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Scaphiopodidae (Cope, 1865) American Spadefoot Toads
These little toads are stocky and compact, with eyes that seem to protrude from the head (see photo of Scaphiopus holbrokii). Spadefoot toads are named because of a keratinous bone, a metatarsal spade supported by a well-ossified prehallux, on the hind feet. The spade is used to burrow backward into the soil. The family Pelobatidae was formerly comprised of three genera, Pelobates from Europe, and Scaphioupus and Spea from North America. Recently, the two American genera have been placed into their own family, Scaphiopodidae, leaving only Pelobates in the family Pelobatidae. Synapomorphies of Pelobatids include a fused joint between the coccyx and the sacrum, exostosed frontoparietals, and the presences of the metatarsal spade.  

      
      
Genus Scaphiopus (Holbrook, 1836) Southern Spadefoot Toads
  Scaphiopus couchii Couch's Spadefoot
  Scaphiopus holbrookii Eastern Spadefoot
  Scaphiopus hurterii Hurter's Spadefoot
      
Genus Spea (Cope, 1866) Western Spadefoot Toads
  Spea bombifrons Plains Spadefoot
  Spea hammondii Western Spadefoot
  Spea intermontana Great Basin Spadefoot
  Spea multiplicata New Mexico Spadefoot
    
  

Amphibian Taxonomy References

AmphibiaWeb (2003). http://amphibiaweb.org/. (Accessed: 2001-2003).

Beltz, Ellin (2003). North American Reptile and Amphibian Names. Ellin Beltz. http://ebeltz.net/herps/etyhome.html (Accessed: 2001).

Center for North American Herpetology (2003). http://www.cnah.org/ (Accessed: 2000).

Collins, Joseph T. Standard Common and Scientific Names for North American Amphibians & Reptiles (3rd ed.). Society for the Study of Amphibians & Reptiles (SSAR), 1990.

Duellman, W.E. and L. Trueb. Biology of Amphibians. McGraw Hill, New York, 1986.

Fowler, Henry W. Annual Report of the New Jersey State Museum, 1906 - With A Report of the Amphibians and Reptiles of New Jersey and a Supplement to the Fishes of New Jersey. Trenton, New Jersey State Museum, 1906.

Frank, Norman, and E. Ramus. Complete Guide to Scientific and Common Names of Reptiles & Amphibians of the World. N.G. Publishing, 1996.

Frost, Darrel. R. Amphibian Species of the World. Allen Press and the Association of Systematics Collections. Lawrence, KS, 1985.

Frost, Darrel R. (2004). Amphibian Species of the World 3.0. American Museum of Natural History. http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.php (Accessed: 2004).

Halliday, Tim R., and Kraig Adler (editors). The New Encyclopedia of Reptiles & Amphibians. Facts on File, New York, 2002.

Jordan, David S. A Manual of Vertebrates of the Northern United States Including the District East of the Mississippi River and North of North Carolina and Tennessee, Exclusive to Marine Species. Chicago, 1878.

Larson, Allan. 1991. A molecular perspective on the evolutionary relationships of the salamander families. Evolutionary Biology 25: 211-277.

Larson, Allan (2004). Terrestrial Vertebrates. Tree of Life Web Project. http://www.tolweb.org/tree?group=terrestrial_vertebrates. (Accessed: 2004).

Schleich, Hermann H., and Werner Kastle (editors). Amphibians and Reptiles of Nepal. Koeltz, Koningstein, 2002.

Stebbins, Robert. Western Reptiles & Amphibians (3rd ed.). Houghton Mifflin Co., 2003.

Titus, T.A. and A. Larson. 1995. A molecular phylogenetic perspective on the evolutionary radiation of the salamander family Salamandridae. Systematic Biology 44: 125-151.

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