger Sage, and Mr. Fred E. Winch, Jr. Mr. Russell Davenport served as committee chairperson and provided persistent and effective leadership throughout the manual's development. Committee members provided valuable council, review and oversight.

1 Willtis, C.O. 1958. Maple Sirup Producers Manual. USDA Hdbk. No. 134.
1 Willtis, C.O. 1963. Maple Sirup Producers Manual. USDA Hdbk. No. 134.
1 Willtis, C.O. 1965. Maple Sirup Producers Manual. USDA Hdbk. No. 134.
2 Willtis, C.O. and Hills, Claude H. 1976. Maple Sirup Producers Manual. USDA Hdbk. No. 134.

This manual was developed by inviting leaders from within the maple industry to author chapters or portions of chapters addressing important aspects of maple products production and marketing. That material, along with current research and experience, formed the basis from which the eleven chapters and two appendixes in this manual were developed. Contributing authors for each of the chapters were as follows:

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Contents

Preface

Chapter 1. Introduction
Dr. Melvin R. Koelling, Professor of Forestry, Michigan State University
Russell Davenport, Massachusetts Maple Producer

Chapter 2. History of Maple Syrup and Sugar Production

Dr. Melvin R. Koelling, Professor of Forestry, Michigan State University
Fred Laing, Proctor Maple Research Center, University of Vermont (deceased)
Dr. Fred Taylor, Professor Emeritus of Botany, University of Vermont

Chapter 3. The Maple Resource

Dr. Randall B. Heiligmann, Associate Professor of Forestry, The Ohio State University
Fred E. Winch, Jr., Professor Emeritus of Forestry, Cornell University

Chapter 4. Planning a Maple Syrup Operation

Dr. Melvin R. Koelling, Professor of Forestry, Michigan State University
Chris Hauge, Extension Specialist Emeritus, University of Wisconsin
Russell Davenport, Massachusetts Maple Producer

Chapter 5. Managing Maple Trees for Sap Production

Dr. Randall B. Heiligmann, Associate Professor of Forestry, The Ohio State University
Clarence Coons, Ontario R.P.F. Agroforestry Consultant
Dr. Robert R. Morrow, Professor Emeritus of Forestry, Cornell University
Lewis Staats, Extension Specialist, Cornell University
Fred Winch, Jr., Extension Forester Emeritus, Cornell University

Chapter 6. Maple Sap Production - Tapping, Collection and Storage

Dr. Randall B. Heiligmann, Associate Professor of Forestry, The Ohio State University
Dr. Melvin R. Koelling, Professor of Forestry, Michigan State University
Dr. Robert R. Morrow, Professor Emeritus of Forestry, Cornell University
Lewis Staats, Extension Specialist, Cornell University
Larry Myott, Extension Specialist, University of Vermont
George Cook, Extension Specialist, University of Vermont
George Buzzell, Forester, Vermont Department of Forests, Parks and Recreation
Dr. Mariafranca Morselli, Professor Emeritus of Botany, University of Vermont
Sumner Williams, Proctor Maple Research Center, University of Vermont

Chapter 7. Maple Syrup Production


Dr. Randall B. Heiligmann, Associate Professor of Forestry, The Ohio State University
Lewis Staats, Extension Specialist, Cornell University

Chapter 8. Syrup Filtration, Grading, Packing and Handling


Dr. Melvin R. Koelling, Professor of Forestry, Michigan State University
Dr. Randall B. Heiligmann, Associate Professor of Forestry, The Ohio State University
Bruce Martell, Vermont Department of Agriculture, Food and Markets
Henry Marckes, Vermont Department of Agriculture, Food and Markets

Chapter 9. Other Maple Products


Dr. Melvin R. Koelling, Professor of Forestry, Michigan State University
Arthur Merle, New York Maple Producer (deceased)
Roger Sage, New York Maple Producer
Lloyd Sipple, New York Maple Producer (deceased)
Dr. Randall B. Heiligmann, Associate Professor of Forestry, The Ohio State University

Chapter 10. Marketing Maple Syrup


Dr. Greg Passewitz, Associate Professor of Small Business, The Ohio State University
Dr. Melvin R. Koelling, Professor of Forestry, Michigan State University
Frank Majszak, Michigan Maple Producer

Chapter 11. Economics Of Maple Syrup Production


Paul Sendak, Forest Economist, U.S. Forest Service, New Hampshire
Dr. Melvin R. Koelling, Professor of Forestry, Michigan State University

Appendix 1. Maple Production and Processing Facilities


Dr. Melvin R. Koelling, Professor of Forestry, Michigan State University
Lewis Staats, Extension Specialist, Cornell University

Appendix 2. Maple Chemistry and Quality


Dr. Mariafranca Morselli, Professor Emeritus of Botany, University of Vermont
M. Lynn Whalen, Botany Department, University of Vermont

Selected Bibliography

In this manual, photographic credits are presented in the figure captions. Where no credit is shown, the photograph was provided by the editors.


All educational programs conducted by Ohio State University Extension are available to clientele on a nondiscriminatory basis without regard to race, color, creed, religion, sexual orientation, national origin, gender, age, disability or Vietnam-era veteran status.

Keith L. Smith, Associate Vice President for Ag. Adm. and Director, OSU Extension.

TDD No. 800-589-8292 (Ohio only) or 614-292-1868



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