Audio Engineering : McGill Student Section
Recent Activities

Over the past few years, AES McGill served the local audio community with a strong lecture series covering a wide variety of related topics.

Bob Ludwig, Gateway Mastering Studios, USA.

Derk Reefman, Philips Research Labs, Netherlands.

Durand R. Begault, NASA Ames Research Center, USA

Jim anderson, Independant recording engineer, New York, USA.

Kimio Hamasaki, NHK Science & Technical Research Laboratories, Tokyo, Japan
Richard King,Senior Recording Engineer, Sony Music, New York, USA

Stephan Peus, Georg Neuamann GmbH, Berlin, Germany.

Derk Reefman, Philips Research Labs, Netherlands.

Much time and planning is involved in the coordination of the lecture series sponsored by the McGill AES. Issues are resolved, tasks are assigned, and relevant topics discussed at weekly executive meetings. Additional time and energy are put forward by the executive council to guarantee that other students and members of the local audio community are notified of, and welcomed to, upcoming events.


Bob Ludwig - Friday, January 9th, 2004

Gateway Mastering Studios opened its doors to its first client on 8th January 1993, exactly 10 years ago. Bob highlighted the major changes that have happened to his studios over that time with emphasis on formats, monitoring, console & cable technology, DVD Authoring and surround sound.

Bob has Bachelor and Master of Music degrees from the Eastman School of Music, University of Rochester. While at Eastman he also announced at a commercial classical radio station, worked in the school's recording department and played Principal Trumpet with the Utica Symphony Orchestra.

He learned the art of mastering at A&R Recording with Phil Ramone as his mentor. He moved to Sterling Sound shortly after its incorporation and became Vice-President. After 7 years at Sterling he moved to Masterdisk Corporation where he was Vice President and Chief Engineer. 10 years ago he opened his own business, Gateway Mastering & DVD in Portland, Maine. He has mastered countless Gold and Platinum records. Bob has won numerous Pro Sound News Mastering Awards and Mix Magazine’s TEC Award for "Outstanding Creative Achievement, Mastering Engineer, and he won the TEC Award 11 times. Bob’s Gateway Mastering Studios has also won the TEC award for Mastering Studio 6 times. He was the first person to be honored with the Les Paul Award for "...individuals who have set the highest standards of excellence in recording and sound production over a period of many years". This award was presented to Bob by Mr. Paul himself. In December 1997 the studio began its DVD Authoring operations and Gateway was the first mastering studio in the world to offer DVD Video and Audio services.

A member of the Audio Engineering Society, SPARS and the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences, Bob is on the advisory board of the Producers and Engineer’s wing of NARAS. Bob has been a panelist or guest speaker at AES, SPARS, Consumer Electronic Shows, NARAS, Society of Broadcast Engineers, the RIAA and many conferences. He has given presentations at many of the Surround Sound conferences. He has been a guest lecturer at State University of New York campuses in Purchase and Fredonia, the University of Connecticut, the Institute of Audio Research in New York City, University of Miami, University of Massachusetts at Lowell, University of Southern Maine, Full Sail School for Recording Arts and many times at Berklee College of Music in Boston. He has been a guest lecturer at McGill University, the Banff Centre for Performing Arts, Alberta, Canada and the University of Iowa. He has written technical articles appearing in professional magazines and journals and has often been interviewed in consumer audio magazines. In the past few years, special articles on Bob and Gateway Mastering appeared in the New York Times, The Boston Globe, USA Today, The Portland Press Herald and the Associated Press. He is active in the Audio Engineering Society and was a past Chairman of the NY section. Recently he was a panelist at South By Southwest and gave a Master Class to artists, engineers and producers in Austin, TX. The past AES found Bob chairing a Workshop and appearing in 3 others.


Derk Reefman - Tuesday, October 7th, 2003

Dr. Reefman discussed the history, capacity, and uses of the Super Audio Compact Disc. The presentation included: an introduction to Super Audio CD and the principles of Sigma Delta Modulation; discussion of newly developed digital and analogue signal-processing techniques; a discussion of market placement of DSD related technologies; and a comparison of SA-CD and DVD-A. Further, some recent innovations in technical aspects of SA-CD were shown, most notably the advent of the so-called Trellis Sigma Delta Modulator, introduced by Kato at the 112th AES in Munich. While in its principal form, the Trellis SDM presents a mathematically perfect representation of a 1-bit code, in practice it is extremely expensive to implement. Within Philips Research, investigations have been aimed at drastically improving the resource demands of the Trellis encoder, whilst retaining its advantageous characteristics.

Derk Reefman was born 1967, in The Netherlands. In 1989 he received his M. Sc. degree in chemistry, on the subject of metallo-organic chemistry. In 1989, he switched to physics and received in 1993 his PhD. in physics, on the subject of theory and experiment in high temperature superconductivity. From 1993 onwards, he continued his career with Philips Research, The Netherlands where he studied X-Ray diffraction from 1993 till 1997. Having been an audiophile for quite a while, he decided to start working in the Philips Super Audio CD team, where he worked (and still continues to do so) on several digital and analog signal processing aspects of Super Audio CD, including professional audio as well as DA converter and power amplifier designs for consumer systems.


Durand R. Begault - Friday, April 11, 2003

The acoustical characterization and auralization of a large rectangular space with uniformly distributed absorption is facilitated by a predictably linear reverberant decay of decibel sound pressure level. By contrast, music is often performed in large spaces with irregular shapes that yield correspondingly irregular reverberant decays. A contributing factor is 'coupled space' effects where the several reverberant decays occur simultaneously. When the mean free path for reflections is relatively large, as in a cathedral, temporal thresholds can be exceeded to the point where it is possible to hear spatially separated decays. The phenomenon of a slow amplitude modulation between separate locations can be described as 'moving' late reverberation, which is audible, e.g., in a cathedral when a organ note is stopped. Measurements of this phenomenon were made in San Francisco's Grace Cathedral, a French Gothic-style Episcopal church, using multiple microphone impulse response recordings. Data on the temporal-spatial diffusion of reverberation from various spatial perspectives was presented, along with sound examples. Implications for auralization were discussed.

Durand R. Begault Ph.D. (FAES) is recognized worldwide within the acoustic and psychoacoustic community a leader in the field of virtual acoustic "3-D audio" systems and displays. He has been associated with the Human Information Processing Research Branch of NASA Ames Research Center since 1988. His peer-reviewed journal publications, patents, and books are cited in 57 US patents, and over one hundred scientific and engineering journal publications. Dr. Begault's research interests include development of new audio technologies for advanced human-machine interfaces for aeronautic and space applications, virtual reality systems, and speech communications. These technologies involve spatial hearing, speech intelligibility, and performance in virtual reality systems, room acoustic analysis and simulation, communications and warning systems. He is also active in the field of forensic audio applications, and serves as Director of the Audio Forensic Center, Charles M. Salter Associates, San Francisco. He is a member of the Acoustical Society of America, the Audio Engineering Society, and the Institute of Noise Control Engineering. He was nominated as a fellow of the AES in 2002 "for contributions to our understanding of spatial hearing".


Jim Anderson - Monday, January 13, 2003

Jim Anderson is a New York based recording engineer and producer. Specializing in jazz and acoustic music, he has worked with producers Bob Belden, Michael Cuscuna, Dr. Mark Feldman, Tommy LiPuma, Delfayo Marsalis, Richard Seidel, Kazunori Sugiyama, Akira Taguchi, Creed Taylor, Matthias Winckelmann, among others, and has recorded projects for Toshiko Akiyoshi, Patricia Barber, Terence Blanchard, James Carter, Ron Carter, Jon Fadis, Joe Henderson, J.J. Johnson, Lorin Maazel, Branford Marsalis, Christian McBride, Gonzalo Rubalcaba, Maria Schneider, McCoy Tyner, Phil Woods, John Zorn. Four of his recordings have received Grammy awards and eighteen have received nominations. In television, he has worked with the Muppets, and has been the Audio Producer for "In Performance at the White House" and "The Kennedy Center Gala with the National Symphony" for PBS, among others. Emmy nominations have been given to many of his television projects.

A graduate of the Duquesne University School of Music in Pittsbugh,Pennsylvania, he has studied audio engineering at the Eastman School of Music and Sender Freies Berlin. During the 1970's, he was employed by National Public Radio and engineered and produced many DuPont and Peabody award winning classical, jazz, documentary, and news programs. Since 1980, has had a career as an independent audio engineer and producer, living in New York City. During the years 1999 and 2000, he was the Chairman of the New York Section of the Audio Engineering Society and is presently the AES Vice President for Eastern Sections.


Joint Lecture : Kimio Hamasaki/Richard King - Thursday, November 28, 2002

K. Hamasaki: While 5.1 surround is quickly gaining popularity within the audio field, the public is yet to show the same response. This may be attributed to the small number of 5.1 surround SACD & DVD titles available on the market, as well as the listener's lack of exposure to 5.1 surround sound. Because of this, it is necessary for us, as engineers, to produce high-quality surround sound music to push the market in this direction.

In this lecture, some practical techniques and considerations to improve 5.1 surround sound recording were discussed. The principle issues were microphone techniques, particularly in a concert hall setting, and how to collaborate with composers and musicians to get better results.

R. King: As multichannel recording gains momentum in the audio industry, most record labels are still focusing on the stereo releases in the marketplace. A presentation of recording in both stereo and multichannel including microphone placement for orchestra, followed by some discussion of mixing techniques for both classical and pop multichannel recordings.

Kimio Hamasaki received his M.S. in Audio & Visual Communication Design from Kyushu Institute of Design in 1982, and in the same year joined NHK (Japan Broadcasting Corporation). Since then, he has worked in classical music as a balance engineer, as well as in sound production for HDTV and R&D digital sound facilities. Hamasaki has received many awards for his recordings including the Prixitalia "Perugia" Award, Finalist for International EMMY Awards, and the Creativity and Technology (CAT) Audio Award.

Richard King holds a Bachelor of Music from Dalhousie University in Halifax, Nova Scotia, and a Master of Music/Major in Sound Recording from McGill University . After two seasons of recording at the Tanglewood Music Center in Massachusetts, summer home of the Boston Symphony, he moved to New York to work for Sony in 1992.

Richard is currently a Senior Recording Engineer at Sony Music Studios in NYC, specializing in the location recording of orchestra, chamber music, jazz, and film scores. He has engineered a wide variety of recordings for Compact Disc, SACD, Film, DVD, in both stereo and various surround formats. He has also remastered numerous analog recordings for reissue on CD & SACD Surround.

In the last two years, Richard has won three Grammy awards, one for "Best engineered album" (Bernstein: West Side Story Suite), and two for having recorded and mixed album Appalachian Journey and film score Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon.

An active AES member and panelist, Richard is also a regular contributor to Pro Audio Magazine, and has been interviewed for articles in various magazines such as Mix and EQ.


Stephan Peus - Monday, November 18, 2002

With the introduction of a new technique of analog to digital conversion a digitally interfaced microphone could be developed retaining the full dynamic range and quality of analog microphones. Similar to known gain-ranging procedures, two separate conversion circuits are employed. But in opposite, that critical signal switching processes are completely prevented, resulting in a very high dynamic range and proper signal processing up to maximum signal levels.

Advantages and possibilities of using the new technique are shown based on an example which contains remote controllable functions, which were so far available only in the following signal processing, e.g. in a mixing console.

Stephan Peus was born in 1948. Primary and classical secondary school for 13 years. Final examination. Studies of electrotechnical and acoustical engineering with Prof.L.Cremer, among others, at the Technical University of Berlin. Since 1974 development engineer at Georg Neumann GmbH, Berlin. Director of development for many years. Since Oct. 1st , 2000, President Development. AES-Member and member of national as well as international standard committees. Several lectures at AES and other professional sound conventions.


Derk Reefman - Thursday, November 14, 2002

Dr. Reefman discussed the history, capacity, and present and future uses for the Super Audio Compact Disc. Super Audio is of interest to both the consumer and audio industry and both will greatly benefit from its development. In the presentation, after the introduction of Super Audio CD and the principles of Sigma Delta Modulation, several newly developed digital and analog signal-processing techniques for Super Audio CD have been discussed.

Super Audio Compact Disc (Super Audio), conceived and developed by Philips and Sony, is viewed as the successor of the standard Compact Disc. Typically, it consists of a high density layer (4.7 Gbyte capacity), glued on top of a standard CD layer. Super Audio adds some great benefits to both the consumer and the audio industry. The sound quality is significantly improved, aiming at 120 dB signal-to-noise ratio and 100 kHz bandwidth. Moreover, the audio content can be made available not only in stereo, but multi-channel too. Whereas Super Audio offers revolutionary sound quality to the consumer, it also represents a revolution in digital audio format: the format is known as DSD (Direct Stream Digital), and is a 1-bit approximation of the audio amplitude, repeated 2822400 times per second.

Fundamental in DSD is the Sigma Delta Modulator (SDM), introduced by F. de Jager at Philips Research in 1952. This device applies the technique of noise shaping to obtain high resolution in a limited bandwidth, in spite of the mere use of 1 bit resolution. Because of the 1-bit nature of DSD, much of the signal processing required for Super Audio CD needs the development of new algorithms. These, as well as the high audio quality requirements, call for fundamental changes of various parts (both digital and analog) in the audio delivery chain. In the presentation, after the introduction of Super Audio CD and the principles of Sigma Delta Modulation, several newly developed digital and analog signal-processing techniques for Super Audio CD will be discussed.

Derk Reefman was born 1967, in The Netherlands. In 1989 he received his Msc. degree in chemistry, on the subject of metallo-organic chemistry. In 1989, he switched to physics and received in 1993 his PhD. in physics, on the subject of theory and experiment in high temperature superconductivity. From 1993 onwards, he continued his career with Philips Research, The Netherlands where he studied X-Ray diffraction from 1993 till 1997. Having been an audiophile for quite a while, he decided to start working in the Philips Super Audio CD team, where he worked (and still continues to do so) on several digital and analog signal processing aspects of Super Audio CD, including professional audio as well as DA converter and power amplifier designs for consumer systems.

| Future Activities | Recent Activities | Executive | Contact Us | McGill Sound Recording | McGill Music |
| AES Home Page | AES Information | Membership | The Journal | Educational Programs | Picture Gallery |