HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF RADIO AND TELEVISION
A Brief History of Radio and Television Broadcasts
history of radio broadcasts dates back to the first quarter of the 20th
century. The first official radio broadcast was aired in 1922 by the British
Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). The first regularly scheduled
television program was also broadcast by the BBC in 1936. Turkish radio
broadcasts began on
enactment of the "Wireless Installation Law" in 1925 wireless
stations began to be built in
these test broadcasts, the "Turkish Wireless Inc." (TTTAŞ) was
founded by İş Bank. The Anatolian News Agency, two deputies and a
businessman, were given sole broadcasting management rights for 10
years and broadcasting began on
months later, in October 1927, Ankara Radio started its regular broadcasts
which were aired everyday from 19.00 to 22.00 via 5 kW transmitters. At the
time, there were 1,178 receivers in
Under Law No.3222 enacted in 1937, responsibility for radio broadcasts was transferred from the Turkish Wireless Inc. to the Post Office and thus the period of private company management came to an end and state radios were established.
Long wave broadcasts had 120 kW transmitters
and at the same time short wave broadcasts were initiated which were beamed
to foreign countries beginning on
With the enactment of Law No. 3837 in 1940, radio stations were brought under the control of the Directorate General of Press and Information.
In 1949, the first medium-wave broadcasts were beamed from the İstanbul-Ümraniye 150 kW. transmitter.
the 1961 Constitution, a new and productive period for State radios began.
Under the resolution adopted by the Council of Ministers on
In 1963, the power of the Etimesgut transmitter which broadcasts long-wave programs on Ankara Radio was increased to 240 kW.
All radio stations were attached to the Tourism and Information Ministry in 1963.
adoption of the 1961 Constitution, changes, renewal and developments were
the 100 kW long-wave Erzurum Radio transmitter began operating; in 1968
the 300 kW medium-wave Çukurova Radio, the 100 kW medium-wave İzmir Radio and
the 2 kW
the first television transmissions in
Between 1971 and 1982
structure of the TRT stipulated in the 121st article of the Constitution
lasted only eight years. Article 121 was amended on
publication of the "Turkish Radio and Television Corporation
Establishment and Duties Regulations" on
Towards the end of 1972, the 1100 kW long-wave Ankara Radio transmitter went into operation.
Radio, with a 600 kW medium-wave transmitter, and Hakkari radio with a 1 kW
short-wave transmitter started broadcasting in 1973. In 1974, auxiliary radio
transmitters each of 100 kW power began operating in İzmir and in
and Radio-3 broadcasts began on
transferred its broadcast to FM channels on
1982 - 2000
On 26 February 1983, two 500 kW short-wave radio transmitters for the "Voice of Turkey" Turkish broadcast were put into operation at Çakırlar, Ankara.
Radio-3 which broadcast via FM channels began its stereo broadcasts in 1984.
amendment regulating radio and television broadcasts in
to this constitutional amendment, the new Law No.2954 which was instrumental
in the establishment of a new high level board in the field of broadcasting,
went into effect in 1983. The most important change brought about by the new
law was the establishment of a "Supreme Board of Radio and Television
Broadcasts", which had authority over TRT. On
In 1986, all Radio-3 broadcasts were in stereo.
Radio-4 radio station began to broadcast on
No.3517 passed on
broadcast Telegün which is also known as the television newspaper began
On February 28, 1990, the TRT-INT TV channel designed to serve viewers abroad started operating and TRT-INT which began its broadcasts via Eutelsat I F4 satellite, 13 degrees E. leased by The Netherlands Postal Services to Turk Telekom was transferred to Eutelsat II F1 satellite, 13 degrees E. in October of the same year and it is still in operation in addition to the Türksat IC satellite.
educational channel began trial broadcasts on
Tourism Radio, formerly the Holiday Radio, was the first radio established in
From 1991 onwards, the first FM channels aimed at broadcasting programs on Radio-1 were set up and additional FM transmitters began to be established in addition to the 49 FM transmitters which broadcast programs on Radio-3 and Radio-4.
TV started its broadcasts beamed to
In 1993, Radio-4 (TRT-FM) and Radio-2 (News Radio) increased their broadcasting hours to 24 hours daily. In November 1995, Radio-1 FM transmitters also started broadcasting 24 hours a day.
1993-1995 all TRT radio transmissions began to be relayed via satellite in
analog and numerical forms. On
(Turkish Grand National Assembly) TV channel established on
Radio beamed to Hatay province and its environs began test broadcasts on
(News Radio) was closed on
analogue TRT-INT TV and TRT-FM and TRT-VOT Turkish and foreign language
Programs targeted to
TRT-INT TV and TRT-FM and TRT-VOT Turkish and foreign language broadcasts have been transmitted to Australia and New Zealand in digital format via the Thaicom 3 (780E) and the Optus B3 (1560E) since July 25, 1999.
No. 4397 passed on
Broadcasts in foreign languages began to be transmitted by auxiliary vocal transmitters of the TRT-TÜRK TV via the Türksat 1C satellite on March 23, 2001.
2000 and after
programs on the TRT TV channels have been re-arranged in order to create more
attractive, effective and competitive TV broadcasting taking into
consideration that these channels are state-run. The new broadcasts began on
TRT-1: This television channel which broadcasts to all viewers provides information and entertainment by means of its programs. The programs include Turkish movies, music and talk shows, children’s programs in addition to news and sports bulletins. The basic aim of the channel is the family.
TRT-2 News-Information Channel: This television channel is for those who want to receive more detailed news bulletins. The programs include news, documentaries, cultural programs, forums, sports competitions and other sports activities.
TRT-3 (TRT-GAP and TBMM-TV): The TRT-GAP TV broadcasts at certain hours and TGNA-TV broadcasts when the Turkish Grand National Assembly (TGNA) is in session. In addition to these broadcasts, there are many sports programs.
This television channel is educational and provides instruction planned by
the National Education Ministry and
TRT-INT and TRT-TÜRK: The programs broadcast by these two channels aim at Turks living abroad so that they can maintain their cultural identity. The TRT-AVRASYA has been changed to the TRT-TÜRK.
BROADCASTS IN LOCAL LANGUAGES
The first broadcast in local languages was aired on June 7 at on the state-owned Channel-3 of the Turkish Radio and Television Corporation (TRT). The programs include news, music and documentaries. Broadcasts in local languages and dialects include Bosnian, Kurdish (Kirmachi, Zaza), Circassian and Arabic. According to the regulations, the radio broadcasts are at most 60 minutes a day and five hours a week and 45 minutes a day and four hours a week on television.
Broadcasts in different languages and dialects used
traditionally by Turkish citizens in their daily life first began with a
radio program on the state-run TRT Radio 1 in Bosnian at 6.10 a.m. on June 7.
After the Bosnian broadcast which lasted about 35
minutes, the program was broadcast in Turkish. The radio program ended at Announcers read domestic and world news and sports bulletins
in the program named ''Our Cultural Heritage.'' The program was also
broadcast on the state-run TRT-3 television channel at 10.30 a.m. Radio-1 and
TRT-3 broadcasts programs in Bosnian on Mondays, Arabic on Tuesdays, Kirman
on Wednesdays, Circassian on Thursdays and Zazaish on Fridays. The previous and
the current government passed laws to adjust to the European Union (EU)
criteria. These laws included
PRIVATE RADIO STATIONS AND TELEVISION CHANNELS
The monopoly of the Turkish Radio and Television Corporation (TRT) on broadcasts stipulated in the Constitution ended after 1990 with many radio stations and television channels beginning to broadcast illegally both at home and abroad.
this development, legal regulations were sought and an amendment to Article
133 of the Constitution calling for an impartial state broadcasting system
was proposed. With the enactment of Law No. 3913 on
In line with the amended Article 133, the TRT monopoly of on television broadcasts as the sole television institution which began operating in 1964 ended Thus, there was no question of private radio stations and television networks breaking the constitution from 1990 onwards.
RADIO AND TELEVISION SUPREME COUNCIL (RTÜK)
and Television Supreme Council (RTÜK) was established on
Functions and powers of the Radio and Television Supreme Council:
· In keeping with Article 16, to issue, commensurate with standards of impartiality and fairness, broadcasting permits and licenses to applicants who have complied with the prerequisites; to allocate channels and frequency bands, with due respect to the use on a time sharing basis and in keeping with regional balances of at least 50 percent of the channels and frequency bands included in the national, regional and local frequency plans, excluding those channels and frequency bands used by the Turkish Radio and Television Corporation,
· Under the provisions of Radiocommunications Law No. 2813 of 5.4.1983, to issue establishment and operation permits to radio and television enterprises for transmitting facilities to cover broadcast service areas allocated to radio and television enterprises according to national frequency plans for national, regional and local broadcasts and to supervise the compliance of the facilities under the provisions of the Radiocommunications Law and with the prerequisites for such facilities,
· Under the provisions of this law, to issue licenses for the construction and operation of telecommunication facilities so that, in addition to the radio and television transmitters provided for in the national frequency plans and to the existing telecommunications network between stationary and mobile transmitting units, radio and television enterprises can establish radiolink stations for the purpose of linking up to satellites in order to relay their national and local broadcasts, on condition that these are used solely for the objectives set forth, and to verify that these facilities operate in keeping with the provisions of Radiocommunications Law No. 2813 dated 5.4.1983,
· To encourage enterprises to extend their broadcasts to various regions of the country, while observing regional balances in the allocation of time sharing channels,
· To specify and publicize, while bearing in mind the principles of the European Convention on Transfrontier Television , the prerequisites and standards to be fulfilled by public and private radio and television enterprises that intend to transmit from within the country in order to apply for broadcasting permits and licenses,
· To establish via relevant regulations the preconditions for allocating channels and frequency bands, the deadlines for recipients of allocations to start regular broadcasts, and the broadcasting permit and license fees to be paid by operators of radio and television stations,
· To verify the compliance of broadcasts with the provisions of Article 4 above and with international treaties to which Turkey is a Party by setting up monitoring systems for radio and television broadcasts,
· To decide on the relevant sanctions in cases of violation of the provisions of this Law or of the conditions for frequency allocation,
· To permit building of radio and television transmitters by local means in parts of national territory that cannot be reached by available transmissions.
· To ensure that broadcasts from or to national territory to be transmitted via satellite conform to national and international rules and standards, and to cooperate to this end with competent authorities in other states ,
· To formulate the rules to be applied to encoded broadcasts and to cable radio and television installations and broadcasts within the framework of this Law, taking care not to leave any surplus capacity in the cable radio and television facilities of the PTT Administration,
· To conduct or commission public opinion surveys in order to follow regularly the reaction, approval or sensibilities of the public and to provide appropriate guidance in relation to radio and television broadcasts, on condition that the functions and powers of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs are preserved,
· On condition that the functions of the Directorate General of Radiocommunications and the functions and powers of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs are preserved, to represent the State at organizations that have legal personality under international law, and are concerned with radio and television broadcasts, as well as fulfilling the representation function at international organizations concerned with radio and television broadcasts but without legal personality under international law; to sign duly the instruments formulated under this paragraph,
· To evaluate trends in public opinion by periodically consulting with institutionsand agencies on radio and television broadcasts,
· To draft the regulations and other rules regarding its own work and activities in keeping with this law and the European Convention on Transfrontier Television.
The last application to obtain licenses for radio and television broadcasts was submitted in 1995. There have been no applications made since then. Between March 18, 1995 and April 28, 1995 the number of joint stock companies which applied for licenses to broadcast on television was 21 for national broadcasts, 18 for regional broadcasts and 219 for local broadcasts. Between June 22, 1995 and December 8, 1995, the number of joint stock companies which applied for licenses to broadcast on radio was 36 for national broadcasts, 102 for regional broadcasts and 958 for local broadcasts. Each joint stock company which fulfills the legal requirements is eligible to apply to the Supreme Council for cable TV and satellite broadcasting licenses. If these companies meet the legal requirements they are granted the license and permission to broadcast by the Supreme Council. To date, the number of cable TVs is 66, the number of televisions broadcasting via satellite is 74 and the number of radios broadcasting via satellite is 47. The number of national television channels is 24; the number of regional television channels is 16 while the number of local television channels is 214. The number of national radio stations is 36; the number of regional radio stations is 102 and the number of local radio stations is 958.
TRT RADIO BROADCASTS (
The aim of Radio-1 is to provide news and information; to respond to listeners' musical tastes; and to entertain and help develop, national cultural integration and education considering the widest listener range. The transmissions which are realized in accordance with these purposes consist of educational- cultural, drama, music and entertainment, news, commercials and sports programs.
Radio-1 is on 24 hours a
day and broadcasts continuously. Broadcasts are aired via AM transmitters in
Radio-1 broadcasts are transmitted via the 1200 kW LW Ankara- Polatlı, 1200 kW İstanbul- Mudanya, 200 kW MW İzmir, 100 kW LW Ağrı, 1000 kW LW Ağrı transmitters plus 109 FM transmitters.
AM Population Coverage: 98.6%
AM Area Coverage: 95%
FM Population Coverage: 97%
FM Area Coverage: 97%
According to a survey
conducted in December 1999, which covered all of
The target of TRT-FM (Radio-2) is to help listeners further develop their musical taste and culture. This is achieved through broadcasts which consist of Turkish Folk Music, Turkish Classical Music and Pop Music. Broadcasts are live and 24 hours a day. There are news broadcasts presented once every hour in addition to short spoken passages which contribute to education and culture, brief statements and comments on current affairs and events, on-the-scene reporting, and interviews with guests and concerts.
TRT-FM offers continuous
stereo live broadcasts all-around-the clock beamed from the
TRT- FM Transmission is achieved via 274 FM transmitters
Population Coverage: 99% Area Coverage: 98%
According to a nationwide survey conducted in December 1999, the TRT-FM’s rating was 17.6%; while according to the survey that covered East and Southeast Turkey conducted in June 2000, the rating was 19.9%. The last survey that covered the Çukurova region in October 2001, yielded a rating of 27%, which was second best to the TRT Çukurova Regional Radio.
According to the Erzurum
Regional Radio Survey conducted in December 2004, TRT FM was the best in
According to the Antalya Regional Radio Survey conducted in December 2004 TRT-FM was;
The best in
The best in Isparta among 23 stations that broadcast in the region with a rating of 32.9%
The best in Burdur among 26 stations that broadcast in the region with a rating of 36.2%
The aim of Radio-3 which is
a wide range music broadcasting station is to help listeners further develop
musical tastes and culture as a result of its broadcasts which include
Classical Music, Classic Jazz Programs, and Light and Pop Music. Radio-3 also
includes news broadcasts not only in Turkish but also in English, French and
German in order to serve the foreign community in
Radio-3 which broadcasts from Ankara Radio, offers continuous stereo broadcasts 24 hours a day.
Radio-3 transmissions are carried out by 105 FM transmitters.
Population Coverage: 97% Area Coverage: 98%
According to a nationwide
survey conducted in December 1999, the TRT-3 rating was 0.7%; according to
the survey that covered East and
Fully stereo since 1986
The aim of radio is to have audiences appreciate Turkish Folk and Turkish Classical Music; to raise the level of musical tastes and culture; to maintain the interest of audiences; to introduce to the young generation different types of Turkish Music and present singers and musicians, composers, songwriters, arrangers and the lyricists of Turkish folk and classical music. It also aims to reinforce the unity of language and culture by the presentation of Turkish Music, and to introduce the activities of musical institutions, organizations and groups.
Radio-4 broadcasts 24 hours a day from Radio Ankara stations.
Radio-4 broadcasts on 1200 kW MW to İstanbul- Çatalca, on 600 kW MW to Malatya, on 600 kW MW to Denizli via transmitters as well as 20 FM transmitters.
FM Population Coverage is 75 % FM Area Coverage is 50 %
AM Population Coverage is 35 %
No rating is available as of yet.
REGIONAL RADIO STATIONS
ANKARA RADIO, ISTANBUL RADIO, İZMİR RADIO, ÇUKUROVA RADIO, ANTALYA RADIO, ERZURUM RADIO, TRABZON RADIO, GAP-DİYARBAKIR RADIO, HATAY PROVINCIAL RADIO (TRT HATAY FM)
The target of Ankara Radio is to produce and broadcast radio programs in accordance with the socio-economic and cultural characteristics, and requirements of the coverage area.
Ankara Radio offers 24 hours of broadcasts everyday (between 06:00-13:15 and 14.00-06.00 shared with Radio-1. The remaining 45 minutes of the broadcast is regional).
Ankara Radio broadcasts are transmitted via 1200 kW LW Ankara- Polatlı, 1000 kW MW Ağrı and Radio-1 FM transmitters.
Ankara, Kırıkkale, Çorum, Çankırı, Konya, Kayseri, Sivas, Kırşehir, Nevşehir, Eskişehir, Afyon and partially Kütahya, Amasya, Bolu, Tokat, Niğde and Aksaray.
No rating is available as of yet.
Ankara radio, which began broadcasting in October 1927 at the Ulus Post Office, was officially launched on October 28, 1938 with its 120 kW LW transmitter. Ankara Radio was connected to the Radio-1 National network on January 1, 1975.
The aim of İstanbul Radio is to produce and broadcast radio programs in accordance with the socio-economic and cultural characteristics and the requirements of the coverage area.
İstanbul Radio broadcasts everyday around-the-clock (between 06.00-13.15 and 14.00-06.00 is shared with Radio-1. The remaining 45 minutes of broadcast time is an exception since it is regional).
İstanbul Radio broadcasts are transmitted via the 1200 kW MW İstanbul-Mudanya transmitter in addition to the 30 kW FM ( 95.6 MHz-) transmitter.
İstanbul, Kırıkkale, Tekirdağ, Edirne, Çanakkale, Bursa, Yalova, Sakarya, Kocaeli, Bolu and partially Eskişehir.
No rating is available as yet.
İstanbul Radio began its broadcasts on May 6, 1927, and it was connected to the Radio-1 national network on January 1, 1975.
The target of İzmir Radio is to produce and broadcast radio programs in accordance with the socio-economic and cultural characteristics of the coverage area.
İzmir Radio broadcasts everyday around-the-clock (between 06.00-13.15 and 14.00-06.00 is shared by Radio-. The remaining 45 minutes of the broadcast is regional).
İzmir Radio broadcasts are transmitted via 200 kW MW İzmir- Torbalı and other AM transmitters whose total power reaches 800 kW MW plus a 30 kW MW FM transmitter.
İzmir, Manisa, Aydın, Muğla, Uşak, Kütahya, Balıkesir, Çanakkale and Denizli.
No rating is available as of yet.
İzmir radio which began to broadcast in 1967, was connected to the Radio-1 national network on January 1, 1975.
The target of Çukurova Radio is to produce and broadcast radio programs in accordance with the socio-economic, and cultural characteristics of the coverage area.
Çukurova Radio offers 24 hours of broadcasting everyday. The broadcast is Radio-4 shared between 18.00-06.00, and regional between 06.00-18.00.
Çukurova Radio broadcasts are transmitted via 300 kW MW Çukurova transmitter, and 5 kW Mersin and 30 kW Adana FM transmitters.
Adana, İçel, Hatay, Kahramanmaraş, Gaziantep, and partially Antalya, Konya and Niğde.
According to a survey which conducted in October 2001 covered Adana, Osmaniye and Hatay, a sampling of the 1000 14+ year-old audience resulted in Çukurova Radio being rated as the best in the region with a yield of 42%
Çukurova radio which began to broadcast in 1968, was connected to the Radio-1 national station on January 1, 1975. Çukurova radio broadcasts 12 live shows between 06:00-18:00 and joins RADIO-4 for shared broadcasts between 18:00-06:00.
The target of Antalya Radio is to produce and broadcast radio programs in accordance with the socio-economic and cultural characteristics and requirements of the coverage area.
Antalya Radio offers around-the-clock broadcasts everyday. The broadcast is shared with Radio-4 between 18.00-06.00, and it is regional between 06.00-18.00.
Antalya Radio broadcasts through 600 kW MW Antalya- Aksu transmitter plus 30 kW MW Isparta and 5 kW MW Antalya FM transmitters.
Antalya, Isparta, Burdur, and partially Afyon, Konya, Mersin and Muğla.
No rating is available as of yet.
Antalya radio which began to broadcast as a Provincial Radio in 1961 was connected to the Radio-1 National network on January 1, 1975, and began to broadcast regionally on January 1, 1993. Antalya radio broadcasts live regionally for 12 hours a day between 06:00-18:00, and joins RADIO-4 for shared broadcasts between 18:00-06:00.
The objective of Erzurum Radio is to produce and broadcast radio programs in accordance with the socio-economic and cultural characteristics and requirements of the coverage area.
Erzurum Radio broadcasts 24 hours daily. The broadcast is Radio-4 which is shared between 18.00-06.00 and regional between 06.00-18.00.
Erzurum Radio broadcasts are transmitted via 200 kW LW Erzurum transmitter and a 5 kW FM transmitter.
Erzurum, Kars, Ardahan, Iğdır, Ağrı, Muş, Bingöl, Tunceli, Bayburt, Erzincan and partially Trabzon, Artvin, Van, Gümüşhane, Elazığ, Malatya, Sivas.
No rating is available as of yet.
Erzurum Radio, which began to broadcast in 1967, was connected to the Radio-1 National network on January 1, 1975 and started regional broadcasts on January 1, 1990. The Erzurum radio broadcasts live regionally for 12 hours between 06:00-18:00; and joins RADIO-4 for shared broadcasting between 18:00-06:00.
The target of Trabzon Radio is to produce and broadcast radio programs in accordance with the socio-economic and cultural characteristics and requirements of the coverage area.
The broadcasts of Trabzon Radio are 24 hours daily. The broadcast is Radio-4 shared between 18.00-06.00, and regional between 06.00-18.00.
Trabzon Radio broadcasts via 300 kW MW Trabzon transmitter, and 30 kW and 1 kW FM transmitters.
Trabzon, Rize, Artvin, Giresun, Ordu, Samsun, Sinop and partially Erzurum, Erzincan, Bayburt, Gümüşhane, Amasya and Tokat.
No rating is available as of yet.
Trabzon Radio which began to broadcast in 1968 earned the Status of a Regional Radio and was connected to the Radio-1 National network in 1978. It started to broadcast regionally on January 6, 1992. The Trabzon radio broadcasts 12 hours live everyday regionally between 06:00-18:00; and joins RADIO-4 for shared broadcasts between 18:00-06:00.
The target of GAP-Diyarbakır Radio is to produce and broadcast radio programs in accordance with the socio-economic and cultural characteristics and requirements of the coverage area. Moreover its goal is to provide support to development projects, and to contribute to the efforts exerted at strengthening national integrity and unity. These broadcasts are also heard abroad which is considered when producing programs.
GAP-Diyarbakır Radio broadcasts 24 hours everyday. The broadcast is Radio-4 shared between 18.00-06.00 and regional between 06.00-18.00.
GAP_Diyarbakır Radio broadcasts through 300 kW MW Diyarbakır, 600 kW MW Gaziantep, 600 kW LW Van transmitters, and 30 kW Adıyaman, 30 kW Ağrı, 30 kW Bingöl, 5 kW Bitlis, 30 kW Diyarbakır, 30 kW Elazığ, 30 kW Erzurum, 30 kW Gaziantep, 30 kW Hatay, 5 kW Kars, 5 kW Kilis, 5 kW Mardin (Nusaybin), 5 kW Siirt, 30 kW Siirt (Kurtalan), 30 kW Şanlıurfa, 30 kW Şırnak, 30 kW Tunceli, 30 kW Van (Özalp) FM transmitters. (20 in total)
Hakkari, Van, Şırnak, Batman, Siirt, Muş, Mardin, Diyarbakır, Bingöl, Bitlis, Elazığ, Malatya, Adıyaman, Şanlıurfa, Kahramanmaraş, Kilis, Gaziantep, Tunceli, Hatay and partially Sivas, Erzurum, Kayseri, Adana and Mersin.
FM Population Coverage 17.6 %
No rating is available as of yet.
GAP-Diyarbakır Radio began to broadcast in late 1968 (At the time it was called Radio Diyarbakır) with its 300 kW MW transmitter and was connected to the Radio-1 National network on January 1, 1975. It started regional broadcasts on 2 October 1989. The Radio began broadcasting under the name "GAP" on 15 April 1991 and with name "GAP-Diyarbakır" on 1 January 1997. GAP-Diyarbakır radio broadcasts live regionally 12 hours between 06:00-18:00 and joins RADIO-4 for shared broadcasts between 18:00-06:00.
TRT HATAY FM
The target of TRT Hatay FM is to broadcast educational, informative and recreational radio programs in accordance with the traditions and requirements of the coverage area, to provide information about current events which occur in the world, in the country and especially in the region. These broadcasts are aimed at creating a favorable social, cultural and psychological milieu, and to contribute to the efforts aimed at increasing the devotion to national culture and to the principles set down by Atatürk.
TRT Hatay FM offers 24 hours a day of continuous stereo broadcasts which is TRT-FM shared between 18.00-07.00 and provincial between 07.00-18.00.
The TRT Hatay FM broadcast is transmitted via the 30 kW Hatay-Çobandede (88.0 MHz) and the 5 kW Hatay-Yayladağı (89.6 MHz) FM transmitters.
The broadcasts on TRT Hatay FM which started on March 18, 1996 on a trial basis and commenced its regular broadcasting on April 20, 1996, was originally planned to cover the city of Hatay. However, the broadcasts, in accordance with the requirements, may be heard beyond the city and the Turkish border.
According to a survey covering the area which was conducted in October 2001, TRT-HATAY FM’s rating was 51.8%.
TRT Hatay FM commenced its regular broadcasts on April 20, 1996. Since January, 29 2001, TRT-HATAY FM has been broadcasting regionally and live between 07:00-18:00, and joins TRT-FM for shared broadcasts between 18:00-07:00.
The Tourism Radio, in Antalya, broadcasts in English, German, Russian, French and Greek and caters to foreign tourists visiting Turkey.
Besides its music and news programs, the Tourism Radio, with its around-the-clock daily broadcasts, also presents useful information for tourists on Turkey and its culture.
The Tourism Radio started broadcasting on July 9, 1990.
TOURISM RADIO FM TRANSMITTERS
“VOICE OF TURKEY” RADIO
Turkey’s first external broadcast began on January 8, 1937 by the Ankara Radio Corporation. This broadcast designed to help resolve the Hatay issue was in fact the transmission in Arabic of an address delivered about this issue by the then Prime Minister İsmet İnönü. External broadcasts on a regular basis from Turkey began as of October 28, 1938.
Today, the Voice of Turkey carries the external radio transmissions of the Turkish Radio and Television, TRT.
The Turkish broadcasts which are presented around-the-clock by the Voice of Turkey for Turkish nationals living abroad and those of Turkish origin focus on education, culture, music and news programs.
The Regions in which Turkish Broadcasts are heard And Their Duration
Foreign Language Broadcasts:
In addition to Turkish, Voice of Turkey broadcasts on a daily basis for a total of 37 hours 30 minutes in 25 languages. These broadcasts in which culture, music and news programs weigh heavier aired in German, Albanian, Arabic, Azeri, Bosnian, Bulgarian, Croatian, Chinese, Persian, French, Georgian, English, Spanish, Kazakh, Kyrgyz, Hungarian, Macedonian, Uzbek, Rumanian, Russian, Serbian, Tatar, Turkmen, Urdu and Greek.
THE REGIONS BEAMED BY FOREIGN LANGUAGE BROADCASTS AND THEIR DURATIONS
The Turkish and foreign language broadcasts of the Voice of Turkey are transmitted via a total 10 ( 7 500 Kw and 3 250 Kw ) transmitters, all situated in Emirler and Çakırlar in Ankara.
E - MAIL ADDRESSES
1) RADIO-1, RADIO-2(TRT-FM), RADIO-3, RADIO-4 and HATAY FM transmit 24 hours daily.
2) Seven transmitters with amplitude modulation for RADIO-1 broadcast regionally
3) Analog Radio-1, TRT FM, are broadcast to Turkey-Central Asia via the sub-carrier of the TRT-1 TV, TRT-2 TV and TRTTURK TV respectively on the east beam of TURKSAT 1C Satellite.
4) All of the radio programs on TRT are broadcast digitally to Europe-Turkey via the TRT Digital Packet on the west beam of TURKSAT 1C satellite.
5) The TRT-FM and TSR-Turkish, TSR- Foreign Language Radio Programs are broadcast both in analog and digital format to Europe, the Middle East and North Africa via the EUTELSAT HotBird-6 satellite and also these programs are broadcast to Europe digitally by the EUTELSAT Sesat 36°E satellite.
The TRT-FM and TSR-Turkish, TSR- Foreign Language Radio Programs are broadcast to Australia and New Zealand on Thaicom-3 and Optus B-3 and to North America on Intelsat 907 and Telstar 5 in digital format.
TRT-FM and Radio 3 radio programs are also available on the Digiturk platform in clear (without encryption) form via the Eutelsat W3 satellite covering Turkey-Europe
6) ) TRT launched T-DAB test transmissions on Band 3 in Ankara (the capital) on March 1, 2002, following the completion of regulatory procedures for frequency allocation.
One transmitter covers the metropolis of Ankara and reaches approximately 2 million people. TRT broadcasts on two stations via DAB. Radio 3 presents classical music and Radio 2 presents popular Turkish music.
An SFN (Single Frequency Network) application had been planned in Ankara with the addition of a 1kWatt new transmitter. In order to increase the awareness of DAB, the new 1 kW transmitter will be transferred to Istanbul, Turkey’s largest city.
Furthermore, TRT has also planned to distribute the DAB ETI signal via the existing MCPC DVB-S infrastructure. After the installation of the 1 kW transmitter and the transmission of the DAB ETI signal, TRT DAB signals will reach approximately 8 million listeners .
In order to enrich the content of the DAB stream, three new channels ( Radio-1, Radio-4, Voice of Turkey-VOT) are planned to be added in a few months time. In addition to these radio programs, SI (Service Information) PAD (Program Associated Data) including the broadcasters name, channel name and program type are also transmitted on digital radio together with Non-PAD data such as weather and road/traffic information.
TRT has also bought DAB IP Data Tunneling equipment for broadcast streaming services and is ready to develop new services based on IP, one of the more powerful and attractive multimedia features of DAB. The equipment is able to carry out several IP services on the same platform. The IP services may be broadcast in one or more N-PAD channel.
With such a product,
- - - - - - - - - - - - - MPEG 4 video over DAB,
- - - - - - - - - - - - - Enrich the audio with services (web pages, video clips, electronic program guide, vote, purchase tickets services)
- - - - - - - - - - - - - Added radio services such as cartoons, news files, games,
- - - - - - - - - - - - - City information,
- - - - - - - - - - - - - Real time streaming such as video , file downloading,
TRT plans to broadcast the MPEG–4 video over DAB in the near future. For this application, new software and MPEG- 4 Video Encoder which is capable of IP encapsulation will be added.
(*) The population coverage of GAP-DB. RADIO is 95% in the GAP Region
36 radio stations which have applied for FM Radio National Broadcasting Licenses, 102 for regional broadcasting licenses and 958 for local broadcasting licenses are currently broadcasting.
TRT TELEVISION BROADCASTS
TRT has been broadcasting via seven channels including TRT-1, TRT-2, TRT-3, TRT-4, TRT-INT, TRT-TÜRK and GAP-TV since December 31, 1998.
With the participation of TRT-AVR, seven channels began to broadcast on April 12, 1993. The name of the TRT-AVR TV channel was changed to TRT-TÜRK on January 31, 2001.
TRT CHANNEL 1
It is based in Ankara and has 51 main transmitters, 1,850 auxiliary transmitters and reaches 98.2 % of the country and 98.4 % of the population. Analog TRT-1 TV channel broadcasts via transponder No: 16 in the eastern coverage on the TÜRKSAT 1C satellite which covers Turkey-Central Asia, Digital TRT-1 TV channel broadcasts via transponder No:7 in the western coverage on the TURKSAT 1C satellite which covers Turkey-Europe. It can be viewed in all cities where cable-TV systems are available in Turkey and in Azerbaijan. In addition, the TRT-1 channel is also available on the Digiturk platform in clear (without encryption) form via the Eutelsat W3 satellite which covers Turkey-Europe
TRT CHANNEL 2
It is based in Ankara and has 51 main and 1,595 auxiliary transmitters and reaches 98 % of the population and 97.5 % of the country. TRT-2 TV channel can be viewed in analog form via transponder No: 14 in the eastern coverage and also in digital format via transponder No:7 in the western coverage on the TÜRKSAT 1C satellite and on cable-TV in Turkey. In addition, the TRT-2 channel is also available in Digiturk platform in clear (without encryption) form via the Eutelsat W3 satellite covering Turkey-Europe
TRT CHANNEL 3
It is based in Ankara and has 51 main and 1,205 auxiliary transmitters and reaches 96.8 % of the population with a 93 % area coverage. The TRT-3 TV channel can be viewed digitally via transponder No: 7 in the western coverage on TÜRKSAT 1C satellite covering Turkey-Europe and on cable-TV network in Turkey. In addition, the TRT-3 channel is also available on the Digiturk platform in clear (without encryption) form via Eutelsat W3 satellite covering Turkey-Europe
TRT CHANNEL 4
It is based in Ankara and has 51 main and 146 auxiliary transmitters and reaches 92% of the population and 91 % of the country. TRT-4 TV can be viewed digitally via transponder No: 7 in the western coverage of the TURKSAT 1C satellite which covers Turkey-Europe and on cable-TV in Turkey. In addition, the TRT-4 channel is also available on the Digiturk platform in clear (without encryption) form via Eutelsat W3 satellite covering Turkey-Europe
The broadcast center is located in Ankara. Viewers receive TRT-INT programs;
- via TÜRKSAT 1C 42°E satellite in digital format in Turkey and Europe.
- via EUTELSAT HotBird-6, 13°E satellite in digital and analogue format in Turkey, Europe, North Africa and the Middle East.
- via EUTELSAT Sesat 36°E satellite in digital format in Europe,
- via THAICOM-3 78,5° E satellite in digital format in Asia, Africa and Australia using large dishes.
- via Optus B3 156° E satellite in digital format in Australia and New Zealand.
- via PAS 8 166° E satellite in TARBS digital packet in Australia.
- via the Intelsat 907 332,5° E satellite in North and South America using large dishes.
- via Telstar 5 263° E in digital format in North America.
Additionally, 7 % of the population is reached throughout Turkey, with one terrestrial transmitter, in Istanbul.
TRT-INT can also be viewed in all cities where cable-TV systems are available in Turkey.
TRT-INT has been transmitted via cable to many countries since1990 and the number of subscribers are as follows: Germany (14,716,668) Austria (624,000) The Netherlands (3,959,819) Belgium (1,502,956) Switzerland (1,521,379) and Denmark (6,211), Romania (17,000) Bulgaria (40,000) and Macedonia..
TRT-INT is transmitted via cable networks to Sweden, Norway, Bulgaria, Poland, Kazakhstan and the Moldovia-Gagauz Autonomous Region. Negotiations with Australia, South Korea, Georgia, Qatar, Kyrgyzstan and Mongolia for TRT-INT are still in progress.
TRT-INT program broadcasts have been on a digital turn-around via the Atlantic Bird 2 satellite and the Eutelsat vision platform and cable networks in Germany since 01.05.2002, and these broadcasts will begin in Austria, Switzerland, Liechtenstein, France, Benelux and if possible, in the UK.
Broadcasts to Australia and New Zealand began on July 25, 1999, while the broadcasts to the US and to Canada began on June 7, 2000.
Therefore, TRT-INT can be viewed with a small dish antenna in Turkey, all of Europe, the Middle East, the North African countries, Australia, New Zealand, the USA and densely populated areas in Canada.
By using a large dish antenna, TRT-INT can be viewed in Asia, Africa, Australia, and in North and South America.
It is based in Ankara and broadcasts via transponder No:10 in the eastern coverage on the TÜRKSAT 1C satellite covering Turkey-Central Asia on the SECAM broadcasting system.
Broadcasts can be viewed with the installation of a satellite receiver system and terrestrial transmitters in all capitals of the Central Asian Turkish-Speaking Republics by the Türk Telekom Corp.
It is based in Ankara and broadcasts on Mondays, Fridays, Saturdays and Sundays from 07.00-19.00 hours and on Tuesdays, Wednesdays and Thursdays from 07.00-14.00 hours via the main and auxiliary TRT-3 TV transmitters. Live and taped programs made in the Diyarbakır Production Center are also aired during the broadcasts.
The planning, establishment and function of TRT television transmitters was carried out by the TRT.
TRT-GAP broadcasts are underway in a rotating fashion with TRT-3 and during the months when the TBMM-TV is not broadcasting at 07.00-15.00. When sessions are held TBMM-TV broadcasts are on the air at 07.00-14.00.
TURKISH RADIO AND TELEVISION CORPORATION (TRT)
Address: TRT Turan Güneş Bulvarı
Tel: +90 (312) 490 10 58
Fax: +90 (312) 490 11 09
OTHER TELEVISION CHANNELS
A total of 258 private TV networks 21 of which are seen nationally, 18 regionally and 219 locally have applied to the Supreme Council of Radio and Television Broadcasts (RTÜK) for licenses. The following television networks broadcast nationally.
Address.........: Gayrettepe Mah.Barbaros Bul. No:125
Tel...................: 212 3543000-3543950(Public Relations)
Fax..................: 212 3543911
Address.......: Söğütözü Cad.Söğütözü İş Merkezi
Tel................: 312 2925050
Fax...............: 312 2925073
Address.........: Büyükdere Cad. No:163
Tel...................: 212 3361515
Fax..................: 212 2173424-2171986
Address.........: Doğan Medya Center
Tel...................: 212 4135600
Fax..................: 212 4135850(News Center)
Address.........: Atatürk Bulvarı No: 125
Tel..................: 312 4174117
Fax.................: 312 4176304
Address.........: Eskibüyükdere Cad.No:61
USO Center 80660 Maslak/İSTANBUL
Tel...................: 212 3350000
Fax..................: 212 3300035-36,3350087(Human Resources)
Address.........: Atatürk Bulvarı No:211/A
Tel...................: 312 4685353
Fax..................: 312 4672974-4676973
Ege TV (Regional-Cable-Satellite)
Address.........: 1542 Sok.No:10/A K:1-2-3
Tel..................: 232 4440343
Fax.................: 232 4887717 (News Center)
Address.........: Cumhuriyet Cad. Cumhuriyet Apt. No:37/1
K:2 Taksim Elmadağ/İSTANBUL
Tel..................: 212 3616815-16-17
Fax.................: 212 3616820(Advertisement and Press)
Address.......: Çetin Emeç Bul.6.Cad.No:61/7-8
Tel................: 312 4725757
Fax...............: 312 4726196
Address.........: Altıparmak Mah. Stadyum Cad.
No:16 K:17 Tower Plaza/BURSA
Tel...................: 224 2733700 (20 Lines)
Fax..................: 224 2733722
Address.......: Karyağdı Sok. No: 18
Tel.................: 312 4398270
Fax................: 312 4398245
HABER TÜRK (Cable-Satellite)
Address.........: Tevfik Bey Mah.20 Temmuz Cad. No:24
Tel...................: 212 5998286
Fax..................: 212 4264241
Address.........: Hoşdere cad. Özvatan Sok. No:34/1
Tel...................: 312 4428989-90
Faks................: 312 4407844
Address ........: Kanal D TV Center Bağcılar
Tel...................: 212 4135111
Fax..................: 212 4135400(News Center)
Address.........: Otakçılar Cad.No:60
Tel...................: 212 6129090
Fax..................: 212 6122776-5677007(Public Relations)
Address........: Oğuzlar Mah.2.Cad.32.Sok.
Tel..................: 312 2840400(10 Lines)
Fax.................: 312 2858534
Address.........: Eskibüyükdere Cad. Uso Center No:61
Tel...................: 212 3350000
Fax..................: 212 3300050
Address.........: Atatürk Bulvarı No:211/A
Tel...................: 312 4685353 (24 Lines)
Fax..................: 312 4672974-4676973
Olay TV (Cable-National)
Address.........: Ankara Yolu Gürsu Kavşağı 11.km
Tel..................: 224 3317000
Fax:................: 224 3317065
SAMANYOLU TV (National-Cable-Satellite)
Address.........: Kısıklı Mah. Ferah cad.
Reşatbey Sokak No:12
Tel.......: 216 3448560 (18 Hat)3448570
3297669 (News Center)
Fax...........: 216 3448568-3297124(Economy)-3443803
Address.........: Plevne Cad.No:30/5
Tel.......: 312 3205200(pbx)
Fax...........: 312 3205225
SHOW TV (National-Cable-Satellite)
Address.........: Yapı Kredi Plaza E Blok
Tel.......: 212 3550101
Fax...........: 212 2792575(News Center)2801191
Address.......: Cinnah Cad. No:15
Tel.....: 312 4669111
Fax.........: 312 4669128
SKY TÜRK (Cable-Satellite)
Address.........: Davutpaşa Cad.No:34
Tel.......: 212 4490700
Fax...........: 212 4816420
Address.......: Cinnah Cad. No:15
Tel.....: 312 4669000
Fax.........: 312 4677365
STAR TV (National-Cable-Satellite)
Address.........: Basın Expres Yolu
Star Sok. No:2
Tel.......: 212 4489000 (4 Lines)
Fax...........: 212 4489364-65-4489201
Address.........: Atatürk Bul.No:231/11
Tel.......: 312 4667000
Fax...........: 312 4280500
TV 5 (National-Satellite)
Address.........: Ziyabey Cad. 13. Sok. No:12
Tel.......: 312 2201300-2844360
Fax...........: 312 2847905
TV 8 (National-Cable-Satellite)
Kuruluş Tarihi: 8 Ağustos 1996
Address.........: Ihlamur Dere Cad. Yeşil Çimen Sok.No:5
Tel.......: 212 2885152
Fax...........: 212 2880401
Address.........: Atatürk Bul.No:185
Tel.......: 312 4192200
Fax...........: 312 4240121-4193303
Address.........: 29 Ekim Cad.No:23
Tel.......: 212 4545600
Fax...........: 212 4545656
Address.......: Meşrutiyet Cad. Hatay Sok. No:27
Tel.....: 312 4192601
Fax.........: 312 4192620
Turkish Radio and Television Corporation (TRT)
Address.........: TRT Sitesi Oran Yolu Üzeri
Tel.......: 312 4904300 (100 Hat)
Fax...........: 312 4901109 (General Secretariat)
312 4904494 (Clerical Office)
312 4900155 (News Department)
Address.........:TRT İstanbul Regional Office
Cable TV world-wide was established to find a solution to insufficient or unavailable broadcasts. As time passed, it became the only means to provide more broadcasting to audience. Finally, the cable networks boomed with the extensive utilization of satellites in broadcasting. As a result of developments in equipment technology used in system and the extensive utilization of computers, not only in radio and TV broadcasts also in many services such as data transmission, control systems, home shopping services and teletext, the cable system has become beneficial.
Cable TV broadcasts have been carried out by the Postal Telegraph and Telephone (PTT), since 1991 in line with developments in world cable television. Today, the Turkish Telecommunications Corp. (Türk Telekom Corp.) has prepared the infrastructure for 2,060.264 Cable-TV subscribers in nine provinces (Ankara, İstanbul, İzmir, Adana, Gaziantep, Konya, Kayseri, Bursa) in the country. Nearly 994,263 households an actually take advantage of the services as of December 2004 the "Revenue Share TV system project applications, where all investment expenditures met by for domestic companies, aimed at increasing the number of subscribers and channels existing Cable-TV services throughout the country, providing interactive services and new systems. Within the framework bids have been held in 10 provinces (Eskişehir, Tarsus, Samsun, Denizli, İzmit-Gölcük, Adapazarı, Balıkesir-Bandırma, Zonguldak-Karadeniz Ereğli, Yalova-Çiftlikköy, Tekirdağ-Çerkezköy-Çorlu, Erzurum) and links have already been installed. In these 10 cities, the capacity of cable TV is reached 382,326 while the total number of subscribers amounted to 133,110 Individual subscribers and subscriptions for buildings are being processed.
9 cities of capacity: 2. 178.364
10 cities of capacity 382.326
9 cities of Subscribers: 994.263 (Dec. 2004)
10 cities of Subscribers: 133.110 (Dec. 2004)
Testing procedures and the selection of appropriate Cable Modem standards for throughout the entire network have been completed and (the Cable Modem) a data-internet access services over the system have begun in some regions, 42.700 modem subscribers (Dec. 2004)
For of digital TV service a Super Headed system installed in Istanbul in 2004. The system is capable of broadcasting digital 48 channels. These 48 channels are transmitted to the Ankara, Adana and Konya via transmission system. In the currently the test signal is available at these cities. In next phases other cities will also be covered.
Cable TV services have been provided in 19 cities namely, Ankara, Istanbul, Bursa, Antalya, Konya, Adana, Izmir, Kayseri, Balıkesir, Denizli, Erzurum, Eskişehir, Mersin, Samsun, Tekirdağ, Yalova, Zonguldak, Gaziantep, Kocaeli and 9 provinces, Tarsus, Gebze, Korfez, Cerkezkoy, Corlu, Bandırma, Ciftlikkoy, and Gölcük on the revenue sharing since 1997.
The cable TV network has been put into service and enables the transmission 52 television program broadcasts in Ankara, İstanbul, İzmir, Bursa, Adana, Gaziantep, Konya, Kayseri, Adana and 60 television program broadcasts in Eskişehir, Mersin-Tarsus, Kocaeli-Gölcük-Körfez-Gebze, Zonguldak-Karadeniz Ereğli, Denizli, Balikesir-Bandirma, Samsun, Adapazari, Tekirdağ-Corlu-Cerkezkoy, Erzurum, Yalova-Cinarcik-Ciftlikköy).
Local TV Program Channels for 19 cities: Turkish TV, TGRT, STAR TV, CINE-5, NTV, KANAL 6, SHOW TV, KANAL A, TRT1, TRT 2, TRT 3, TRT 4, TRT INT, KANAL 7, EY TV, SAMANYOLU, CNBC-e, NUMBER ONE, HABER TURK, OLAY TV, SKY TURK, CNN TURK, DISCOVERY CHANNEL, DREAM, TV 8, ATV, NR+, KANAL TURK, EXPO CHANNEL, FB TV, TGRT HABER, POWER TURK, KANAL1.
Local TV Program Channels for only 9 cities:
FLASH TV and MESAJ TV
Local TV Program Channels for 10 cities:
GALA, VIVA, METRO+, SİNEKLASİK, DİZİ TV, SUPER SPORT, GALAKSİ, MMC EUROTURK, BJK, YEŞİLÇAM TV.
Foreign TV Program Channels for 19 cities:
CNN, BBC PRIME, NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC, CNBC, MTV, BBC WORLD, EUROSPORT, RTL, JETİX, TVE, VH1, NBA and AZ TV has been transmitted only in 14 cities (Ankara, İstanbul, Izmir, Samsun, Kayseri, Eskisehir, Erzurum, Mersin, Kocaeli, Adana, Antalya, Bursa, Gaziantep and Konya )
Local TV Program channels have been transmitted based on city:
IZMIR TV (Izmir), EGE TV (Izmir), YENI TV (Izmir), SKY TV (İzmir), KANAL 5 (Gaziantep), OLAY TV (Gaziantep), AS TV (Bursa), AKDENİZ TV (Adana), KANAL A (Adana), ÇUKUROVA TV (Adana), KTV (Adana), KON TV (Konya), ERCIYES TV (Kayseri), ELİF TV (Kayseri), KANAL 38 (Kayseri), DEHA TV (Denizli), ART TV (Denizli), MMC TV WORLD (Istanbul), 41 TV (Kocaeli), KANAL VIP (Antalya), ERT TV (Zonguldak), SUN TV (Mersin).
INSTITUTIONS AFFILIATED WITH RADIO-TELEVISION
* Anadolu Newspaper, Radio and Television Publishers' and Broadcasters' Union
Address (Center) : Sultan Orhan Mah.1113 Sok.
Tel : +90 (262) 6414399-6414605
Fax : +90 (262) 6414605
Web : www.agrt.net
E-mail : email@example.com
Radio-TV Journalists' Association
Address : Büklüm Sok.No:6/7
Radio and TV Publishers' Association
Address : TRT Or-An Sitesi C Blok
Radio Publishers’ Association
Address : Meşrutiyet Cad. Bayındır 2 Sok.
Tel : +90 (312) 2200970
Fax : +90 (312) 2878483
Web : www.rayad.org
E-Mail : firstname.lastname@example.org
TV Publishers’ Association
Address : Cevdet Paşa Cad.İnşırah Sok.No:1 Kat:1
Tel/Fax.......: +90 (212) 3585958-3585969
Private Radio And TV Publishers' Association
Address: Mahatma Gandi Caddesi. No: 67/8 G.O.P
Tel………………… +90 (312) 447 77 50
Fax…………………+90 (312) 447 77 53
*Theatre and TV Authors' Union
Address : Yıldız Sarayı Beşiktaş/İstanbul
Tel: +90 (212) 259 16 36
Fax : +90 (212) 258 77 00
*Television Correspondents' Union
Address: Ortaköy Dereboyu Cad. Refik Tamer Sok. No: 19 K: 1 Beşiktaş/İstanbul
Tel: +90 (212) 232 00 00
Fax: +90 (212) 225 85 04
Address: Yunus Emre Kültür Merkezi Bakırköy/İstanbul
Tel: +90 (212) 232 00 00
Fax: +90 (212) 225 85 04
Local Televisions’ Union
Address : Cevat Dündar Cad.
Tel : +90 (312) 3856361-62
Fax : +90 (312) 3854554
Web : www.ytb.org.tr
E-Mail : email@example.com