SYNOPSIS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL ENRICHMENT PROGRAM OF 2nd CHANCE SANCTUARY

Ron Hines DVM PhD 4/24/06

BEHAVIORAL enrichment is a management tool through which animal caretakersanctuaries, wildlife rehabilitates and others can provide their animals with mental and physical stimulation using both natural and artificial objects. We do this to tempt the natural inquisitiveness of wildlife in our care and relieve the tedium and boredom that readily available food, shelter and safety provide. Behavioral enrichment also addresses the space limitations that sanctuaries must, by necessity, provide. We in the Sanctuary and wildlife rehabilitation field have done this intuitively, without conscious, effort for the last hundred years. Unfortunately, this has not always been the case in profit-driven institutions such as traditional zoos, game and theme parks.

The goal of behavioral enrichment is to increase activity and stimulation levels in the captive environment. This may stimulate natural behaviors, increase activity within a group, decrease stereotypic behaviors and generally enhance the animal’s life pleasures. Behavioral enrichment is always in the best interest of the animals we care for because it helps keep animals mentally and physically fit so that the stresses of captivity or injury can be minimized to the greatest extent possible.
2nd Chance Sanctuary believes firmly in animal enrichment and benevolent stewardship of all, non-releasable, living things. Our goal is to provide novelty, opportunity and choice for every animal in our care. To help us meet this goal, we rely heavily on community volunteers from the Sarasota and Manatee county areas with a love and understanding of animals. All volunteers work under the supervision of our trained Staff. Volunteers help design and build enrichment devices under the guidance of the Behavioral Enrichment protocols. Other Behavioral Enrichment programs involve school and youth groups under the supervision of a teacher or leader. They “adopt” an animal, research it’s natural behavior, design, fund and build enrichment devices and then watch the staff give that device to their adopted animals. “Community Service students” can also choose Behavioral Enrichment. projects to fulfill their community service requirements. This “Behavioral Enrichment Guide” was developed to provide guidance to all these special volunteers.

Behavioral enrichment is considered part of the daily husbandry routine at 2nd Chance Sanctuary and is generally begun daily when the habitats are cleaned. Weather and circumstance permitting, additional Behavioral Enrichment. is given throughout the day. Behavioral enrichment can include rugged toys of interest to the animal, novel objects, habitat modifications, and socialization sessions – all designed to provide sensory and motor stimulation. Because of the benevolent, passive nature of the animal welfare community, certain operant conditioning (such as live prey) and “training” may be philosophically unacceptable.
2nd Chance Sanctuary has developed the following guidelines to insure Behavioral Enrichment is carried out in a safe and effective manner. These guidelines include who gets behavioral enrichment, who can give it, how often, what type, how to get ideas for Behavioral Enrichment where items are stored and how they will be cared for, safely considerations, and educating the public about Behavioral Enrichment The following the guidelines are “approved lists” of Behavioral Enrichment items or devices by species groups:

I. WHO RECEIVES BEHAVIORAL ENRICHMENT:
A. All creatures will receive enrichment at least once daily
B. Primates, bears and raccoons will receive enrichment three times daily
C. Raptor and other birds will be enriched at the discretion of the Staff


II. WHO CAN GIVE BEHAVIORAL ENRICHMENT:
A. Only Staff will give enrichment to animals capable of inflicting human injury.
B. Aide Volunteers can do any enrichment for non-threatening creatures, that is, those unlikely to cause injury to humans.
C. Behavioral Enrichment volunteers may make enrichment items and devices for the creatures. Only Staff will give these Behavioral Enrichment items to the animals while the Behavioral Enrichment. volunteer watches.


III. FREQUENCY AND DURATION OF BEHAVIORAL ENRICHMENT

A. Behavioral Enrichment will be given all year long providing it is safe for the people and the animals.
B. Behavioral Enrichment will be given to both convalescent and healthy animals.
C. In most cases, Beh;avioral Enrichment items will be taken out after short periods to preserve novelty.
D. Food enrichment will only be given three times a week.


IV. WHERE TO GET IDEAS FOR BEHAVIORAL ENRICHMENT
A. Behavioral enrichment information will be available to volunteers from our Staff. The Behavioral Enrichment book shelf also contains:
1. The Shape of Enrichment newsletters
2. Approved enrichment items
3. Behavioral Enrichment approved lists which will be updated periodically
4. Enrichment articles
5. Browse/Toxic plant lists

V. CARE OF BEHAVIORAL ENRICHMENT ITEMS

A. Items will be washed and disinfected with hypochlorite (bleach 1:20) or heat between animals.
B. Non-washable, damaged or heavily soiled items will be disposed of.
C. Items will be stored neatly in the Behavioral Enrichment shelf and surrounding
area.

VI. SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS:
BEFORE DESIGNING BUILDING OR GIVING ANY Behavioral Enrichment ITEM….
ASK THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:

1. Can the creature be caught, entangled or trapped inside the item?
2. Can the item be used as a weapon to hurt conjoining creatures?
3. Will the item aid in the creature’s escape?
4. Can the item fall on the creature?
5. If the item is eaten or chewed, will it harm the creature?
6. Can the creature be cut, pinched or otherwise injured by the item?

ENRICHMENT ITEMS
A. Cables, chains or cords
1. Chain length will be as short as possible
2. Chain size will be of suitable size for the intended creature
3. Chain will be single link to minimize kinking.
4. Swivels should be used at the point of attachment to the enclosure to reduce entrapment.
5. Suspended chains, bungee cords and cables either inside or outside the enclosure will be covered with vinyl sheathing when appropriate.

B. String, twine and wire should only be used for appropriate
Animals.

B. Waxed boxes will not be given to animals.
C. Boxes will be free of staples, plastic tape and anything else that may prove dangerous to the creatures.
D. Bags will be free of string, plastic or inner liners (i.e. feed bags).
E. Browse will be non-toxic and free of wild and free roaming animal feces.
F. Feathers, snake sheds and any other body parts will be free of parasites (by freezing, washing, micro waving or setting out in the sun) before being given to an animal.
G. Food items.
1. Food will be animal-appropriate, non-poisonous and given only to species permissible to Staff.
2. Food items will only be given 3 X weekly.
3. Use only donated food items that are plentiful for Behavioral Enrichment to insure foods used for the daily diets do not run out.
4. All proposed food items will be approved by the Staff nutritionist or veterinarian.

H. Plants and herbs will be non-toxic.
I. Items donated by the public will be checked for safety and will be approved by Staff before being given to any creatures.
J. Behavioral Enrichlment items that are “home made” should be made using non-toxic, animal-safe materials.
K. Scented Behavioral Enrichment items should only be used in open, airy areas to allow ventilation. Do not give olfactory enrichment to sick or convalescent animals without specific veterinary permission.


VII. DOCUMENTATION
A. Any new Behavioral Enrichment ideas will be considered by filling out the “request for new Enrichment Form”. The Director and Staff Veterinarian will sign off on the form if it is approved.
B. New ideas are encouraged and will be positively evaluated 3X before being considered for inclusion in the “Approved Behavioral Enrichment list” by completing the “Evaluation Form for New Enrichment Items” form. Ongoing evaluation will continue by rating the success of daily enrichment.

VIII. PUBLIC EDUCATIION ABOUT ENRICHMENT:
A. Graphics about our Behavioral Enrichment Program will be developed and displayed around the Sanctuary when appropriate.
B. Staff and volunteers will be responsible for educating our visitors about B. E. and specifically about the enrichment visitors are witnessing at the time.
C. Staff will present local lectures, develop news items concerning Behavioral Enrichment and are encouraged to present papers on Behavioral Enrichment at conferences to share our experiences with others in the animal care field.

FINALLY: Behavioral Enrichlment SHOULD BE A POSATIVE AND ENJOYABLE EXPERIENCE FOR ALL CREATURES AT OUR SANCTUARY INCLUDING THE ANIMALS, STAFF AND VOLUNTEERS!

2nd CHANCE REQUEST FOR NEW ENRICHMENT FORM

Date: _______________

Animal Species and group:______________________________________

Proposed by: _________________________________________________

Reason for new enrichment: _____________________________________

Proposed enrichment device, activity or food item: ___________________


Cost analysis: _________________________________________________

Materials list: _________________________________________________

Design: Diagram:

Possible hazards: ______________________________________________

Suggested/required modifications (circle)__________________________


Vet approval required? Yes No Vet. __________________________

Director’s approval: _______________________ Date: _____________

2ND CHANCE BEHAVIORAL ENRICHMENT EVALUATION FORM

Name of enrichment __________________________________________
Receiving Animal or Animals___________________________________
Evaluator___________________Circle this evaluation 1st 2nd 3rd
Date:_____________________

Describe what happened? Including animal(s) response, level/length of interest and duration of interaction. Was there a group response? Did different animals respond differently?

Were there any negative responses or safety concerns? Yes No

Explain:


Modifications or suggested modifications to be made:


What was the visitor’s response to this enrichment?

Evaluation rate for success: very low very high
1 2 3 4

Did you get the desired results from this enrichment? Yes No

Should this enrichment be included on the “Approved Enrichment Items List? Yes No

How often should this enrichment be given?

Director Approval/Denial Vet Approval/Denial
(signature or N/A)

2nd CHACE SANCTUARY BI-MONTHLY ROUTINE
BEHAVIORAL ENRICHMENT LOG


Enter Date and rating Page 1


MONKEYS

Meds______

Scatter the Diet

Magazine

Peanut Butter , Celery, Onion etc.

DEER

Meds______

Scatter the Diet

Fresh palm and tree and shrub branches (Hibiscus, Grape, etc. no melelucca or oleander)

Peanut Butter on Celery, etc

LEMURS

Fruit Loops or Cheerios on Branches

Corn on cob (or husk on)

Scattered Mealworms, Crickets, Waxworms, etc

MACAWS

Peanut butter on Celery or Slash-Pine Cone

Nuts(no more than three a day)

Chew toys (hardwood, no mansonia, walnut or teak)

Red brick chunks, gnaw branches and Stumps (no melelucca or oleander))
Page 2
AMAZON PARROTS

Peanut butter on Celery or slash-pine cones

Nuts( no more than 3 per week)

Chew toys (hardwood, no mansonia, walnut or teak)

Red brick chunks, gnaw branches and wooden parrot toys

OWLS

Scattered Crickets (Screech and smaller owls)

Wrap rope around limbs to minimize bumblefoot

Novel cavities to explore

RACCOONS

Bones

Scattered scented straw (health food fragrances, spice rack)

Scented paper towels

Fruit chunks hidden tight in cavities

FERRETS

3-4” PVC pipe to run through, angles adjusted periodically, milk jugs w/2.5”hole

Foods in difficult-to-reach containers

Fragrant/non-toxic herbs

Health food and supermarket spices on paper towels

Page 3
SKUNKS

Grubs in sand or gravel , foods in difficult-to-reach containers,

Fragrant/non-toxic herbs

Health food and supermarket spices on paper towels


RABBITS

4” PVC pipe and novel cavities

Scented kale or rabbit pellets

Novel substrates (corn cobs, sisal or mague matting, hemp ropes etc.)

CAPYBARA

Fresh , washed, produce and hay bales

Hibiscus and wild grape branches

Water hibiscus and cattail

Children’s polystyrene swimming pools

Waterfall or spray rigged from garden hose


BATS

Fruit in novel locations

Sample trays of food scented with spices, herbs and natural fragrances


Alternate New College rating: 0=Bad outcome
1=lukewarm response
2=1-5 minute interest
3=5-10 minute interest
4=10-20 minute interest
5= excellent response

2nd CHANCE SANCTUARY BEHAVIORAL ENRICHMENT APPROVED LIST FOR PRIMATES

FRUIT JUCE ICE CUBES
COOKED BROWN RICE AND PASTA (No fat monkeys please).
SAND BOXES WITH HIDDEN OBJECT S
ROUND CARDBOARD OATMEAL BOXES
SMALL LITTLE TIKES CHILD-SAFE TOYS
NON-BREAKABLE MIRRORS
ONIONS (you will be impressed by capuchin response !)
News paper (=soya ink)
CLOTHING WITH SCENTS (buttons & zippers removed)
PAPER BAGS WITH TREATS (food or toys)
BOXES WITH SCENTS (perfumes or spices)
WISKBROOM WITH SEED
HIDING FOOD (foraging)
FEATHERS
NEW VEGITATION IN POTS
NON-TOXIC FLOWERS (no preservatives)
COTTON SOCKS WITH FOOD OR TOYS HIDDEN INSIDE
DIFFERENT SIZED BRUSHES AND TOOTH BRUSHES
PINE-CONE TREATS (butter w jam, peanut butter or canned dog or cat food)
PLAYING NATURE OR MUSIC AUDIO TAPES
RAISINS IN SEALED PAPER TOWEL TUBE OR SMALL BOX
STEAMED AND RAW VEGETABLES
PINEAPPLE TOPS OR ARTICHOKES
INFANT-SAFE STUFFED ANIMALS
CARDBOARD CERIAL BOXES
TIRES AND BUNGEE CORDS
FOOD IN PLASTIC BABY BOTTLES
MEALWORMS OR CRICKETS
CARDBOARD TUBES WITH SCENTS OR FOOD
PERFUME SAMPLES
FRESH OR DRIED HERBS
BROSE (non-toxic) AND LEAF PILES
FROZEN JUICE AND ICE POPS
HAY-FILLED ENVELOPES
BUTCHER PAPER OR CARDBOARD
CARPET PIECES
WINDCHIMES OUTSIDE ENCLOSURE & OUT OF REACH
STRAW OR HAY
WHOLE RAW PEANUTS AND DRY UNSALTED

All food items must be organic, sugar, salt and preservative free!


2ND CHANCE SANCTUARY BEHAVIORAL ENRICHMENT LIST APPROVED LIST FOR OMNIVORES

FOOD IN PLASTIC BABY BOTTLES
ICE CUBES
HIDING CANNED MEATS (FORAGING/HUNTING)
CARDBOARD CERAL & ROUND CARDBOARD OATMEAL BOXES
NON-BREAKABLE MIRROR
CARDBOARD EGG CARTONS
BOOMER BALLS, PVC TUBES
BOX WITH SCENTS (perfume or spices)
PERFUME SAMPLES, FEATHERS
NEW VEGITATION IN POTS
NON-TOXIC FLOWERS (no preservatives)
HEADS OF LETTUCE/STALKS OF CELERY
PINE CONES
PLAYING NATURE OR MUSIC AUDIO TAPES
LARGE CARDBOARD BOX TO PLAY IN
LEAF OR MULCH PILES
PRODUCE BOBBING IN WATER BOWL
HUMAN INTERACTION (if non-stressful)
NESTING BOXES AND MATERIALS
WHOLE PRODUCE
PAPER BAGS
PINATAS
MAGAZINES
MEALWORMS AND CRICKETS
CARDBOARD TUBES WITH SCENTS OR FOOD
RAW COTTON
SQUASH OR MELLON
FRESH OR DRIED HERBS
BROWSE (non-toxic) and leaf piles
NEW BRANCHES AND STUMPS
BUTCHER PAPER
BONES
WINDCHIMES OUTSIDE EXHIBIT
STRAW OR HAY
CRUMPLED PAPER BALL
FEED BAGS (liners removed)
GRASS CLUMPS
RAWHIDE CHEW TOYS (limited amount)
All food items must be organic, sugar, salt and preservative free. Meat products may not be pork or “cured” and never raw.

2ND CHANCE SANCTUARY BEHAVIORAL ENRICHMENT APPROVED LIST FOR CERVIDS

FOOD IN CINDER BLOCK OR UNDER PLASTIC BUCKET
JAM OR PEANUT BUTTER RUBBED INTO CREVACES
SLIGHTLY BURRIED CARROTS
CARDBOARD BOXES WITH HONEY TO BE LICK OFF
CARDBOARD EGG CARTONS, SCENTED
BOX WITH SCENTS (perfume or spices)
PERFUME SAMPLES, FEATHERS
NEW VEGITATION IN POTS
NON-TOXIC FLOWERS (no preservatives)
HEADS OF LETTUCE, STALKS OF CELERY
OATINGNON-RESINOUS PINE CONES WITH JAM/PEANUT BUTTER COATING
PLAYING NATURE OR MUSIC AUDIO TAPES
BALES OF HAY
LEAF OR MULCH PILES
PRODUCE BOBBING IN WATER BOWL
HUMAN INTERACTION (only if non-stressed, mellow animal)
HIDING PLACES, NESTING BOXES AND MATERIALS
WHOLE PRODUCE
PAPER BAGS WITH FRUIT INSIDE
CARDBOARD TUBES WITH SCENTS OR FOOD
SQUASH OR MELLON
FRESH OR DRIED HERBS
BROWSE (non-toxic) and leaf piles
NEW BRANCHES AND STUMPS
KRAFT BAGS
SCENTED WOODEN TOYS
WINDCHIMES OUTSIDE EXHIBIT
STRAW OR HAY
CRUMPLED PAPER BALL
FEED BAGS (liners removed)
GRASS CLUMPS
HERBIVOROUS, NON-AGGRESSIVE COMPATABLE ANIMAL COMPANIONS

All food items must be organic, sugar, salt and preservative free.

2nd CHANCE SANCTUARY BEHAVIORAL ENRICHMENT APPROVED LIST FOR CAPYBARRA

FOOD UNDER PLASTIC BUCKET
PEANUT BUTTER RUBBED INTO CREVACES
SLIGHTLY BURRIED CARROTS
CARDBOARD BOXES WITH HONEY TO BE LICK OFF
CARDBOARD EGG CARTONS, SCENTED
BOX WITH SCENTS (perfume or spices)
PERFUME SAMPLES, FEATHERS
NEW VEGITATION IN POTS
NON-TOXIC FLOWERS (no preservatives)
HEADS OF LETTUCE/STALKS OF CELERY
PINE CONES
PLAYING NATURE OR MUSIC AUDIO TAPES
BALES OF HAY
LEAF OR MULCH PILES
PRODUCE BOBBING IN WATER BOWL
HUMAN INTERACTION (if non-stressful)
HIDING PLACES, NESTING BOXES AND MATERIALS
WHOLE PRODUCE
PAPER BAGS WITH FRUIT INSIDE
CARDBOARD TUBES WITH SCENTS OR FOOD
SQUASH OR MELLON
FRESH OR DRIED HERBS
BROWSE (non-toxic) and leaf piles
NEW BRANCHES AND STUMPS
BUTCHER PAPER
SCENTED WOODEN TOYS
WINDCHIMES OUTSIDE EXHIBIT
STRAW OR HAY
CRUMPLED PAPER BALL
FEED BAGS (liners removed)
GRASS CLUMPS
NON-AGGRESSIVE HERBIVOROUS ANIMAL COMPANIONS

All food items must be organic, sugar, salt and preservative free.

2ND CHANCE SANCTUARY BEHAVIORAL ENRICHMENT APPROVED LIST FOR MISCELLANEOUS HERBIVORS

FOOD UNDER PLASTIC BUCKETS
PEANUT BUTTER RUBBED INTO CREVACES
SLIGHTLY BURRIED CARROTS
CARDBOARD BOXES WITH HONEY TO BE LICK OFF
CARDBOARD EGG CARTONS, SCENTED
BOX WITH SCENTS (perfume or spices)
PERFUME SAMPLES, FEATHERS
NEW VEGITATION IN POTS
NON-TOXIC FLOWERS (no preservatives)
HEADS OF LETTUCE/STALKS OF CELERY
PINE CONES
PLAYING NATURE OR MUSIC AUDIO TAPES
BALES OF HAY
LEAF OR MULCH PILES
PRODUCE BOBBING IN WATER BOWL
HUMAN INTERACTION (if non-stressful)
HIDING PLACES, NESTING BOXES AND MATERIALS
WHOLE PRODUCE
PAPER BAGS WITH FRUIT INSIDE
CARDBOARD TUBES WITH SCENTS OR FOOD
SQUASH OR MELLON
FRESH OR DRIED HERBS
BROWSE (non-toxic) and leaf piles
NEW BRANCHES AND STUMPS
BUTCHER PAPER
SCENTED WOODEN TOYS
WINDCHIMES OUTSIDE EXHIBIT
STRAW OR HAY
CRUMPLED PAPER BALL
FEED BAGS (liners removed)
GRASS CLUMPS
NON-AGGRESSIVE COMPATABLE ANIMAL COMPANIONS

All food items must be organic, sugar, salt and preservative free.

2ND CHANCE SANCTUARY BEHAVIORAL ENRICHMENT

PERPETUAL WISH LIST

FOOD
Herbs & spices, fresh and dried
Air popped plain popcorn
Mini raisin boxes
Peanut butter (no sugar, natural)
Jelly (all fruit)
Honey/Honey comb
Molasses
Natural canned or frozen fruit juices
Herb teas (loose or in bags)
Live fish and insects
Ice blocks
Hard nuts (brazil, pecan, walnut, almond, hazelnuts)

TOYS
Infant and preschool toys
Paper towels and toilet paper
Tupperware with lids
Wind chimes
5-gallon plastic water bottles
Tooth and hairbrushes
Envelopes (all sizes)
Fabric swatch books
Plastic bristle broom heads
Plastic bristle scrub brushes
Parrot toys
Frisbees
Parking cones
Small flags (cotton)

Behavioral Enrichment Wish List Cont.

TOOLS
Hoses
Rakes
Brooms
Brass shut off hose nozzles
Hemp rope
Spun wool
Tape player
Rope spools (all sizes, wood)
Buckets
Fire hose

MISC.
Plastic crock pet dishes
Perfume and scented oils
Small fruit trees
Bamboo sections
Catnip


Please only donate organic fruits, and vegetables and 100% natural food items THANK YOU !!!

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