Planning Division (PCP)
 

{5} MANAGEMENT OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTES


{
5.1} MSW Rules

Municipal Solid Wastes (Management & Handling) Rules, 2000 (MSW Rules) are applicable to every municipal authority responsible for collection, segregation, storage, transportation, processing and disposal of municipal solid

The Rule contains four Schedules namel

*

Schedule-I

:

Relates to implementation Schedule

*

Schedule-II

:

Specifications relating to collection, segregation, storage, transportation, processing and disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW).

*

Schedule-III

:

Specifications for landfilling indicating; site selection, facilities at the site, specifications for landfilling, Pollution prevention, water quality monitoring, ambient air quality monitoring, Plantation at landfill site, closure of landfill site and post care.

*

Schedule-IV

:

Indicate waste processing options including; standards for composting, treated leachates and incinerations.

5.2 Local Bodies

POPULATION

CLASS

NO. OF CITIES

>10,00,000 and above (metro only)

 

35

>1,00,000 and above

Class I

393

50,000 – 99,999

Class II

401

20,000 – 49,999

Class III

1,115

10,000 – 19,999

Class IV

1,344

5,000 – 9,999

Class V

888

>5000

Class VI

191

Unclassified

-

10

  

4377


5.3 Authorities and Responsibilities.

S.No

Agencies/ Authorities

Responsibility

1

Municipal Authorities

  1. Ensuring that municipal solid wastes to be handled as per rules.
  2. Seeking authorization from State Pollution Control Board (SPCB) for setting up waste processing and disposal facility including landfills.
  3. Furnishing annual report.
  4. Complying with Schedule I, II, III and IV of the rules

2.


(i)

 

 

(ii)

State Government

Secretary In-Charge of

Department of Urban Development

District Magis-trates/ Deputy Commissioner



Overall responsibility for the enforcement of the provisions of the rules in the metropolitan cities.

Overall responsibility for the enforcement of the provisions of the rules within the territorial limits of their jurisdiction.

3

Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB)

  1. Co-ordinate with State Boards and Committees with reference to implementation and review of standards and guidelines and compilation of monitoring data.
  2. Prepare consolidated annual review report on management of municipal solid wastes for forwarding it to Central Government along with its recommendations before the 15th of December every year.
  3. Laying down standards on waste processing/ disposal technologies including approval of technology.

4.

State Pollution Control Board (SPCB)

  1. Monitor the compliance of the standards regarding ground water, ambient air leachate quality and the compost quality including incineration standards as specified under Schedule II, III & IV.
  2. Issuance of authorization to the municipal authority or an operator of a facility stipulating compliance criteria and standards.
  3. Prepare and submit to the CPCB an annual report with regard to the implementation of the rules.

5.4 Waste Generation and Composition

  • Total quantity of waste generated in the country (based on weighment exercise by local bodies) is not reported. However, Ministry of Urban Development in its manual on solid waste management (year 2000) has estimated waste generation of 100,000 MT.

  • CPCB with the assistance of NEERI has conducted survey of solid waste management in 59 cities (35 metro cities and 24 state capitals-2004-05).

  • Quantities and waste generation rates in 59 cities is as under:

S.
No

Name of City

Population
(As per 2001 census)

Area (Sq. Km)

Waste Quantity (TPD)

Waste Generation Rate (kg/c/day)

1

Kavaratti

10,119

4

3

0.30

2

Gangtok

29,354

15

13

0.44

3

Itanagar

35,022

22

12

0.34

4

Daman

35,770

7

15

0.42

5

Silvassa

50,463

17

16

0.32

6

Panjim

59,066

69

32

0.54

7

Kohima

77,030

30

13

0.17

8

Port Blair

99,984

18

76

0.76

9

Shillong

1,32,867

10

45

0.34

10

Simla

1,42,555

20

39

0.27

11

Agartala

1,89,998

63

77

0.40

12

Gandhinagar

1,95,985

57

44

0.22

13

Dhanbad

1,99,258

24

77

0.39

14

Pondicherry

2,20,865

19

130

0.59

15

Imphal

2,21,492

34

43

0.19

16

Aizwal

2,28,280

117

57

0.25

17

Jammu

3,69,959

102

215

0.58

18

Dehradun

4,26,674

67

131

0.31

19

Asansol

4,75,439

127

207

0.44

20

Kochi

5,95,575

98

400

0.67

21

Raipur

6,05,747

56

184

0.30

22

Bhubaneswar

6,48,032

135

234

0.36

23

Tiruvanantapuram

7,44,983

142

171

0.23

24

Chandigarh

8,08,515

114

326

0.40

25

Guwahati

8,09,895

218

166

0.20

26

Ranchi

8,47,093

224

208

0.25

27

Vijaywada

8,51,282

58

374

0.44

28

Srinagar

8,98,440

341

428

0.48

29

Madurai

9,28,868

52

275

0.30

30

Coimbatore

9,30,882

107

530

0.57

31

Jabalpur

9,32,484

134

216

0.23

32

Amritsar

9,66,862

77

438

0.45

33

Rajkot

9,67,476

105

207

0.21

34

Allahabad

9,75,393

71

509

0.52

35

Vishakhapatnam

9.82,904

110

584

0.59

36

Faridabad

10,55,938

216

448

0.42

37

Meerut

10,68,772

142

490

0.46

38

Nashik

10,77,236

269

200

0.19

39

Varanasi

10,91,918

80

425

0.39

40

Jamshedpur

11,04,713

64

338

0.31

41

Agra

12,75,135

140

654

0.51

42

Vadodara

13,06,227

240

357

0.27

43

Patna

13,66,444

107

511

0.37

44

Ludhiana

13,98,467

159

735

0.53

45

Bhopal

14,37,354

286

574

0.40

46

Indore

14,74,968

130

557

0.38

47

Nagpur

20,52,066

218

504

0.25

48

Lucknow

21,85,927

310

475

0.22

49

Jaipur

23,22,575

518

904

0.39

50

Surat

24,33,835

112

1000

0.41

51

Pune

25,38,473

244

1175

0.46

52

Kanpur

25,51,337

267

1100

0.43

53

Ahmedabad

35,20,085

191

1302

0.37

54

Hyderabad

38,43,585

169

2187

0.57

55

Banglore

43,01,326

226

1669

0.39

56

Chennai

43,43,645

174

3036

0.62

57

Kolkata

45,72,876

187

2653

0.58

58

Delhi

1,03,06,452

1483

5922

0.57

59

Greater Mumbai

1,19,78,450

437

5320

0.45

  • Characterisation of waste is necessary to know changing trends in composition of waste. Based on composition/ characterization of waste, appropriate selection of waste processing technologies could be selected.

  • Waste characterisation in 59 cities is indicated below:

S.
No

Name of City

Compostables
(%)

Recyclables
(%)

C/N
Ratio

HCV*
(Kcal/Kg)

Moisture
(%)

1

Kavarati

46.01

27.20

18.04

2242

25

2

Gangtok

46.52

16.48

25.61

1234

44

3

Itanagar

52.02

20.57

17.68

3414

50

4

Daman

29.60

22.02

22.34

2588

53

5

Silvassa

71.67

13.97

35.24

1281

42

6

Panjim

61.75

17.44

23.77

2211

47

7

Kohima

57.48

22.67

30.87

2844

65

8

Port Blair

48.25

27.66

35.88

1474

63

9

Shillong

62.54

17.27

28.86

2736

63

10

Simla

43.02

36.64

23.76

2572

60

11

Agartala

58.57

13.68

30.02

2427

60

12

Gandhinagar

34.30

13.20

36.05

698

24

13

Dhanbad

46.93

16.16

18.22

591

50

14

Pondicherry

49.96

24.29

36.86

1846

54

15

Imphal

60.00

18.51

22.34

3766

40

16

Aizwal

54.24

20.97

27.45

3766

43

17

Jammu

51.51

21.08

26.79

1782

40

18

Dehradun

51.37

19.58

25.90

2445

60

19

Asansol

50.33

14.21

14.08

1156

54

20

Kochi

57.34

19.36

18.22

591

50

21

Raipur

51.40

16.31

223.50

1273

29

22

Bhubaneswar

49.81

12.69

20.57

742

59

23

Tiruvananthapuram

72.96

14.36

35.19

2378

60

24

Chandigarh

57.18

10.91

20.52

1408

64

25

Guwahati

53.69

23.28

17.71

1519

61

26

Ranchi

51.49

9.86

20.23

1060

49

27

Vijaywada

59.43

17.40

33.90

1910

46

28

Srinagar

6177

17.76

22.46

1264

61

29

Madurai

55.32

17.25

32.69

1813

46

30

Coimbatore

50.06

15.52

45.83

2381

54

31

Jabalpur

58.07

16.61

28.22

2051

35

32

Amritsar

65.02

13.94

30.69

1836

61

33

Rajkot

41.50

11.20

52.56

687

17

34

Allahabad

35.49

19.22

19.00

1180

18

35

Visakhapatnam

45.96

24.20

41.70

1602

53

36

Faridabad

42.06

23.31

18.58

1319

34

37

Meerut

54.54

10.96

19.24

1089

32

38

Nasik

39.52

25.11

37.20

2762

62

39

Varanasi

45.18

17.23

19.40

804

44

40

Jamshedpur

43.36

15.69

19.69

1009

48

41

Agra

46.38

15.79

21.56

520

28

42

Vadodara

47.43

14.50

40.34

1781

25

43

Patna

51.96

12.57

18.62

819

36

44

Ludhiana

49.80

19.32

52.17

2559

65

45

Bhopal

52.44

22.33

21.58

1421

43

46

Indore

48.97

12.57

29.30

1437

31

47

Nagpur

47.41

15.53

26.37

2632

41

48

Lucknow

47.41

15.53

21.41

1557

60

49

Jaipur

45.50

12.10

43.29

834

21

50

Surat

56.87

11.21

42.16

990

51

51

Pune

62.44

16.66

35.54

2531

63

52

Kanpur

47.52

11.93

27.64

1571

46

53

Ahemdabad

40.81

11.65

29.64

1180

32

54

Hyderabad

54.20

21.60

25.90

1969

46

55

Bangalore

51.84

22.43

35.12

2386

55

56

Chennai

41.34

16.34

29.25

2594

47

57

Kolkata

50.56

11.48

31.81

1201

46

58

Delhi

54.42

15.52

34.87

1802

49

59

Gr.Mumbai

62.44

16.66

39.04

1786

54


5.5 Implementation of MSW Rules

Assessment of status of solid waste management is based on annual reports being furnished by local bodies to State Pollution Control Boards and forwarding consolidated Annual report to CPCB.

5.5.1 Annual Report-2004-05

Local bodies are required to forward Annual report for each year to SPCBs/ PCCs before 30th June every year and SPCBs in turn, will send their consolidated report for the year before 15th September to CPCB. However, in terms of adhering with stipulated schedule, delay has been observed. As of 31st January, 2006, CPCB could receive Annual reports from 25 SPCBs/ PCCs. Based on information received from 27 SPCBs, the present Annual Report of 2004-05 is prepared.

Status of Implementation of MSW Rules

Authorizations

  • During 2004-05, out of local bodies reported by SPCBs/ PCCs, local bodies have applied for seeking authorizations from SPCBs. SPCBs in turn, have granted authorizations to local bodies

  • It has been observed that many local bodies are not applying for authorizations and the reason for not applying relates to not having definite plans for setting-up of waste processing and disposal facilities.

  • States like Maharashtra, Tripura, West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Chhatisgarh, Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa and Karnataka could receive good response from local bodies for receiving applications. Many SPCBs have issued good number of authorizations such as, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Tripura, West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Chhatisgarh, Pondicherry, Madhya Pradesh and Karnataka.

  • The compliance of data on Authorization during 2003-04 and 2004-05 is as under: (out of 3577)

No. of applications received
No. of authorizations granted
2003-2004
2004-2005
2003-04
2004-05
1700
2339
766
1220

Details (Statewise) on authorization status is given in Annexure-I.

Implementation of Schedule-II

  • The level of awareness and strengthening of efforts are made by local bodies to systematize waste collection, segregation, storage and transportation. Such efforts are either restricted to a few localities or wards within the town or taken up at entire town level.

  • It has been observed that local bodies require adequate funds to augment the existing infrastructure. Infrastructure need to be strengthened in terms of tools/equipment and transportation. In mega cities, operation and maintenance costs are high due to quantum of garbage to be handled. There is necessity that large number of companies take part in manufacturing MSW handling equipment which should be available at reasonable cost and having lesser expenditure on operation and maintenance.

  • The combination of manual and mechanical handling of waste is continued. Smaller towns will probably continue with manual handling but, this will be improved by adopting safer tools/ equipment to prevent health risks of conservancy staff.

  • Segregation of waste at house-hold level needs notification through larger mass awareness campaigns.

  • Still, at large number of towns, slaughter house waste and bio-medical waste is ultimately mixed at landfill/ dumping sites.

Implementation of Schedule-III

  • Disposal of waste through open dumping still continuous.
  • It has been observed that many States have initially land emphasis on identification of sites and ensuring that sites are transferred to local bodies. Such initiatives have been observed in the State/UT; Arunachal Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tripura, Mizoram, West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh, Chhatisgarh, Gujarat, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Rajasthan, Goa, Pondicherry , Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka.

  • States like Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat have taken initiatives to set-up engineered landfill sites. State like Gujarat and Karnataka have taken actions to set-up common/regional landfill facilities.

Implementation of Schedule-IV

  • There has been good move on setting up of waste processing facilities as compared to the efforts observed during 2003-04.

  • In many States, several towns have responded that there is partial composting/ vermi-composting facilities. SPCBs have however, indicated that such efforts are not scientific.

  • It has been observed that ‘composting’ and ‘vermi-composting’ is preferred as easy technological option by local bodies and other options like thermal processing (incineration pyolysis etc.) are not attempted due to non-availability of operating experiences.

Recommendations
  1. MoEF and CPCB may continue the on-going scheme on Demo-Projects for at least one to two towns in each State and this scheme may go in addition to recommended grants under Twelfth Finance Commission to the States. However, smaller towns preferably having population < 5 lakh could be preferred for pilot project

  2. Central Ministries such as Ministry of Urban Development (MoUD), Ministry of Agriculture and Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources (NCES) may provide necessary assistance to the States in terms of technical assistance and in selection of appropriate technologies relating to waste processing and disposal including facilitating States in seeking private sector participation. This proposed action will help States in proper utilization of grants under the Twelfth Finance Commission.

  3. Ministry of Urban Development may circulate the report of an Inter-ministerial task force on integrated plant nutrient management using city compost which has been filed in the Hon’ble Supreme Court on 06.05.2005 (in the matter of WPC 888/96) to Pollution Control Boards/ Pollution Control Committees and State Governments. This report has brought out various relevant issues on composting particularly technical and financial requirements for setting up of compost plant and will be useful to State Govts, local bodies and other concerned agencies to refer before taking final decisions.

  4. MoEF may consider to suitably amend the Schedule-I of MSW rules while taking view on funds being provided under the Twelfth Finance Commission (TFC) which are to be utilized during 2005-2010

  5. A report of the expert committee for inspection and evaluation of the project for energy recovery from MSW at Lucknow; 2005 (brought out with reference to MNES Order dated 19.05.2005) may be circulated to State Govts. for their reference. The recommendations of Expert Group MNES would be useful to States while taking decisions on selection of waste processing technologies and particularly with reference to waste-to-energy projects.

  6. Specific attention may be required while amending MSW rules in view of ;


    • Promotion of regional facilities (common facilities) for setting-up of waste processing and disposal facilities.

    • Aviation authorities may issue appropriate guidelines to States while deciding for identification of sites for waste processing and disposal.

  7. Pollution Control Boards/Local Bodies/ State Governments who have taken initiatives in preparing action plans for solid waste management in metro cities and State Capitals ( in pursuance with Supreme Court order dated 04.10.04, WPC 888/96), may get Detailed Project Report (DPR) for each metro city and State Capital and immediately start implementation. During the Eleventh Plan period, States may target to achieve to cover major local bodies in ensuing their compliance to MSW rules taking benefit of grants released and also meeting balance out of own resources of local bodies through State Plan.

  8. State governments may set up solid waste mission (as set up by Govt. of West Bengal) and evolve state level policies (like Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra and others) and providing technical/ financial guidance to local bodies in their State/UT.

  9. Dissemination of information through Electronic media including mass awareness campaigns and seeking private sector participation in solid waste management should be continued activity. Pollution Control Boards/ State Urban Development Departments may place consolidated status on solid waste management (may also include other sanitation issues of state), Annual reports of local bodies and initiatives taken on web site for public benefit.

5.6 Initiatives of Local Bodies

  • Some of the local bodies have taken initiatives to improve management practices relating to collection, segregation, storage and transportation of waste. Such efforts are restricted to either a few wards/ area or for entire town.

Implementation Status of Schedule-II

S.No

States/UT

Local bodies taken initiatives for improving collection, segregation, storage and Transportation of waste

1

Arunachal Pradesh

14 District Head quarters have taken initiatives in Selected zones

2

Mahrashtra

Local bodies at several places have organized collection of MSW by house-to-house collection by using Ghanta Gandies and colletion bins. (Pune,Nasik,Nagpur,Mumbai and others).

3

Tripura

Partially done at Agartala

4

Mizoram

Yet to be taken up.

5

West Bengal

  • Out of 126 local bodies, 119 have taken some initiatives.
  • House-to-house collection of waste for almost all wards have been reported by 13 local bodies (Barrackpore, North Dum Dum, Bidhaunagar, Kumarhati, Khardata, Madhyamgram, Naihati, Rajarhat-Gopalpur, South Dum Dum, Kulti, Cooch Behar, Suri

6

Assam

No significant initiatives

7

Madhya Pradesh

33 local bodies have taken some initiatives (Bhopal, Indore, Rewa, Gwalior, Shahdol, Amarkantak, Chandi, Ujmariya, etc.)

8

Gujarat

Several local bodies have taken initiatives (Ahemdabad, Surat, Bejalpur, Gandhinagar

9

Punjab

Being proposed at Mandi Gobindgarh and Kartarpur

10

Himachal Pradesh

Yet to be picked up. On demo-basis, initiated at Mandi

11

Chhatisgarh

Initiated in:9 Nagar Nigam, 21 Nagar Palika and 21 Nagar Panchyat (Raipur, Ambikapur, Korba, Durg, Rajnadgaon, Munjeli, Champa, Dhamtari, Ratnpur, Sukma etc.)

12

Nagaland

Kohima, Dimapur

13

Haryana

19 ULBs have taken some step (Faridabad, Ambala, Bhwani, Hissar, Jind, Karnal, Panipat etc.)

14

Daman Diu & DNH

Yet to be started

15

Bihar

Yet to be started

16

Meghalaya

Shillong, Jowai, Tura, Williamnagar, Baghmora, Resubelpara.

17

Chandigarh

House-to-house collection of waste widely practiced.

18

Rajasthan

Initiatives taken by 14 towns.

19

Goa

Panjim

20

Pondicherry

Pondicherry

21

Andhra Pradesh

Hyderabad, Vishakapatnam, Vijaywada, Suryapet, Guntur, Vizianagaram

22

Andaman Nicobar

At Port Blair in 70 locations covering 18 wards.

23

Karnataka

Many local bodies have taken initiatives

24

Orissa

Not yet initiated

25

Tamil Nadu

Almost all the local bodies have partially taken the initiatives for source segregation. Notable works have been done in Chennai, Tirunelveli, Tiruppur, Namakkal, Udumalpet, Polacode, Udagamandalam

26

Jammu & Kashmir

25% coverage by NGOs in Jammu and Srinagar for House-to-house collection.

27

Uttar Pradesh

Lucknow, Kanpur

  • Waste Processing and Disposal
  • Many of the cities and towns have taken initiatives to set-up waste processing and disposal facilities. State wise details are given in Annexure-II and III.

  • Status of landfill sites in 59 cities
  • S. No

    Name of city

    No. of landfill sites

    Area of landfill (ha)

    Life of landfill (Years)

    New site proposed

    1

    Indore

    1

    59.50

    -

    No

    2

    Bhopal

    1

    -

    -

    No

    3

    Dhanbad

    3

    -

    -

    No

    4

    Jabalpur

    1

    60.70

    -

    Yes

    5

    Jamshedpur

    2

    4.10

    -

    No

    6

    Patna

    -

    -

    -

    Yes

    7

    Ranchi

    1

    15.00

    -

    No

    8

    Bhubaneshwar

    4

    -

    -

    Yes

    9

    Ahmedabad

    1

    84.00

    30

    Yes

    10

    Nashik

    1

    34.40

    15

    No

    11

    Raipur

    1

    14.60

    -

    Yes

    12

    Asansol

    1

    2.00

    7

    No

    13

    Banglore

    2

    40.70

    -

    No

    14

    Agartala

    1

    6.80

    14

    Yes

    15

    Agra

    1

    1.50

    30

    No

    16

    Allahabad

    2

    -

    -

    No

    17

    Daman

    2

    -

    -

    No

    18

    Faridabad

    3

    2.40

    -

    No

    19

    Lucknow

    1

    1.40

    3

    Yes

    20

    Meerut

    2

    14.20

    -

    No

    21

    Nagpur

    1

    -

    -

    No

    22

    Vadodara

    1

    8.10

    -

    Yes

    23

    Gandhinagar

    -

    -

    -

    Yes

    24

    Visakhapattnam

    1

    40.50

    25

    No

    25

    Dehradun

    1

    4.50

    -

    Yes

    26

    Ludhiana

    1

    40.40

    -

    No

    27

    Guwahati

    1

    13.20

    -

    No

    28

    Kohima

    1

    -

    -

    No

    29

    Amritsar

    1

    -

    -

    Yes

    30

    Imphal

    1

    -

    -

    No

    31

    Itanagar

    1

    -

    -

    No

    32

    Aizwal

    1

    -

    -

    No

    33

    Rajkot

    2

    1.20

    -

    Yes

    34

    Pune

    1

    -

    -

    No

    35

    Simla

    1

    0.60

    -

    No

    36

    Madurai

    1

    48.60

    35

    No

    37

    Jaipur

    3

    31.40

    -

    No

    38

    Kochi

    1

    -

    -

    No

    39

    Coimbatore

    2

    292.00

    -

    No

    40

    Vijayawada

    -

    -

    -

    No

    41

    Kavaratti

    1

    0.20

    -

    No

    42

    Chandigarh

    1

    18.00

    -

    No

    43

    Thiruvananthpuram

    1

    12.15

    -

    No

    44

    Panjim

    1

    1.20

    30

    No

    45

    Silvassa

    1

    -

    -

    No

    46

    Hyderabad

    1

    121.50

    -

    No

    47

    Gangtok

    1

    2.80

    -

    No

    48

    Varanasi

    1

    2.00

    -

    Yes

    49

    Kanpur

    1

    27.00

    -

    No

    50

    Port Blair

    1

    0.20

    6

    Yes

    51

    Pondicherry

    -

    -

    -

    Yes

    52

    Surat

    1

    200.00

    -

    No

    53

    Srinagar

    1

    30.40

    -

    No

    54

    Jammu

    1

    -

    10

    Yes

    55

    Greater Mumbai

    3

    140.00

    -

    No

    56

    Chennai

    2

    465.50

    24/17

    No

    57

    Kolkata

    1

    24.70

    35

    Yes

    58

    Shillong

    1

    -

    -

    No

    59

    Delhi

    3

    66.40

    -

    No


    5.7 Action Plans for Management

    • Pursuant to the Hon’ble Supreme Court order dated 4.10.2004, CPCB interacted with Pollution Control Boards to get the action plans prepared from local bodies of 35 metrocities and 24 State Capitals.

    • Local bodies of following metro cities and State Capitals have taken initiatives to prepare action plan for management of MSW:

    Metro cities

    State Capitals

  • Surat
  • Coimbatore
  • Delhi
  • Silvasa
  • Thiruvananthapuram
  • Rajkot
  • Vadodara
  • Bangalore
  • Daman
  • Ranchi
  • Ahemdabad
  • Kanpur
  • Bhopal
  • Shillong
  • Chandigarh
  • Jabalpur
  • Indore
  • Vishakhapatnam
  • Pondicherry
  • Panjai
  • Vijaywada
  • Hyderabad
  • Faridabad
  • Raipur
  • Aizwal
  • Chennai
  • Madurai
  • Coimbatore
  • Agartala
  • Guwahati
  • Delhi
  • Bangalore
  • Jaipur
  • Jammu
  • Bhubaneshwar
  • Agra
  • Lucknow
  • Kolkata
  • Shimla
  • Dehradun
  • Asansol
  • Nasik
  • Nagpur
  • Gangtok
  • Gandhinagar
  • Pune
  • Allahabad
  • Ludhiana
  • Itanagar
  • Kohima
  • Amritsar
  • Varanasi
  • Mumbai
  •   

    • Patna

  • Kochi
  •    
      

    • Meerut
     

    • Kavarati
      

    • Jamshedpur
     

    • Port Blair
      

    • Dhanbad
     

    • Srinagar
        

    • Imphal

    5.8 Demonstration Projects

      

    CPCB and MoEF have instituted a scheme for setting up of demonstration project for solid waste management in accordance with MSW Rule. Objective of the scheme is to demonstrate total implementation of MSW Rule. The scheme is an cost sharing basis where concerned local body is required to contribute 50% of the total cost of the project. Initially, the scheme is confined for one town in each State/UT. The following project have been taken up/ planned.

    S.No
    State
    Town
    Status

    1

    West Bengal

    North Dum-Dum

    New Barrakpore

    Under Implementation

    2

    UT Chandigarh

    Chandigarh

    Under Implementation

    3

    Tamil Nadu

    Udumalpet

    Under Implementation

    4

    Kerala

    Kozhikode

    Under Implementation

    5

    Himachal Pradesh

    Mandi

    Under Implementation

    6

    Andhra Pradesh

    Suryapet

    Under Implementation

    7

    Nagaland

    Kohima

    Under Implementation

    8

    Maharashtra

    Jalna

    Under Implementation

    9

    Arunachal Pradesh

    Itanagar

    Under Implementation

    10

    Sikkim

    South West District

    Under Implementation

    11

    Tripura

    Agartala

    Under Implementation

    12

    Gujarat

    Clusters of munici-palities in Ahemdabad

    Planned


    5.9 Studies of CPCB

    5.9.1 Status of MSW Management in 59 Cities.

    CPCB sponsored a project to NEERI on "Assessment of Status of Municipal Solid Wastes Management in Metro Cities and State Capitals" with a view to establishing database on National level for selected 59 cities. The selected cities include 35 metro cities and 24 State capitals. The objectives of the study is to collect field data on composition and characteristics of municipal solid waste alongwith determination of waste generation rates. Field studies for all the 59 cities have been completed. Studies have revealed that waste generation rate varies from 0.12 to 0.60 kg per capita per day. Analysis of physical composition indicates total compostable matter in the waste is in the range of 40-60 percent while recyclable fraction was observed between 10 and 25 per cent. The moisture content in the MSW was observed to vary from 30 to 60 per cent while the C:N ratio was observed to be in the range of 20-40.

    Based on the study, suggestive guidelines for management of MSW are indicated and each local body will have to prepare detailed project report estimating requirement of tools and equipment and fund estimates.

    5.9.2 Methane Emission from MSW Disposal Sites.

    Most of the waste disposal sites in the country are uncontrolled dumps. These sites are constant threat to ground water contamination and emits several gases including methane. Due to various variable factors, it becomes difficult to estimate correct quantities of such gaseous emissions. With this background, CPCB instituted studies on estimation of landfill gases in collaboration with IARI and NEERI.

    Organic matter content in the deposited MSW at the landfill site tends to decompose anaerobically leading to emission of volatile organic compounds and gaseous by products. Emission of gaseous products from landfills

    commonly called landfill gas (LFG) contains methane and carbon dioxide as major constituents. LFG has potential for non-conventional energy, which also contributes to greenhouse gas effect, if not managed properly. The study involved development of methodology for monitoring LFG emissions from the landfill at Nagpur and validation of methodology at other landfill sites.

    For the studies, flux box method was used for LFG flux emission measurement. The unit consist of a rectangular box (60cm x 33 cm x 70 cm) of plexiglass provided with support of MS angles. The box is provided with ports for collection of LFG samples and recording the inside temperature initially, the monitoring was carried out at Bhandewadi disposal site, Nagpur and validity of the methodology was tested at Sukhali landfill site in Amravati (6.0 lakhs population). The LFG emission flux for landfill site at Nagpur was observed in the range of 0.57 to 16.5 mg/m2/sec while for Amravati landfill sites the LFG emission flux was in the range of 0.67 and 0.88 mg/m2/sec. The results of study indicated that the established methodology for Nagur landfill site could be very well applied for the other landfill sites in the country.

    5.9.3 Characterization of Compost Quality and its Application in Agriculture.

    CPCB undertook detailed studies on characterization of compost quality and its application on agricultural crops. Seven compost plants were studied for characterization of compost quality. Studies indicated that average concentration of heavy metals in the raw waste that was fed to the various compost plants was in the range of 47 to 185 mg per kg in respect of lead, 36-63 mg/kg for nickel and 1.5 to 6.5 mg/kg for cadmium. The levels of mercury in raw waste was between 0.01 and 0.23 mg/kg. Heavy metals in the finished compost were ranging as follows; Pb; 108-203 mg/kg; ni- 8-80 mg/kg; cd-3.8-12.4 mg/kg and mg – 0.01-0.31 mg/kg.

    India has a good potential for the production and use of MSW based compost and sewage sludge generated in various metros and municipalities.

    The research has been largely restricted to its production, composition etc. Relatively few studies have been conducted on its safe and economic disposal and its application on agricultural land in different cropping system. An analysis of manorial potential of MSW compost and the sewage-sludge is needed.

    The project taken up by Central Pollution Control Board with IARI attempts to cover the safe and beneficial use of MSW compost and sewage sludge in agriculture vis a vis its environmental impacts based on extensive experimentations and a review of the scientific literature.

    It has been observed that the growth attributes of wheat/ maize and vegetable crops viz., plant height, number of cobs/tillers/m2, dry matter production and leaf area index, were increased due to supply of nitrogen through combination of different doses of urea with compost/ sewage sludge.

    5.9.4. Assessment of Health Status of Conservancy Staff and other Community landfill    MSW

    A study was instituted by CPCB on assessment of health status of conservancy staff and other community associated with handling of solid waste management. The study was taken-up at Kolkata through Chittaranjan Cancer Research Institute and at Chennai with the assistance of Sri. Ramchandra Medical College. The objective of the study is to assess health status of each target group involved in handling of municipal solid waste (MSW).

    Studies at Kolkata



    Health assessment studies at Kolkata included clinical examination of 732 individuals of which, 376 were conservancy workers, 151 ragpickers and 205 controls. After detailed examination, the findings of the study are summarized as under;

    Parameter

    Con

    RP

    MSW

    Implication

    Upper respiratory symptoms

    43

    82

    93

    Infection in nose, throat

    Lower respiratory symptoms

    32

    80

    89

    Infection in lung

    Impaired lung function

    43

    84

    71

    Breathing problem

    Sputum neutrophilia

    13

    53

    64

    Infection, Inflammation

    Elevated AM number

    12

    65

    85

    High PM10 exposure

    Larger and multinucleated AM

    8

    23

    32

    Sustained high pollution load

    Multinucleated giant cell

    2

    5

    10

    Bacterial infection

    Curschman’s spiral

    2

    4

    5

    Obstruction in airways

    Goblet cell hyperplasia

    2

    16

    25

    Elevated mucus production

    Elevated siderophage count

    6

    34

    44

    Covert lung hemorrhage

    Elevated micronucleus count

    8

    68

    82

    Chromosome break

    Low hemoglobin, RBC in blood

    17

    32

    45

    Anemia

    Leukocytosis

    7

    26

    34

    Infection

    Elevated platelet count

    12

    62

    75

    Cardiovascular rish

    High platelet P-selection

    9

    55

    87

    Do

    Low CD 4+high CD8+cells

    11

    42

    78

    Altered immunity

    Low CD20+high CD56+cells

    12

    54

    89

    Do

    Sputum eosinophilia

    11

    28

    36

    Allergy, asthma

    Con=Control, RP=Ragpickers, MSW=conservancy staff of
    Kolkata Municipal Corporation


    5.10 Supporting Schemes to local Bodies

    Utilisation of Grants under 12th Finance Commission

    The Twelfth Finance Commission has recommended devolution of grants for Urban Local Bodies to the tune of Rs.5000 crores for the period 2005-2010 of which Rs.2500 crores have to be devolved upon local bodies exclusively for setting-up of solid waste management systems in Urban areas to ensure management of MSW in accordance with MSW Rules. Ministry of Urban Development on 6th October, 2005 has circulated guidelines for preparation of DPRs and selection of technologies for processing and final disposal of MSW for different categories of towns for the benefit of State Government/ Local bodies. The emphasis has also be given to implement various activities of solid waste system through private sector participation.

    State Governments and Pollution Control Boards may initiate the process for utilizing the grants and set-up appropriate committees/ technical institutions to guide local bodies in preparing DPR for cities and towns

    • Shares of States in allocation (2005-2010) is as under:

    S.No

    States

    Panchayats

    Municipalities

      

    Percent

    (Rs.crore)

    Per cent

    (Rs.crore)

    1

    Andhra Pradesh

    7.935

    1587.00

    7.480

    374.0

    2.

    Aruanchal Pradesh

    0.340

    68.0

    0.060

    3.0

    3

    Assam

    2.630

    526.0

    1.100

    55.00

    4

    Bihar

    8.120

    1624.0

    2.840

    142.0

    5

    Chhattisgarh

    3.075

    615.0

    1.760

    88.00

    6

    Goa

    0.090

    18.00

    0.240

    12.0

    7

    Gujarat

    4.655

    931.0

    8.280

    414.0

    8

    Haryana

    1.940

    388.0

    1.820

    91.0

    9

    Himachal Pradesh

    0.735

    147.0

    0.160

    8.0

    10

    Jammu & Kashmir

    1.405

    281.0

    0.760

    38.0

    11

    Jharkhand

    2.410

    482.0

    1.960

    98.0

    12

    Karnataka

    4.440

    888.00

    6.460

    323.0

    13

    Kerala

    4.925

    985.0

    2.980

    149.0

    14

    Madhya Pradesh

    8.315

    1663.0

    7.220

    361.0

    15

    Maharashtra

    9.915

    1983.0

    15.820

    791.0

    16

    Manipur

    0.230

    46.0

    0.180

    9.00

    17

    Meghalaya

    0.250

    50.0

    0.160

    8.0

    18

    Mizoram

    0.100

    20.0

    0.200

    10.0

    19

    Nagland

    0.200

    40.0

    0.120

    6.00

    20

    Orissa

    4.015

    803.0

    2.080

    104.0

    21

    Punjab

    1.620

    324.0

    3.420

    171.0

    22

    Rajasthan

    6.150

    1230.0

    4.400

    220.0

    23

    Sikkim

    0.065

    13.00

    0.020

    1.00

    24

    Tamil Nadu

    4.350

    870.0

    11.440

    572.0

    25

    Tripura

    0.285

    57.0

    0.160

    8.0

    26

    Uttar Pradesh

    14.640

    2928.0

    10.340

    517.0

    27

    Uttaranchal

    0.810

    162.0

    0.680

    34.0

    28

    West Bengal

    6.355

    1271.0

    7.860

    393.0

    • The total capital investment estimated by Ministry of Urban Development for 423 class-I towns is as under:

     

    Capital Investment

    Rs. in million

    *

    Equipment and vehicles

    3864.43

    *

    Composting of waste

    10012.35

    *

    Landfill development

    10568.83


    5.11 Reports/ Schemes of MoUD and MNE

    Report on Compost Plants

    An Inter-ministrial Task Force on integrated plant nutrient management using city compost was constituted by the Ministry of Urban Development on 26th March, 2003. The task was set-up in pursuance to the orders of Hon’ble Supreme Court dt.14.01.03 (WPC 888/96) and subsequent directions of the Cabinet Secretariat dt.16.02.03. The Task Force has submitted its report which has been accepted by MoUD and the report has been filed in the Hon’ble Supreme Court on 06.05.05. The report dwells on length the general/technical and financial requirement for setting-up of compost plants as a viable option for promoting integrated plant nutrient management using city compost. The State Governments and local bodies may refer this report and particularly the smaller local bodies will be benefited as the report is giving guidelines on technical and financial matters (for further details, please contact MoUD).

    Report on Waste to Energy

    In pursuance of an order of the Hon’ble Supreme Court on a writ petition regarding solid waste management in Class-I cities, Ministry of Non-conventional Energy & Sources constituted an Expert Committee to inspect the functioning and records of the project at Lucknow for energy recovery for municipal solid waste. The report of the Expert Committee which has submitted its report to MNES on 7.12.05 has covered issues relating to composting and energy generation. This Report of MNES will help State Governments/ Local Bodies while taking decision for setting up of waste processing plants and particularly with reference to Waste to Energy Project.(for further details, please contact MNES).

    Annexure-I

    Local bodies and status of Authorisations

    S.
    No

    States/UTs

    Local Bodies

    No. of appli-cations received

    No. of author-
    izations granted

    Corporations

    Councils

    Nagar Punchayat

    Municipalities

    Cantonments

    Total

    1

    Andhra Pradesh

    14

    -

    -

    104

    -

    122

    111

    66

    2

    Arunachal Pradesh

    -

    -

    -

    -

    -

    16

    14

    Nil

    3

    Assam

    -

    -

    -

    -

    -

    85

    47

    13

    4

    Andaman Niccobar

    -

    -

    -

    -

    -

    01

    1

    1

    5

    Chattisgarh

    10

    28

    72

    -

    -

    110

    79

    29

    6

    Chandigarh

    -

    -

    -

    -

    -

    01

    1

    1

    7

    Maharashtra

    22

    221

    4

    -

    3

    250

    250

    246

    8

    Tripura

    -

    1

    12

    -

    -

    13

    13

    13

    9

    Mizoram

    -

    -

    -

    -

    -

    02

    1

    1

    10

    West Bengal

    6

    -

    -

    120

    -

    126

    85

    31

    11

    Madhya Pradesh

    -

    -

    -

    337

    3

    340

    334

    293

    12

    Gujarat

    -

    -

    -

    -

    -

    154

    154

    152

    13

    Punjab

    5

    91

    37

    -

    4

    137

    137

    1

    14

    Himachal Pradesh

    1

    20

    28

    -

    7

    56

    56

    36

    15

    Nagaland

    -

    -

    -

    -

    -

    06

    1

    1

    16

    Haryana

    -

    -

    -

    -

    -

    68

    12

    Nil

    17

    Daman Diu

    -

    2

    10

    -

    -

    12

    DNH

    -

    -

    11

    -

    -

    11

    -

    18

    Bihar

    5

    32

    85

    -

    -

    122

    38

    Nil

    19

    Meghalaya

    -

    -

    6

    -

    1

    07

    2

    2

    20

    Rajasthan

    14

    58

    72

    39

    -

    183

    119

    4

    21

    Goa

    1

    12

    -

    -

    -

    13

    -

    -

    22

    Pondicherry

    -

    -

    10

    5

    -

    15

    15

    2

    23

    Orissa

    103

    54

    17

    24

    Karnataka

    6

    497

    97

    44

    -

    226

    226

    226

    25

    Tamil Nadu

    6

    -

    561

    152

    -

    719

    90

    45

    26

    Jammu & Kashmir

    -

    -

    -

    69

    -

    69

    -

    -

    27

    Uttar Pradesh

    11

    -

    399

    200

    -

    610

    499

    41

    TOTAL

    101

    962

    1005

    1070

    18

    3577

    2339

    1220



    Annexure-II

    Implementation status of Schedule-IV

    S.No.

    States

    Composting Facilities

    Vermi-composting Plants

    Other Technologies

      

    In operation

    Proposed

    In operation

    Proposed

     

    1

    Arunachal Pradesh

    -

    Itanagar- Nahar lagun

    -

    -

    -

    2

    Maharahstra

    Nagpur, Pune, Beed, Kolhapur, Achalpur,Akola, Barshi, Chandrapur, Latur, Parhbani, Satara, Mumbai, Sangli Miraj-kuped, Dhule, Aurangabad Pimpri- Chinchvad, Malegaon, Bhiwandi- Nizampur,

    Sonepath, Ambad, Navapur, Murud-Jaljira, Jalna, Panvel, Wardha, Yavatmal

    Ambernath, Nallasopara, Virar

    Bhusaval, Navghar-Manikpur

     

    3

    Tripura

     

    Agartala

    Beloniga, Kumarghat

    Amarpur, Khowai, Dharmanagar, Kalashahar, Udaipur, Kamalpur, Ranibazar, Sabroom, Teliawara,

     

    4

    Mizoram

    -

    Aizwal

    -

    -

     

    5

    West Bengal

    Kolkata

    25 local bodies have taken initiatives (Dum Dum, Barrackpore, Kachrapara, Garulia, Panihati, Siliguri, Kalyani, Bhadreshwar, Serampore, Rishtra, Kalna, etc.

    -

    -

     

    6

    Assam,

    Kamrup

    -

       

    7

    Madhya Pradesh

    Bhopal, Gwalior

    Ujjain

    -

    -

     

    8

    Gujarat

    Ahemdabad, Junagarh, Vadodara

    -

    -

    -

    -

    9

    Punjab

    Jallandhar

    Kartarpur, Mandi Gobindgarh

       

    10

    Himachal Pradesh

    Shimla, Kullu, Bchunter, Mandi, Solan, Kangra, Nagrota, Nahan, Bilaspur/ Ghumawin,Una, etc. Sirmour

    Dharamsala, Hamirpur

    -

    -

    -

    11

    Chhatisgarh

    Dhamtari, Raipur, Chirmiri, Korba, Dury, Bhilla, Rajnandgaon, Jagdalpur, Raigarh

        

    12

    Nagaland

    Nil

    Kohima

       

    13

    Haryana

    Nil

    -

       

    14

    Daman Diu

    Nil

    -

       

    15

    Bihar

    Nil

    -

    -

    --

    -

    16

    Meghalaya

    Shillong

    -

    -

    Tura

    -

    17

    Chandigarh

    -

    -

    -

    -

    Agreement for RDF

    18

    Rajasthan

    -

    Proposed in 14 towns

    -

    -

    -

    19

    Goa

       

    Panjim (Partial)

     

    20

    Pondicherry

    Partial (Pondicherry), Kareakal

    Pondicheery, Karaikal

       

    21

    Andhra Pradesh

    Vijaywada

    Sureyapet

    -

    -

    Hyderabad, Gantur, Vijaywada (1 +1) Vizag

    22

    Orissa

    Puri, Paradeep Berhampur, Rayagada, Kotpad, Jatni, Barbil

    -

    -

    -

    -

    23

    Andaman Nicobar

    -

    Portblair (Nisarigurha)

    -

    -

    Plasma for BMW & Plastics

    24

    Karnataka

    Mangalore, Bangalore

    8 ULB in Nirmalnagar

    -

    -

    -

    25

    Tamil Nadu

    Tiruppur, Namakkal

    -

    -

    -

    * Bio Methanation for vegetable market (Chennai)

    * 89 local bodies have identified sites for waste processing

    26

    Jammu Kashmir

    -

    -

    -

    -

    Some initiatives by Jammu MC

    27

    Uttar Pradesh

    -

    Ghaziabad, Noida

    -

    -

    -

    Annexure-III

    Implementation Status of Schedule-III ‘ Waste Disposal’

    Initiatives

    S.No

    States/UT

     
      

    Landfill installed

    Initiatives taken/ Proposed

    No. of Sites identified

    Others

    1

    Aruanchal Pradesh

    -

    Itanagar Naharlagun

    2

     

    2

    Maharashtra

    Navi Mumbai, Pune, Nasik

    Jalna, Sonapath, Ambad, Navapur, Murud-Janjira, Pune, Nasik

    223

     

    3

    Tripura

    -

    Agartala, Udapur, Balonia, Kailishahar

    8

     

    4

    Mizoram

    -

    Aizwal

    1

     

    5

    West Bengal

    -

    North Dum Dum, Panihati, New Barrackpore, Maheshtala, Siliguri, Kolkata, Bhadreshwar, Asansol, Durgapur, Ranigrum), Jamuria

      

    6

    Assam

    -

    -

    -

     

    7

    Madhya Pradesh

    -

    Gwalior, Bhopal

    • 330 sites identified
    • Acquisition of site completed in 37
    • DPR prepared for Gwalior, Ujjain, Sheopur, Rewa, Khujaraho, Bhopal
     

    8

    Gujarat

    Surat, Alang

    12 municipalities in AUDA area

    Sites identified for all local bodies

     

    9

    Punjab

    -

    Initiatives are to be taken

    90 local bodies have sites for more than 5 years

     

    10

    Himachal Pradesh

    -

    Simla

    47

     

    11

    Chhattisgarh

     

    Korba,Katghora, Choroda, Kamhari, Jamul, Balod, Dongargarh, Dalliraj-hara, Kobirdham, Amgagarh-Chouki Thakhamharia, Patan, Pandaria

    66 (29 approved by DLC)

     

    12

    Nagaland

    -

    Kohima

      

    13

    Haryana

    -

    Faridabad, Hissar, Ambala, Sirsa

      

    14

    Daman, Diu & DNH

    -

    Yet to be planned

      

    15

    Bihar

    -

    Patna, Muzaffarpur

    24

     

    16

    Meghalaya

    -

    Shillong

      

    17

    Chandigarh

    -

    For closing 25 acres and New development in 8 Acres

    -

     

    18

    Rajasthan

    -

    Proposed in 14 towns

    Sites identified for majority of towns (152)

     

    19

    Goa

     

    Panjim, Ponda

    2

     

    20

    Pondicherry

    -

    Proposed DPR for Pandy under preparation

    1

     

    21

    Andhra Pradesh

    -

    Suryapat, Vizianagaram cluster of municipality in HUDA

      

    22

    Orissa

      

    Sites identified 51

     

    23

    Andaman

    -

    Proposed at Brookshabad

    1

     

    24

    Karnataka

    Karwar, Puttur

    Bangalore, Mangolore, Ankola, Dandeli

    Sirsi, Bhatkal, Shimoga

     
    25Tamil Nadu -In cities like Chennai, Coimbatore, MaduraiSites identified by many ULBs 
    26Jammu & Kashmir--- 
    27Uttar Pradesh--- 
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