You are entering 'Personality Space'... which the 'Home page' will now be a menu at the top, as follows:

Contributor . Exhorter . Facilitator . Mercy . Perceiver . Server . Teacher

(with a second line here)


The following buttons are live:

Contributor . Exhorter . Facilitator . Mercy . Perceiver . Server . Teacher


Suppose you click the first, which says 'Contributor.' The menu will alter:

CONTRIBUTOR . Exhorter . Facilitator . Mercy . Perceiver . Server . Teacher

PROFILE . More Detail of Contributor


This indicates that you are seeing a 'PROFILE' of the 'CONTRIBUTOR.' If you click on other choices, on the top line, you will see profiles of other cognitive styles. Suppose you see yourself described, and want 'More Detail of Contributor.' The menu changes and expands:

(the top line shows other choices)

Profile. MORE DETAIL . Historical Examples . Tests Between Two Styles

More Detail - Contributor Traits


This indicates that you are seeing 'MORE DETAIL' of the Contributor. You could examine 'Historical Examples' of the Contributor - to see how this might work, link to Foibles of the Famous. You can find 'MORE DETAIL' of other styles by clicking 'Profile,' choosing another style, then moving again to 'MORE DETAIL.' In each case, information will be presented in a format like the following:


How We Discovered This Information, Points 1-8

Summary, points 1-8

Details, points 1-8

Summary, points 1-8:

To discover this information, we:

1. looked at historical biographies Back to top

2. collated similar traits

3. grouped traits into styles

4. used symmetries to fill in gaps of understanding

5. tested the results in seminars

6. used brain lesion studies to map some styles onto the brain

7. studied neurological connections to map other styles onto the brain

8. discovered causes of common mental diseases

Details, points 1-8

Back to top

1. Biographies abound in our day. Scholarship in most cases is painstaking, uncompromising and honest. We decided in 1980, therefore, to 'reverse engineer' brain structure from a careful study of this rich historical information. We chose over 200 personalities. We collected quotes describing personality traits, from biographies of these different individuals. (back)

2. What followed was a gigantic jig-saw puzzle in which we looked for similarities between individuals. We found them. (back)

3. We made the assumption, with most neurologists, that the brain is composed of interacting modules. We assumed further, with educators, that different people tend to emphasize one or the other of these modules - this emphasis would generate cognitive style. We looked for groupings of traits in the historical data that we had collected and assumed, finally, that distinct groupings of traits would be 'a tip of the iceberg' to indicate characteristics of the underlying mental modules. We formed a theory of cognitive styles. (back)

4. It became evident that the cognitive styles we had 'reverse engineered' from history were highly symmetrical. Traits from one style could be used, therefore, to deduce corresponding traits for other styles. It was another jig-saw puzzle; we put it together. (back)

5. The resulting theory had to be tested. For two years we gave seminars to small groups, and discovered something very surprising. Not only did each individual in every seminar identify with ONE of the cognitive styles, but he or she identified with ONLY one of the styles! In 1986, we wrote a set of three books which sold, through word of mouth advertising, over the next ten years, into 23 countries - it appeared that this identification was completely cross-cultural. (back)

6. Brain lesions have been studied extensively. If some region of the brain is damaged, then behavior changes in certain predictable ways. We used this data successfully to map several of the cognitive styles onto the brain. That is, we discovered the location of the brain module responsible for that cognitive style! (back)

7. A great deal of study has been done on connections between parts of the brain. We were able to use this information to map the other styles onto the brain. That is, we discovered the location of the other brain modules. To our delight, this covered the entire brain - we needed nothing more, and nothing was left out! (back)

8. To our surprise, mechanisms for common mental diseases became obvious. Parkinson's Disease, for instance, was related to malfunctioning of one of the modules. One of the styles was much more vulnerable to Schizophrenia than were the other styles. (back)

Enter 'Personality Space'