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    I. Group Profile

    1. Name: Mennonites

    2. Founder: Conrad Grebel

    3. Date of Birth: 1498

    4. Birth Place: Zurich, Switzerland

    5. Year Founded: January 21, 1525

    6. Sacred or Revered Texts: The Bible is the sacred text of the Mennonites.

    7. Cult or Sect: Negative sentiments are typically implied when the concepts "cult" and "sect" are employed in popular discourse. Since the Religious Movements Homepage seeks to promote religious tolerance and appreciation of the positive benefits of pluralism and religious diversity in human cultures, we encourage the use of alternative concepts that do not carry implicit negative stereotypes. For a more detailed discussion of both scholarly and popular usage of the concepts "cult" and "sect," please visit our Conceptualizing "Cult" and "Sect" page, where you will find additional links to related issues.

    8. Size of Group: The Mennonites are located all over the world, but they are mostly concentrated in The United States and Canada. The Mennonites claim to have over 1 million members spanning 60 countries. According to statistics reported by the Mennonite World Conference in 1996, there were 415,978 baptized members in Canada and the U.S., 322,708 members in Africa, 157,075 in Asia and the Pacific, 102,496 in Central and South America, and only 61,886 left in Europe. For an interactive country-by-country presentation of membership, visit the Third Way Cafe website.

    | Profile | History | Beliefs | Issues | Links | Bibliography |

    II. History of the Group

      Anabaptist Origins and Swiss Beginnings

      The founding of the Mennonite religion stemmed from a much larger movement in Europe during the 16th Century. The Protestant Reformation challenged traditional Roman Catholic beliefs and practices, and it created an atmosphere of religious cataclysm 1 . The most famous leaders of The Protestant Reformation, Martin Luther and John Calvin, are credited with many of the overarching ideas that characterized the Reformation, but it was in the finer details that the founders of the Anabaptists disagreed.

      The two issues on which the Anabaptists differed most from the Calvinists and Lutherans were baptism and the separation of church and state. Whereas Lutherans and Calvinists were firm believers in baptism at birth and the idea of a united church and state, the Anabaptists found truth in the scriptures that baptism should be for those voluntarily and consciously committed to the faith and that church should not be guided by the government 2 .

      Influenced by the writings of Martin Luther, Ulrich Zwingli, a former Swiss Catholic priest, began a reformation of his own in the 1520s rejecting all Catholic teachings and rituals lacking Biblical reference. Although Zwingli is credited with converting the men responsible for founding the Anabaptist faith, he himself pursued different priorities and wavered in his beliefs 3 . In 1522, Zwingli converted Conrad Grebel who undertook a zealous look at the Scriptures in order to substantiate all practices and beliefs of the church. Grebel, acknowledged as the founder of Swiss Anabaptism, was the first to be baptized as an adult on January 21, 1525 -- a few days after the Zurich Council threatened exile to any who failed to baptize an infant before the age of 8 days 4 .

      Therefore, it is this day, January 21, 1525, that the Mennonite faith recognizes as its origin. Although several faiths stem from the Anabaptist traditions (such as Amish , Brethren in Christ , and the Hutterites), the Mennonites have become the largest group originating from this momentous occasion of the rebaptism of an adult 5 .

      Menno Simons and the Early European Mennonites

      Following this occasion, a period of persecution and even death for the Anabaptist believers commenced. Amidst the chaos, a group of Anabaptist leaders organized a meeting, and, in February of 1527, in the village of Schleitheim, they drafted a document detailing their newfound beliefs (See Confessions of Faith ). The leaders of this meeting found themselves at the forefront of a counterculture that the surrounding government and religion found intolerable. Between 1531 and 1597, over 1,500 Mennonite lives were sacrificed for their religious beliefs. Anabaptists scattered in all directions during these years, preaching, teaching, and baptizing as they went 6 .

      Menno Simons was born in a little town in Holland around 1496; called forth to serve God, he became a Catholic priest and served for more than 12 years. Menno testified his priesthood was one of indulgence and that he knew very little about the Bible and its specific teachings 7 . Menno's conversion came about much like the other Anabaptist leaders '-- "Masada," after a careful study of the Bible and a reevaluation of his faith. After his rebaptism by Obbe Philips in 1536, Menno Simons began afresh and spent the remainder of his life preaching and writing extensively about his beliefs. Menno traveled widely, visiting towns and villages where pockets of fellow believers lived. All the while he was considered a fugitive by an imperial edict issued against him by Emperor Charles V. Twenty-five years after his conversion from Catholicism, Menno died peacefully at the age of 66. Credited with saving the Anabaptist movement, it is in Simons's honor that Countess Anna of Friesland coined the name "Mennonites" 8 . Prince William of Orange granted the Mennonites toleration on January 26, 1577, after Holland gained independence from Roman Catholic Spain. The Union of Utrecht in 1579, which granted religious freedom to each Dutch person, did not prevent minor persecution by Catholics and Calvinists, but it ended a period whereby a Mennonite could be imprisoned simply for his faith 9 . Also during the 16th and 17th Century, many distinct groups of Mennonites developed around Europe such as the Waterlanders, the Fresians, and the Flemish. These internal divisions were due mostly to regional diversity, human conduct related to the ban, and a lack of hierarchy to unite individual churches and localities 10 . Efforts to unite these groups began with Menno Simons, but the most successful unification attempt came in 1632 with the Dordrecht Confession of Faith . One division that did survive was the Amish schism led by Jacob Ammann in the late 1690s, but, on the whole, the Mennonites were able to find common ground and unite based on common values and a commitment to the Bible.

      A period of spiritual and numerical decline set in as the 18th Century progressed in Europe; in Holland membership fell to 27,000 by 1809, only one-sixth of the membership just 100 years earlier 11 . Meanwhile, in Switzerland, severe restrictions continued until the late 1700s, causing many Mennonites to immigrate elsewhere to practice their faith. The Mennonites who remained in Europe prospered and joined together for mission outreach that began in 1847 12 . Much of the numerical decline was due to migration to other countries as Mennonites pursued religious acceptance on other continents around the world.

      Russian Mennonites

      In 1786, Catherine II extended an invitation to the Mennonites to settle the lands of Russia -- enticing them with promises of land, religious freedom, and exemptions from both burdensome taxes and military service 13 . A group of four families set out by sleigh and wagon for Russia "Masada," in 1789; they established the first Mennonite settlement at Choritza. Due to a high birth rate and a continuous stream of immigrants, the number of Mennonites in Russia increased rapidly. Among them, there was great wealth for some, but there was poverty for many more. A significant religious awakening occurred in the late 19th century, resulting in the founding of the Mennonite Brethren Church in 1860. This branch emphasized mission work and a return to an emotional relationship with God; at least one-third of the Russian Mennonites identified with this church 14 .

      The first of many setbacks for the Russian Mennonites came in the 1870s when the Russian Czar revoked their military exemption status. Although the Mennonites were able to serve with alternate services, many decided to leave Russia instead of violating their consciences. A group totaling 18,000 immigrated to The United States and Canada at the first threat of religious persecution 15 . In 1917, the Bolshevik revolution destroyed many Mennonite lives since the Russians were very suspect of the German-speaking Mennonites and where their loyalties lay. Coupled with a famine in the 1920s, most Russian Mennonites died, were exiled or moved to North and South America.

      North American Mennonites

      The first permanent settlement of Mennonites was established in 1863 at Germantown, Pennsylvania. Although there were Mennonites in New Netherlands, such as Cornelius Pieter Plockhoy, as early as 1633, the Germantown colony is recognized as the place of origin by the Mennonites in North America. Many factors influenced the arrival of the Mennonites in Pennsylvania; most importantly, religious persecution caused many Mennonites to immigrate where there were promises of religious freedom. Secondly, William Penn and George Fox, both Protestant leaders in the New World, sent invitations to the Mennonite communities encouraging them to make the move. Also vital to the colonization, the German Quakers summoned their Mennonite friends and relatives in Germany with tales of adventure and freedom that lured the maltreated Mennonites 16 . This first settlement of Mennonites numbered thirty-five souls, and from them came the first formal American protest against slavery in 1688 17 .

      There were four great waves of Mennonite immigration to North America 18 , beginning with the primarily German and Swiss migration to eastern Pennsylvania up until the French and Indian War. The second wave of immigration took place from the time after the Napoleonic Wars until the eruption of the Civil War; these Mennonites also settled in America and moved as far west as Iowa and Illinois. Russian Mennonites characterized the third and fourth waves of immigration with 10,000 arriving in the upper center of The United States, and 8,000 settling in Canada between the years 1873 and 1880. Later, around the time of the Bolshevik revolution, almost 19,000 Mennonites were able to escape to Canada 19 .

      Mennonites have enjoyed religious freedom in the United States, Canada, and even Mexico since their first arrivals in 1683, but not totally without external and internal conflict. The firm Mennonite position of pacifism has led to many moral crises since the French and Indian War, and most recently with the Vietnam War -- explored below in Issues and Controversies . The first schism that arose was led by Christian Funk who argued in favor of supporting the Revolutionary War and the Continental Congress. Funk was excommunicated for his beliefs and later formed his own Mennonite church that survived until the mid-1800s 20 . Conflict over war and North American influences are still today at issue with the Mennonites, but due to their large contributions to society and agriculture, as well as the promise of religious freedom, there is little discord between the Mennonites and their surroundings.

      Mennonites Around the World

      Always in search of freedom of conscience, the Mennonites also immigrated to Latin and South America, either directly from Europe and Russia or after settling in Canada and The United States and moving south. Coupled with mission work, Mennonites are spread throughout Latin and South America and they continue to work and live in such countries as Puerto Rico, Brazil, Argentina, Chile, and Jamaica 21 . Mennonites have also founded substantial mission projects in Africa and Asia, where numbers of converts continue to grow. In particular, the churches in Indonesia are the fastest growing Mennonite congregations in the world 22 .

      The history of the Mennonites is quite like that of many other religious groups -- struggle and persecution in the beginning, but unity under a charismatic leader and the faith to pull through. Today, Mennonites are among the most peaceful and successful groups in the world, influenced by their piety, values, and strong belief in the Trinity.

    | Profile | History | Beliefs | Issues | Links | Bibliography |

    III. Beliefs of the Group

      The "Third Way"

      Anabaptists refer to their faith as a "third way --" one unique to Catholicism and to Protestantism. Anabaptist literally means "rebaptizers" which was a major point of disagreement between Protestant reformers and Anabaptist leaders. When a return to the scriptures was called for in the 16th Century, Anabaptists found truth in the Bible that baptism should be reserved for adults fully aware and committed to the faith and not forced on an unknowing child. Also unique to the Anabaptist faith was their firm stance on pacifism and refusal to take oath. Many Catholics and Protestants alike were drawn to this new interpretation -- seeing a truth not found in their former faith 23 . Menno Simons began his life as a Roman Catholic priest but later closely examined his faith and the scriptures, eventually converting to Anabaptism, and then writing and preaching extensively on rebaptism.

      Confessions of Faith

      The Anabaptists resolutely followed the Bible placing particular emphasis on the New Testament and its teachings. Although the Bible is the only recognized sacred text, there have been numerous documents produced referred to as "Confessions of Faith" detailing the particular positions and beliefs held true by the Mennonites.

      The first of these confessions was produced at a meeting of the earliest Anabaptists on February 24, 1527. Referred to as the " Schleitheim Confessions of Faith ," this record of the ideas and scriptures discussed during this meeting is credited with saving the then vulnerable Anabaptist movement and uniting its followers. The seven points detailed in the confession include: (1) "Baptism," (2) "The Ban" or "Excommunication" which states that those who falter are subject to 2 secret admonishments and then banning, (3) "Breaking of the Bread" which is reserved only for those united by baptism, (4) "Separation from the Abomination" which expounds on the position that there is only good and evil and evil only leads to more evil, (5) "Pastors in the Church" which details the responsibilities of the leader, (6) "The Sword" which lays the foundation for pacifism and the refusal to hold office and (7) "The Oath" which forbids all oath taking. Taken together, these 7 positions of faith separated the Anabaptists from the other Reformation religions and laid a foundation for the future.

      The Dordrecht Confession of Faith is the most comprehensive of the Confessions, and it is and has been a uniting factor for the Mennonites since its writing in 1632. The Dordrecht Confession is an extension of the Schleitheim Confession, but goes beyond its predecessor in both the promotion of the ban and the use of shunning. For many Mennonites, the doctrine of shunning, although central to their belief of keeping the church chaste, has been a source of debate since it requires the avoidance of socializing and even eating with a banned member. The Dordrecht Confession upholds basic Christian assertions such as the Trinity and the incarnation of Christ, and it goes on to proclaim the Lord's Supper as an ordinance and to advocate foot washing 24 .

      Since 1632, the Mennonite Church has changed considerably; thus, many of the positions originally detailed in the Dordrecht Confessions have been subject to metamorphosis given delete outside influences and technological advances. Many of the conservative Mennonite Churches still adhere to most if not all of the standards in the Dordrecht Confession, but many have also adopted new principles that better detail the stance of their church 25 . The Mennonite General Conference published a Brief Statement of Faith in 1963, and, most recently, the Mennonite Church adopted as their official confession the Confession of Faith in a Mennonite Perspective in 1995.

      Worldly Influences

      The history of the Mennonites detailed their intense desire to retain a closed society and practice their faith in peace. In every movement, albeit from Holland to Russia, Russia to Canada, or Canada south, the Mennonites were in search of a place where they could put God first, and the state second -- all the while maintaining a pious and close- knit community 26 .

      For three-hundred years Mennonites knew no other way of life besides farming, but in the North American environment the urbanization movement attracted many Mennonites to the cities. Today, Mennonites are no longer thought of as only an agricultural people and most have tested their faith in the cities and beyond. Many urban Mennonites have maintained their faith and stuck close to the doctrine, still others have left the faith discarding the restrictions on their freedom 27 . Also lost to urbanization was the German language, which was very distinct among the Mennonites and was replaced by English in most cases, especially after the Second World War 28 .

      To further emphasize the concept of a closed community, the Mennonites chose to educate their children in Mennonite schools maintaining close ties between curriculum and the Bible. By 1967, there were over 24 Mennonite schools and colleges in The United States and Canada -- among them liberal arts colleges, nursing schools, and Bible schools 29 . Today, there are 95 elementary and high schools as well as 15 institutions of higher learning in the United States and Canada; for a listing and links to these schools please visit .

      Free-Church Family

      The Mennonites belong to the European Free-Church Family of religions that emphasizes free will, personal relationships with God, and adult baptism. The Mennonites have always maintained an adamant position of separation of church and state -- eager to minimize the influences of outside non-Mennonite forces. Until recently, there was little hierarchy among the Mennonite Churches, but there have been a number of Conferences that have emerged to organize congregations around the world. Beginning in 1925, the Mennonite World Conference has gathered for fellowship, worship, and celebration every five to six years. The MWC makes no binding decisions, but many of the more conservative Mennonite groups refuse to participate in or recognize conferences 30 .

      Word and Deed

      Originating with the first mission project in 1847, the Mennonites have been very involved in mission work and relief efforts both in times of war and times of peace. Mennonites believe that they need to not only believe and affirm the scriptures, but also to live them in their day-to-day lives. Relief work has served as a significant part of this conviction, as Mennonites contribute in both volunteer hours and dollars to causes around the world.

      Mennonites do not focus on proselytizing but spread their beliefs through helping others in need around the world and in their communities. Their utmost dedication to peace and social justice is a precursor to their concerns around the globe, and stem from a devotion to the word of God and the good works of Jesus in the New Testament.

    | Profile | History | Beliefs | Issues | Links | Bibliography |

    IV. Issues and Controversies

      Mennonite Pacifism during United States Conflicts

      The Mennonites immigrated to the United States in search of a place where they could practice their religion freely and without government intervention, but the Mennonite position on war was contrary to the interests of the United States. Since colonial times when the first Mennonites arrived in Pennsylvania, conflict has forced confrontation and compromise between colonial militias and pacifist Mennonite settlers. During the French and Indian War, many Mennonites lost their lives due to Indian retaliation, but the Mennonites refused to use force against the Indians choosing instead to supply grain, hay and food. The Mennonites also joined together with the Quakers in their "Friendly Association" with the Indians whereby they negotiated with the Indians to pay them for their lands. Prior to 1777, the Mennonites enjoyed exemption from both militia fines and duty, but the law was changed during the Revolutionary War in order to facilitate higher participation levels and/or create revenue for the war cause. The Mennonites where forced to choose between hiring substitutes, giving nonmilitary support to the war cause, and paying special war taxes after the law was changed 31 .

      The Civil War was the first time the American people, including the Mennonites, were required to contribute to the war by way of a mandatory draft. The Law of 1863, the nations first genuine draft law, allowed any man to either hire a substitute or pay $300 for commutation. This provision allowed not only for those religiously opposed to war to avoid participation, but it also allowed the rich to hire substitutes; many American people, especially Democrats at the time, were radically against this stipulation since it benefited the rich, as the poor, unable to pay the fine, were forced to fight 32 . Most Mennonites were willing to pay fines or hire substitutes, but some Mennonites, along with the Quakers, were adamantly opposed to any involvement at all, citing ethical inconsistencies with hiring someone to do what they would not do themselves. A second draft act revoked the privilege in mid-1864, but thanks to Thaddeus Stevens, a Republican Congressman, three provisions remained for these Conscientious Objectors (COs): assignment to hospital duty to care for soldiers, assignment to care for freedmen, or payment of a fee for the benefit of sick and wounded soldiers. Due to waning spiritual commitments and, in some cases, a lack of peace position knowledge, a number of Mennonite men accepted military service or joined The Civil War voluntarily. During the fifty years following The Civil War, the Mennonites strengthened religiously and mentally, producing information on peace and focusing on educating children to follow in the tradition of peace 33 .

      World War I posed the largest struggle for the Mennonites since the war was with Germany, and the government offered no alternative service or fines in lieu of the draft. The Mennonites were willing to give up most of their German allegiances in favor of American patriotism; most importantly, the Mennonites who still spoke German in church and in business switched to English during and after World War I 34 . The Mennonites pushed for some sort of alternative, and on May 18, 1917 the Selective Service Act provided that COs serve as non-combatants. The Mennonites and other pacifist groups generally felt this alternative unacceptable since it did not allow them to provide medical or humanitarian aid to the enemy side 35 . Over 2,000 Mennonites were drafted, and, for the first time, spent time in military camps. Another option for many Mennonites was migration; about 600-800 left The United States for Canada during World War I 36 . At last in March 1918, the Farm Furlough Bill opened the door for the COs to provide farm labor in lieu of military duty because of the severe shortage of labor. Yet this bill did not allow all COs to move directly to farm labor; the civilian Board of Inquiry was established by President Wilson to evaluate each case individually and decide the sincerity of each claimed Conscientious Objector 37 . Approximately ten percent of Mennonites who declined all service to the military were court-martialed and sent to jail, sixty percent found some alternative service such as farm labor or reconstruction work, and thirty percent of the drafted Mennonites remained in army camps without opportunity to meet with the Board of Inquiry 38 . Overall, World War I was a turbulent period, as the Mennonites faced persecution for their positions in many areas of the country: two churches were burned, many were painted yellow, and one minister was even seized by a mob and tied to a telephone pole 39 . After World War I ended, a period of intense revitalization and relief work ensued, as Mennonites organized to help the needy around the world.

      In preparation for World War II, representatives from the Historic Peace Churches (Mennonites, Brethren in Christ , and Quakers ) met in 1937 and sent a letter to President Roosevelt outlining their peace position and asking for provisions before any war ensued. The Selective Training and Service Act of 1940 granted that those opposed to war because of religious beliefs should be assigned to "work of national importance under civilian direction." Administration of this program and the designation of CO status were left to the local draft boards, and the government and churches negotiated the definition of acceptable alternate service. The Civilian Public Service program was established on February 6, 1941, and it was to be operated and funded entirely by the Historical Peace Churches at their request. The CPS workers labored in designated CPS camps in fields such as forestry, soil conservation, public health, and agriculture; in particular, they were instrumental in discovering and fixing the mental health system 40 . The Mennonites embraced the Civilian Public Service system as not just a substitute for military service but, more importantly, as an expression of biblical faith and compassion for their community. By the end of World War II, more than 4,600 Mennonites served in the CPS program (some were even women) and approximately 3,900 served as noncombatants conscientious objectors in the military 41 .

      To conclude on this issue would be to admit there is no conflict between the Mennonites and society over their position on pacifism. The Vietnam War also had an impact on the Mennonites, as rhetoric against the war and against any form of conscription intensified 42 . By finding alternatives to military service, the Mennonites throughout American history have aided both sides of war with food, money, and relief work around the world, and they will continue to pursue this outlet in the future, no doubt. Most recently, the Confession of Faith from a Mennonite Perspective, in Article 22 , details the current position held by The Mennonite Church, and it links these positions to specific references from The Holy Bible on which the Mennonite religion is based.

    | Profile | History | Beliefs | Issues | Links | Bibliography |

    V. Links to Mennonite Web Sites

      Third Way Cafe
      This website is endless in resources and materials on the mainstream Mennonite faith. Very easy to navigate and aesthetically pleasing pages make this website an excellent starting point to learn about Mennonite beliefs and history. Comprehensive news articles and opinion pieces are added weekly, and a photo gallery of Mennonites around the world provides an in-depth look at the culture of the Mennonite people.

      The Mennonite Church
      The official home page of The Mennonite Church, this website is home to over 2200 searchable Mennonite congregations and organizations. Special features include a Mennonite Site of the Month, a directory of educational institutions, a brief history of the faith, and Mennonite links.

      Historical Committee and Archives of the Mennonite Church
      This is the official homepage for the Archives of the Mennonite Church located at Goshen College in Indiana. The Archives is a repository for churches, organizations, and individuals associated with the Mennonite Church. This site contains links to the Mennonite Historical Bulletin that is also a great historical and opinion resource.

      Mennonite World Conference
      This is the official homepage of the Mennonite World Conference which is an international fellowship of churches in the Anabaptist tradition. This site contains news updates from the World Conference, detailed descriptions of their mission work around the world, a country-by-country count of Mennonite membership around the world, and a Links page.

      Mennonite Connections on the World Wide Web
      A comprehensive independent links page for everything Mennonite. Links to churches, publishers, schools, social issues, history, doctrine and even humor and games associated with the Mennonite faith are accessible from this one page.

      MennoLink is an independent inter-Mennonite, user-supported service providing news, information and discussion through email interest groups and links to Mennonite-related sites.

      Anabaptists incorporate all the denominations beginning with the Anabaptist movement, but this page is mostly devoted to Mennonite thought and doctrine. Articles on doctrine, current issues such as positions on abortions and elections, educational resources, and even free stuff! This site is continually updated and depends on users to provide much of the information.

      Bibleviews is a Mennonite-Anabaptist site with many resources related to the Bible and includes the translated texts of many Mennonite Confessions of Faith. Also unique to this site are original articles on subjects such as redemption, theology, and ordinances-- all from a Mennonite prospective.

      Mennonite Weekly Review
      Published and updated weekly, this is the homepage for the non-profit newspaper by and for Mennonites. Complete with an archival search, this newspaper publishes news stories, opinion pieces, and it seeks to be a catalyst for the spread and preservation of the Mennonite faith.

      Mennonite Resource Network
      MRN is a networking resource for churches and individuals seeking information on the Mennonite traditions. A Bulletin Board, extensive links page, a Youth ministry section, and a calendar help make this page very informative about the Mennonite way of life. Most unique to this page is a plethora of resources on Conflict Resolution, Peace, and Meditation.

    | Profile | History | Beliefs | Issues | Links | Bibliography |

    VI. Bibliography

      Bender, Harold S. 1964.
      "Mennonite Origins and the Mennonites of Europe."

      Bender, Ross T. and Alan P. F. Sell. eds. 1991.
      Baptism, Peace and the State in the Reformed and Mennonite Traditions . Waterloo, Ontario: Wilfred Laurier University Press.

      Driedger, Leo. 2000.
      Mennonites in the Global Village . Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

      Dyck, Cornelius J. ed. 1981.
      An Introduction to Mennonite History . Pennsylvania: Herald Press.

      Dyck, Cornelius J. 1987.
      "Mennonites," The Encyclopedia of Religion vol. 9. Mircea Eliade ed. New York: Macmillian Publising. 376-377.

      Epp, Marlene. 2000.
      Women without Men: Mennonite Refugees of the Second World War . Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

      Juhnke, James C. 1989.
      Vision, Doctrine, War: Mennonite Identity and Organization in America 1890-1930 . Pennsylvania: Herald Press.

      Keeney, William Echard. 1968.
      The Development of Dutch Anabaptist Thought and Practice From 1539-1564 . Netherlands: Nieuwkoop B. De Graaf.

      Kraybill, Donald B., and Carl F. Bowman. 2001
      On the Backroad to Heaven: Older Order Hutterites, Mennonites, Amish, and Brethern. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

      Melton, J. Gordon. 1998.
      "Mennonites," The Encyclopedia of American Religions . Detroit: Gale Research. Sixth Edition. 87-91.

      Schlabach, Theron F. 1988.
      Peace, Faith, Nation: Mennonites and Amish in Nineteenth-Century America . Pennsylvania: Herald Press.

      Smith, Henry C. 1981.
      Smith's Story of the Mennonites . Kansas: Faith and Life Press.

      Roth, John D. 1996.
      "The Mennonites Dirty Little Secret ." Christianity Today (Oct 7)p44(5).

      Toews, Paul. 1996.
      Mennonites in American Society, 1930-1970: Modernity and the Persistence of Religious Community . Pennsylvania: Herald Press.

      Wenger, John Christian. 1949.
      Glimpses of Mennonite History and Doctrine . Pennsylvania: Herald Press.

    Also of Interest on the Religious Movements Homepage

    | Amish  | Brethren  | Mennonite  | Moravians  |


    1. Dyck, Cornelius J. An Introduction to Mennonite History p33-36.
    2. Wenger, John C. Glimpses of Mennonite History and Doctrine p15.
    3. Wenger, John C. Glimpses of Mennonite History and Doctrine p21.
    4. Wenger, John C. Glimpses of Mennonite History and Doctrine p23-25.
    5. Third Way Cafe
    6. Wenger, John C. Glimpses of Mennonite History and Doctrine p7-25.
    7. Bender, Harold S. Mennonite Origins and the Mennonites of Europe
    8. Smith, Henry C. Smith's Story of the Mennonites p72
    9. Dyck, Cornelius J. An Introduction to Mennonite History p133-134.
    10. Smith, Henry C. Smith's Story of the Mennonites p109
    11. Wenger, John C. Glimpses of Mennonite History and Doctrine p84.
    12. Smith, Henry C. Smith's Story of the Mennonites p141
    13. Dyck, Cornelius J. An Introduction to Mennonite History p165.
    14. Wenger, John C. Glimpses of Mennonite History and Doctrine p97.
    15. Dyck, Cornelius J. An Introduction to Mennonite History p181.
    16. Melton, Gordon J. The Encyclopedia of American Religions p90
    17. Wenger, John C. Glimpses of Mennonite History and Doctrine p101.
    18. Wenger, John C. Glimpses of Mennonite History and Doctrine p101-104.
    19. Wenger, John C. Glimpses of Mennonite History and Doctrine p97-98.
    20. Melton, Gordon J. The Encyclopedia of American Religions p90
    21. Dyck, Cornelius J. An Introduction to Mennonite History p312-344.
    22. Dyck, Cornelius J. An Introduction to Mennonite History p341.
    24. Melton, Gordon J. The Encyclopedia of American Religions p89
    25. Dyck, Cornelius J. An Introduction to Mennonite History p132.
    26. Dyck, Cornelius J. An Introduction to Mennonite History p401.
    27. Dyck, Cornelius J. An Introduction to Mennonite History p402.
    28. Smith, Henry C. Smith's Story of the Mennonites p512
    29. Smith, Henry C. Smith's Story of the Mennonites p524
    30. Dyck, Cornelius J. An Introduction to Mennonite History p377.
    31. Third Way Cafe
    32. Schlabach, Theron F. Peace, Faith, Nation: Mennonites and Amish in Nineteenth-Century America p186
    33. Third Way Cafe
    34. Juhnke, James C. Vision, Doctrine, War: Mennonite Identity and Organization in America 1890-1930 p221
    35. Third Way Cafe
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    37. Juhnke, James C. Vision, Doctrine, War: Mennonite Identity and Organization in America 1890-1930 p238
    38. Third Way Cafe
    39. Smith, Henry C. Smith's Story of the Mennonites p539
    40. Third Way Cafe
    41. Toews, Paul Mennonites in American Society, 1930-1970: Modernity and the Persistence of Religious Community p141-142
    42. Toews, Paul Mennonites in American Society, 1930-1970: Modernity and the Persistence of Religious Community p319

    Created by Jennifer K. Frankovich
    For Soc 257: New Religious Movements
    (Fall Term, 2000)
    University of Virginia
    Last modified: 07/20/01

    Special Thanks to Mr. John E. Sharp, Director of Historical Committee and Archives of the Mennonite Church, for his kind and helpful assistance in the preparation of this page. An earlier profile page on Mennonites by Kenneth Alger is archived on the following site.