2           Energizing the amplifying medium

Increasing the intensity of a light beam that passes through an amplifying medium amounts to putting additional energy into the beam. This energy comes from the amplifying medium which must in turn have energy fed into it in some way. In laser terminology, the process of energizing the amplifying medium is known as "pumping".

There are several ways of pumping an amplifying medium. When it is a solid, pumping is usually achieved by irradiating it with intense light. This light is absorbed by atoms or ions within the medium raising them into higher energy states. Xenon-filled flashtubes positioned as shown below are used as a simple source of pumping light. Passing a high voltage electric discharge through the flashtubes causes them to emit an intense flash of white light, some of which is absorbed by the amplifying medium. The assembly of flashtubes is enclosed within a polished metal reflector (not shown in the diagram below) to concentrate as much light as possible on the amplifying medium. A laser that is pumped in this way will have a pulsed output.

Pumping an amplifying medium by irradiating it with intense light is referred to as optical pumping. The source of pumping light can be another laser. Some types of laser that were originally pumped using xenon-filled flashtubes are now pumped by laser diodes.

Gaseous amplifying media have to be contained in some form of enclosure or tube and are often pumped by passing an electric discharge through the medium itself. The mechanism by which this elevates atoms or molecules in the gas to higher energy states depends upon the gas that is being excited and is often complex. In many gas lasers, the end windows of the laser tube are inclined at an angle and they are referred to as brewster windows. Brewster windows are able to transmit a beam that is polarized in the plane of the diagram without losses due to reflection. Such a laser would have an output beam that is polarized.

The diagram illustrates pumping by passing a discharge longitudinally through the gaseous amplifying medium but, in some cases, the discharge takes place transversely from one side of the medium to the other. Many lasers that are pumped by an electric discharge can produce either a pulsed output or a continuous output depending upon whether the discharge is pulsed or continuous.

Various other methods of pumping the amplifying medium in a laser are used. For example, laser diodes are pumped by passing an electric current across the junction where the two types of semiconductor within the diode come together.

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