HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF RADIO AND TELEVISION

 BROADCASTING IN TURKEY

 

 

 

A Brief History of Radio and Television Bro­ad­casts 

Until 1963 

The history of radio broadcasts dates back to the first qu­ar­ter of the 20th century. The first official radio broadcast was aired in 1922 by the British Bro­ad­cas­ting Cor­po­ra­ti­on (BBC). The first regularly scheduled television program was also bro­ad­cast by the BBC in 1936. Turkish radio broadcasts began on 6 May 1927 in İstanbul. 

With the enactment of the "Wireless Installation Law" in 1925 wireless stations began to be built in Ankara and İstanbul. In order to use these stations for radio broadcasts, the ne­ces­sary equipment was added to the 5 kW. PTT trans­mit­ters (1925-1927) and the first radio broadcasts began in Ankara

Fol­lo­wing these test broadcasts, the "Turkish Wi­re­less Inc." (TTTAŞ) was founded by İş Bank. The Anatolian News Agency, two de­pu­ti­es and a businessman, were given sole bro­ad­cas­ting ma­na­ge­ment rights for 10 years and broadcasting began on 6 May 1927. Based on a contract between the Corporation and the In­te­ri­or Ministry, radio broadcasts included news programs, con­certs, weather reports and lectures on a variety of sub­jects for the public's benefit. 

A few months later, in October 1927, Ankara Radio star­ted its regular broadcasts which we­re aired everyday from 19.00 to 22.00 via 5 kW transmitters. At the time, there were 1,178 receivers in Turkey

 

 Transmitters in 1935 (*)

 

 

Power

Frequency

 Wave length Affiliate

 

 (kW)

 (khz)

 (m)

 Institution

 

 

 

 

 

Ankara

7

230

1.304

 TRT

İstanbul

5

186.5

1.609

 TRT

 

 

 

 

 

(*) ITU (International Telecommunications Union)

 

 

Un­der Law No.3222 enacted in 1937, responsibility for ra­dio bro­ad­casts was transferred from the Turkish Wireless Inc. to the Post Office and thus the period of private company ma­na­ge­ment ca­me to an end and state radios were established. 

Long wave broadcasts had 120 kW transmitters and at the same time short wave broadcasts were initiated which were beamed to foreign countries beginning on 22 July 1938. They used 20 kW transmitters. In order to broadcast programs, "Ankara Radio" was established on 28 October 1938

With the enact­ment of Law No. 3837 in 1940, radio stations were brought under the control of the Di­rec­to­ra­te General of Press and Information. 

In 1949, the first medium-wave broadcasts were beamed from the İs­tan­bul-Ümraniye 150 kW. transmitter. 

 

Radio Transmitters and Broadcasts in 1949

 

Broadcast

Place

Power

Frequency

Beamed to

 

 

(kW)

(kHz)

 

Radio Turkey

Etimesgut

120

182

Central Anatolia (National Broadcast)

Ankara Radio

Etimesgut

120

6000

Central Europe

 

 

 

7240

Central Europe

 

 

 

9465

The Balkans and the Near East

 

 

 

11760

 

 

 

 

17720

 

İstanbul Radio

Ümraniye

150

704

Thrace, Marmara and the Northern Aegean

On 19 November 1949, a new 100 kW radio transmitter was put into operation in Ça­kır­lar for short-wave broadcasts to Ame­ri­ca, Western Europe and the Far East. The same year a short-wave 400 kW radio transmitter was put into service by the İz­mir municipality for broadcasts to İzmir. In 1953 it acquired a sta­te radio status. 

Fol­lo­wing the 1961 Constitution, a new and productive pe­ri­od for State radios began. Under the resolution adopted by the Co­un­cil of Ministers on 31 May 1961, seven provincial ra­dio sta­ti­ons were set up (Ankara, İstanbul, İzmir, Adana, Antalya, Ga­zi­an­tep and Kars). Erzurum Radio had already started ope­ra­ting in January 1961. 

In 1963, the power of the Etimesgut transmitter which bro­ad­casts long-wave programs on Ankara Radio was increased to 240 kW. 

All radio stations were attached to the Tourism and In­for­ma­ti­on Mi­nistry in 1963.

Between 1963-1971 

With the adoption of the 1961 Constitution, changes, re­ne­wal and developments were witnessed in Turkey in all fields. Radio and te­le­vi­si­on broadcasting, one of the most effective means of com­mu­ni­ca­ti­ons was assigned to the Turkish Radio and Te­le­vi­si­on Cor­po­ra­ti­on (TRT) according to the provision stipulated in Law No.121 of the Constitution which stated: "The management of ra­dio sta­ti­ons and television net­works are regulated under the law as au­to­no­mo­us public corporate bodies". The Turkish Radio Television Law No.359 was approved on December 24, 1963, and went into effect on May 1, 1964.

On 1 January 1965, the first TRT programming period began, and all radio stations jointly broadcast news bulletins with An­ka­ra Radio at the same specified times. 

In 1967, the 100 kW long-wave Erzurum Radio transmitter be­gan ope­ra­ting; in 1968 the 300 kW medium-wave Çukurova Radio, the 100 kW medium-wave İzmir Radio and the 2 kW Trabzon Ra­dio trans­mit­ters began broadcasting, while in 1969 the 300 kW me­di­um-wave Diyarbakır Radio was put into operation. 

Me­anw­hi­le, the first television t­rans­missions in Turkey be­gan on 31 January 1968 which were transmitted from a studio in An­ka­ra. Television programs which were broadcast by means of a 5 kW transmitter in Dededoruk, Ankara were followed by trans­mis­si­ons from İzmir which began on 26 August 1968. In September 1970 programs began to be broadcast in İzmir. 

On 1 January 1970, İzmir radio began broadcasts on its se­cond station and on 30 December 1970 a 250 kW short-wave ra­dio trans­mit­ter began ope­ra­ting in Çakırlar, Ankara.

Between 1971 and 1982 

On 19 March 1971, television broadcasts began to be be­a­med from a transmitter in Eskişehir. On 30 August 1971, TRT Istanbul TV began broadcasting package Programs from the ITV Maçka Studio. The same year in Oc­to­ber, ra­dio-link systems between Ankara-İstanbul-İzmir were set up and two months later the İstanbul and İzmir television networks jo­i­ned An­ka­ra's central broadcasts. 

The autonomous structure of the TRT stipulated in the 121st ar­tic­le of the Constitution lasted only eight years. Article 121 was amended on 20 September 1971 and TRT was defined as an im­par­ti­al public corporate body. Following this amendment in the Cons­ti­tu­ti­on, the foundation charter of the TRT Law No.359, was al­so amended with Law No.1568 and the structure of the institution was turned into an impartial public corporate body. 

With the publication of the "Turkish Radio and Te­le­vi­si­on Cor­po­ra­ti­on Establishment and Duties Regulations" on 1 Sep­tem­ber 1972, a Program Planning Department was set up. Thus, plan­ning be­gan in radio and then in television broadcasts. 

On 26 August 1972, a TV program connection was es­tab­lis­hed bet­we­en the TRT and the European Broadcasting Union (EBU) via radio link systems. On 13 January 1973, the Turkey-Italy fo­ot­ball ga­me was relayed live on television via Eurovision. 

To­wards the end of 1972, the 1100 kW long-wave Ankara Ra­dio trans­mit­ter went into operation.

An­tal­ya Radio, with a 600 kW medium-wave transmitter, and Hakkari ra­dio with a 1 kW short-wave transmitter started broadcasting in 1973. In 1974, auxiliary radio transmitters each of 100 kW po­wer be­gan operating in İzmir and in Erzurum

Ra­dio-2 and Radio-3 broadcasts began on 1 January 1975

Ra­dio-3 transferred its broadcast to FM channels on 14 Ap­ril 1978. The 300 kW medium-wave Trabzon radio trans­mit­ter sta­ti­on began broadcasts at this time, while the pro­vin­ci­al Trab­zon Radio continued its broadcasts regionally. 

On 31 December 1981, TRT tested the first color TV trans­mis­si­on on New Year's Eve. It however officially star­ted color broadcasts on 15 March 1984. During the same month, TRT had an international link via Intelsat.

1982 - 2000

On 26 February 1983, two 500 kW short-wave radio transmitters for the "Voice of Turkey" Turkish broadcast were put into operation at Çakırlar, Ankara. 

Ra­dio-3 which broadcast via FM channels began its ste­reo bro­ad­casts in 1984. 

An amendment regulating radio and television broadcasts in Tur­key was made in the Constitution, adopted by a referendum on 6 No­vem­ber 1982. In line with Article 133 of the Constitution, ra­dio stations and television networks could only be es­tab­lis­hed by the state and their management would be as public cor­po­ra­te bo­di­es. Furthermore, the principle of impartiality would be pre­ser­ved in the ma­na­ge­ment and supervision of the institution, es­tab­lish­ment of the administrative bodies and in all radio and te­le­vi­si­on broadcasts. 

Pa­ral­lel to this constitutional amendment, the new Law No.2954 which was instrumental in the establishment of a new high le­vel board in the field of broadcasting, went into effect in 1983. The most important change brought about by the new law was the establishment of a "Supreme Board of Radio and Te­le­vi­si­on Bro­ad­casts", which had authority over TRT. On 15 September 1986, TRT's second channel (TRT-2) based in İstanbul began bro­ad­casts. Towards the end of the same year, the TRT-1 and TRT-2 chan­nels began broadcasting via the Intelsat V F7, 66 degrees E. sa­tel­li­te. The monitoring station from the first satellite was set up for the Muş transmitter. As of this date, TRT te­le­vi­si­on bro­ad­casts have been transmitting via satellite links.

In 1986, all Radio-3 broadcasts were in stereo. 

On February 1, 1987, TRT was linked to the EBU via satellite, and began exchange programs.

On July 2, 1986, the Ağrı long-wave, on July 18, 1986 the De­niz­li me­di­um-wave, on December 25, 1986 Gaziantep medium-wave and on Ap­ril 22, 1987 the Malatya medium-wave radio transmitters be­gan ope­ra­ting. 

The Radio-4 radio station began to broadcast on Oc­to­ber 18, 1987

Under Law No.3517 passed on January 12, 1989, the TRT trans­mit­ting stations were transferred to the PTT Di­rec­to­ra­te Ge­ne­ral and so were their personnel. The law was repealed by the Cons­ti­tu­ti­o­nal Court on May 18, 1990, however, during the time that has elapsed the transmitters have not been returned to TRT. 

On October 2, 1989, the TRT Channel-3 began to broadcast. Re­ser­ve transmitters of the TRT-2 main transmitters, which we­re tur­ned over to Türk-Telekom, were then allocated to TRT-3. At the sa­me time, in a total of 22 provinces in East and So­ut­he­ast Ana­to­lia, GAP-TV began broadcasting from these transmitters and the re­lay stations of TRT-2 when they were not in use. On Ap­ril 12, 1991, GAP TV began bro­ad­cas­ting nationwide via the TRT-2 ma­in trans­mit­ters and relay stations.

Te­le­text's broadcast Telegün which is also known as the te­le­vi­si­on newspaper began operating on January 10, 1990

On February 28, 1990, the TRT-INT TV channel designed to ser­ve viewers abroad started operating and TRT-INT which be­gan its broadcasts via Eutelsat I F4 satellite, 13 degrees E. le­a­sed by The Netherlands Postal Services to Turk Telekom was trans­fer­red to Eutelsat II F1 satellite, 13 degrees E. in Oc­to­ber of the same year and it is still in operation in addition to the Türk­sat IC satellite. 

TRT-4, an educational channel began trial broadcasts on July 30, 1990

The Tourism Radio, formerly the Holiday Radio, was the first radio established in Turkey to serve tourists. It began trial bro­ad­casts from Lara, Antalya in 1990. The programs broadcast by the Tourism Radio are relayed to the Gölbaşı Satellite Gro­und Sta­ti­on and via Türksat 1C to a total of nine FM transmitters in An­tal­ya, Kalkan, Kuşadası, Denizli-Çakıroluk, İstanbul, İz­mir-Karaburun, Marmaris, Bodrum and Nevşehir-Idiş. After the To­u­rism Radio opened, its broadcasts began to be transmitted via sa­tel­li­te. 

On November 12, 1990, a 1200 kW medium-wa­ve İs­tan­bul-Çatalca transmitter went into operation to broadcast prog­rams on Radio-2 and the 150 kW radio transmitter at İs­tan­bul-Ümraniye was closed. On March 7, 1991, a 600 kW long-wa­ve Van radio transmitter began operating and the provincial ra­di­os in Van and Hakkari were closed. 

From 1991 onwards, the first FM channels aimed at bro­ad­cas­ting programs on Ra­dio-1 were set up and additional FM transmitters be­gan to be established in addition to the 49 FM transmitters which bro­ad­cast programs on Radio-3 and Radio-4.

On April 15, 1991, Diyarbakır Radio began its trans­mis­si­ons as GAP Radio covering 22 provinces in Eastern and So­ut­he­as­tern Ana­to­lia. 

TRT-AVRASYA TV started its broadcasts beamed to Uz­be­kis­tan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and Ta­ji­kis­tan via the Intelsat V F7 satellite, 57 degrees E. on April 27, 1992 and after Sep­tem­ber 23, 1994 was relayed to the Central Asian Turkish-Speaking Re­pub­lics via the Türksat IB satellite, 42 degrees E. From October 19, 1994 on­wards, all radio and television broadcasts were trans­fer­red from the INTELSAT satellite to Türksat IB satellite and the In­tel­sat satellite was no longer used to relay transmissions after No­vem­ber 17, 1994

In 1993, Radio-4 (TRT-FM) and Radio-2 (News Radio) inc­re­a­sed the­ir broadcasting hours to 24 hours daily. In November 1995, Ra­dio-1 FM transmitters also started broadcasting 24 hours a day.

On 25 September 1995, five 500 kW short-wave trans­mit­ters at Emirler, Ankara began to broadcast programs of the "Vo­i­ce of Turkey". During this time, the transmitters beamed to fo­re­ign co­unt­ri­es reached 10, and total transmission power was 4250 kW. 

Bet­we­en 1993-1995 all TRT radio transmissions be­gan to be relayed via satellite in analog and numerical forms. On No­vem­ber 24, 1995, Radio-4 (TRT FM) began to broadcast via TRT's INT TV auxiliary vocal transmitters on the Eutelsat II F1 sa­tel­li­te to Europe. From September 8, 1997 onwards, the same radio prog­rams we­re broadcast by TRT's INT TV auxiliary vocal trans­mit­ters co­ve­ring Europe via the Türksat IC satellite. 

When Turkey's second satellite, Türksat IC, began to operate, all radio and TV channels broadcasting in the country were transferred to transponders on the satellite covering the West on September 26, 1996 and to the transponders covering the East a month later. On 5 November 1996, TRT-INT TV began its broadcasts from the first transponder on Türksat IC covering the West. 

The TGNA (Turkish Grand National Assembly) TV chan­nel es­tab­lis­hed on January 10, 1995, began its test broadcasts on TRT chan­nel-3 and on 11 December 1996, it was officially opened.

Ha­tay Radio beamed to Hatay province and its en­vi­rons be­gan test broadcasts on March 18, 1997 and regular prog­rams began on April 20, 1997

From March 31, 1997 onwards, Radio-1 programs on FM chan­nels be­ca­me stereo broadcasts.

Radio-2 (News Radio) was closed on November 1, 1997, Ra­dio-4 (TRT-FM) was changed to Radio-2 (TRT FM, the Se­cond Prog­ram of Turkish Radio and  Television). Three FM transmitters (Çanakkale, İz­mir and Muğla) broadcasting programs on Radio-2 we­re linked to Radio-1 stations, and three transmitters (Ağrı, Po­lat­lı-Ankara, Çatalca-İstanbul) to the mono TRT FM channel. 

On December 6, 1999, Radio-4 went into operation and broadcast only Turkish Folk Music and Turkish Classical Music, in addition to the news bulletins it aired on the hour. As of 3 January 2000, it began broadcasting 24 hours a day. In the beginning, Radio-4 and programs using three FM transmitters, in addition to three amplitude modulation transmitters in Ankara-Polatlı, İstanbul-Çatalca and Ağrı. 

On March 13, 1998, the "Voice of Turkey" broadcasts began to be transmitted to Europe and Central Asia via auxiliary vo­cal trans­mit­ters of TRT-INT and TRT- AVRASYA via the Türksat IC satellite.

The analogue TRT-INT TV and TRT-FM and TRT-VOT Turkish and foreign language Programs targeted to Europe and North Africa were transferred to Eutelsat Hotbird-5 (130E) on November 10, 1998.

TRT-INT TV and TRT-FM and TRT-VOT Turkish and foreign language broadcasts have been transmitted to Australia and New Zealand in digital format via the Thaicom 3 (780E) and the Optus B3 (1560E) since July 25, 1999. 

On June 7, 2000, TRT-INT TV and TRT-FM and TRT-VOT Turkish and foreign language digital broadcasts were beamed to the USA and Canada. These programs are currently available via Intelsat 605 (332,50E), Telstar 5 (2630E) ant Eutelsat Sesat (360E). 

Under Law No. 4397 passed on July 10, 1999, the TRT transmitters which used to be run by the Turkish Telecom Inc. were returned to the TRT on 01.01.2000, with their staff.

Broadcasts in foreign languages began to be transmitted by auxiliary vocal transmitters of the TRT-TÜRK TV via the Türksat 1C satellite on March 23, 2001.

2000 and after

The programs on the TRT TV channels have been re-arranged in order to cre­a­te mo­re attractive, effective and competitive TV broadcasting taking into consideration that these channels are state-run. The new broadcasts began on February 1, 2001. The new formats are as follows: 

TRT-1: This television channel which broadcasts to all viewers provides information and entertainment by means of its programs. The programs include Turkish movies, music and talk shows, children’s programs in addition to news and sports bulletins. The basic aim of the channel is the family. 

TRT-2 News-Information Channel: This television channel is for those who want to receive more detailed news bulletins. The programs include news, documentaries, cultural programs, forums, sports competitions and other sports activities. 

TRT-3 (TRT-GAP and TBMM-TV): The TRT-GAP TV broadcasts at certain hours and TGNA-TV broadcasts when the Turkish Grand National Assembly (TGNA) is in session. In addition to these broadcasts, there are many sports programs. 

TRT-4: This television channel is educational and provides instruction planned by the National Education Ministry and Anadolu University

TRT-INT and TRT-TÜRK: The programs broadcast by these two channels aim at Turks living abroad so that they can maintain their cultural identity. The TRT-AVRASYA has been changed to the TRT-TÜRK. 

BROADCASTS IN LOCAL LANGUAGES

The first broadcast in local languages was aired on June 7 at 10:30 a.m. on the state-owned Channel-3 of the Turkish Radio and Television Corporation (TRT). The programs include news, music and documentaries. Broadcasts in local languages and dialects include Bosnian, Kurdish (Kirmachi, Zaza), Circassian and Arabic. According to the regulations, the radio broadcasts are at most 60 minutes a day and five hours a week and 45 minutes a day and four hours a week on television.

 

Broadcasts in different languages and dialects used traditionally by Turkish citizens in their daily life first began with a radio program on the state-run TRT Radio 1 in Bosnian at 6.10 a.m. on June 7.
 

After the Bosnian broadcast which lasted about 35 minutes, the program was broadcast in Turkish. The radio program ended at 6.45 a.m. Announcers read domestic and world news and sports bulletins in the program named ''Our Cultural Heritage.'' The program was also broadcast on the state-run TRT-3 television channel at 10.30 a.m. Radio-1 and TRT-3 broadcasts programs in Bosnian on Mondays, Arabic on Tuesdays, Kirman on Wednesdays, Circassian on Thursdays and Zazaish on Fridays. The previous and the current government passed laws to adjust to the European Union (EU) criteria. These laws included Turkey's commitment to start broadcasting in different languages and dialects. The EU attaches great importance to broadcasting in different languages and dialects in Turkey since it wants to see Turkey implement the EU harmonization laws.  

PRI­VA­TE RADIO STATIONS AND TELEVISION CHANNELS  

The monopoly of the Turkish Radio and Te­le­vi­si­on Cor­po­ra­ti­on (TRT) on broadcasts stipulated in the Constitution ended after 1990 with many radio stations and television channels beginning to broadcast illegally both at home and abroad. 

Following this development, legal regulations were sought and an amend­ment to Article 133 of the Constitution calling for an im­par­ti­al state broadcasting system was proposed. With the enactment of Law No. 3913 on July 8, 1993, Article 133 of the Cons­ti­tu­ti­on was amended as follows: "Radio stations and te­le­vi­si­on channels may be freely established and managed within the sti­pu­la­ti­ons established by law. The independence and impartiality of the only ra­dio and television institution established by the state as a pub­lic corporate body as well as news agencies aided as public cor­po­ra­te bo­di­es are essential." 

In line with the amended Article 133, the TRT monopoly of on te­le­vi­si­on broadcasts as the sole television institution which be­gan operating in 1964 ended Thus, there was no question of private radio stations and television networks breaking the constitution from 1990 on­wards.    

RADIO AND TELEVISION SUPREME COUNCIL (RTÜK) 

The Radio and Television Supreme Council (RTÜK) was established on April 13, 1994, under Law No.3984, which de­ter­mi­nes the regulations to which private radio stations and TV chan­nels and the TRT are required to abide by. Arrangements are made for the harmonization of the Radio and Television stations Founding and Broadcasting Law with EU standards.

Functions and powers of the Radio and Television Supreme Council: 

·        In keeping with Article 16, to issue, commensurate with standards of impartiality and fairness, broadcasting permits and licenses to applicants who have complied with the prerequisites; to allocate channels and frequency bands, with due respect to the use on a time sharing basis and in keeping with regional balances of at least 50 percent of the channels and frequency bands included in the national, regional and local frequency plans, excluding those channels and frequency bands used by the Turkish Radio and Television Corporation,

·        Under the provisions of Radiocommunications Law No. 2813 of 5.4.1983, to issue establishment and operation permits to radio and television enterprises for transmitting facilities to cover broadcast service areas allocated to radio and television enterprises according to national frequency plans for national, regional and local broadcasts and to supervise the compliance of the facilities under the provisions of the Radiocommunications Law and with the prerequisites for such facilities,

·   Under the provisions of this law, to issue licenses for the construction and operation of telecommunication facilities so that, in addition to the radio and television transmitters provided for in the national frequency plans and to the existing telecommunications network between stationary and mobile transmitting units, radio and television enterprises can establish radiolink stations for the purpose of linking up to satellites in order to relay  their national and local broadcasts, on condition that these are used solely for the objectives set forth, and to verify that these facilities operate in keeping with the provisions of Radiocommunications Law No. 2813 dated 5.4.1983,

·        To encourage enterprises to extend their broadcasts to various regions of the country, while observing regional balances in the allocation of time sharing channels,

·        To specify and publicize, while bearing in mind the principles of the European Convention on Transfrontier Television , the prerequisites and standards to be fulfilled by public and private radio and television enterprises that intend to transmit from within the country in order to apply for broadcasting permits and licenses,

·        To establish via relevant regulations the preconditions for allocating channels and frequency bands, the deadlines for recipients of allocations to start regular broadcasts, and the broadcasting permit and license fees to be paid by operators of radio and television stations,

·        To verify the compliance of broadcasts with the provisions of Article 4 above and with international treaties to which Turkey is a Party by setting up monitoring systems for radio and television broadcasts,

·        To decide on the relevant sanctions in cases of violation of the provisions of this Law or of the conditions for frequency allocation,

·        To permit building of radio and television transmitters by local means in parts of national territory that cannot be reached by available transmissions.

·        To ensure that broadcasts from or to national territory to be transmitted via satellite conform to national and international rules and standards, and to cooperate to this end with competent authorities in other states ,

·        To formulate the rules to be applied to encoded broadcasts and to cable radio and television installations and broadcasts within the framework of this Law, taking care not to leave any surplus capacity in the cable radio and television facilities of the PTT Administration,

·        To conduct or commission public opinion surveys in order to follow regularly the reaction, approval or sensibilities  of the public and to provide appropriate guidance  in relation to radio and television broadcasts, on condition that the functions and powers of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs are preserved,

·     On condition that the functions of the Directorate General of Radiocommunications and the functions and powers of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs are preserved, to represent the State at organizations that have legal personality under international law, and are concerned with radio and television broadcasts, as well as fulfilling the representation function at international organizations concerned with radio and television broadcasts but without legal personality under international law; to sign duly the instruments formulated under this paragraph,

·        To evaluate trends in public opinion by periodically consulting with institutionsand agencies on radio and television broadcasts,

·        To draft the regulations and other rules regarding its own work and activities in keeping with this law and the European Convention on Transfrontier Television.

 

The last application to obtain licenses for radio and television broadcasts was submitted in 1995. There have been no applications made since then. Between March 18, 1995 and April 28, 1995 the number of joint stock companies which applied for licenses to broadcast on television was 21 for national broadcasts, 18 for regional broadcasts and 219 for local broadcasts. Between June 22, 1995 and December 8, 1995, the number of joint stock companies which applied for licenses to broadcast on radio was 36 for national broadcasts, 102 for regional broadcasts and 958 for local broadcasts. Each joint stock company which fulfills the legal requirements is eligible to apply to the Supreme Council for cable TV and satellite broadcasting licenses. If these companies meet the legal requirements they are granted the license and permission to broadcast by the Supreme Council. To date, the number of cable TVs is 66, the number of televisions broadcasting via satellite is 74 and the number of radios broadcasting via satellite is 47. The number of national television channels is 24; the number of regional television channels is 16 while the number of local television channels is 214. The number of national radio stations is 36; the number of regional radio stations is 102 and the number of local radio stations is 958.

 

TRT RADIO BROADCASTS (February 1, 2004)

NATIONAL NETWORKS 

RADIO-1

Aim

The aim of Radio-1 is to provide news and information; to respond to listeners' musical tastes; and to entertain and help develop, national cultural integration and education considering the widest listener range. The transmissions which are realized in accordance with these purposes consist of educational- cultural, drama, music and entertainment, news, commercials and sports programs. 

Broadcasts

Radio-1 is on 24 hours a day and broadcasts continuously. Broadcasts are aired via AM transmitters in Ankara, İstanbul and on 109 FM transmitters in Izmir

Transmitters

Radio-1 broadcasts are transmitted via the 1200 kW LW Ankara- Polatlı, 1200 kW İstanbul- Mudanya, 200 kW MW İzmir, 100 kW LW Ağrı, 1000 kW LW Ağrı transmitters plus 109 FM transmitters.

Coverage 

AM Population Coverage: 98.6%

AM Area Coverage: 95%

FM Population Coverage: 97%

FM Area Coverage: 97% 

Rating

According to a survey conducted in December 1999, which covered all of Turkey, the rating of Radio-1 was 5.4%; while a survey of East and Southeast Turkey conducted in June 2000 yielded a rating of 4.8%.

 

First Broadcast

JANUARY 1, 1975

RADIO-2 (TRT-FM)

Aim

The target of TRT-FM (Radio-2) is to help listeners further develop their musical taste and culture. This is achieved through broadcasts which consist of Turkish Folk Music, Turkish Classical Music and Pop Music. Broadcasts are live and 24 hours a day. There are news broadcasts presented once every hour in addition to short spoken passages which contribute to education and culture, brief statements and comments on current affairs and events, on-the-scene reporting, and interviews with guests and concerts. 

Broadcasting

TRT-FM offers continuous stereo live broadcasts all-around-the clock beamed from the Ankara, İstanbul and İzmir Radio stations. 

Transmitters

TRT- FM Transmission is achieved via 274 FM transmitters

Coverage 

Population Coverage: 99% Area Coverage: 98% 

Rating

According to a nationwide survey conducted in December 1999, the TRT-FM’s rating was 17.6%; while according to the survey that covered East and Southeast Turkey conducted in June 2000, the rating was 19.9%. The last survey that covered the Çukurova region in October 2001, yielded a rating of 27%, which was second best to the TRT Çukurova Regional Radio.

According to the Erzurum Regional Radio Survey conducted in December 2004, TRT FM was the best in Erzurum among 51 stations that broadcast in the region with a rating of 22.7 %.

According to the Antalya Regional Radio Survey conducted in December 2004 TRT-FM was;

The best in Antalya among 57 stations that broadcast in the region with a rating of 26.9%,

The best in Isparta among 23 stations that broadcast in the region with a rating of 32.9%

The best in Burdur among 26 stations that broadcast in the region with a rating of 36.2%

 

First Broadcast

MAY 12, 1993 

RADIO-3

Aim 

The aim of Radio-3 which is a wide range music broadcasting station is to help listeners further develop musical tastes and culture as a result of its broadcasts which include Classical Music, Classic Jazz Programs, and Light and Pop Music. Radio-3 also includes news broadcasts not only in Turkish but also in English, French and German in order to serve the foreign community in Turkey

Broadcasting 

Radio-3 which broadcasts from Ankara Radio, offers continuous stereo broadcasts 24 hours a day. 

Transmitters

Radio-3 transmissions are carried out by 105 FM transmitters. 

Coverage 

Population Coverage: 97% Area Coverage: 98% 

Rating

According to a nationwide survey conducted in December 1999, the TRT-3 rating was 0.7%; according to the survey that covered East and Southeast Turkey conducted in June 2000, the rating was 1.3%.

First Broadcast

JANUARY 1, 1975

Fully stereo since 1986 

RADIO-4

Aim 

The aim of radio is to have audiences appreciate Turkish Folk and Turkish Classical Music; to raise the level of musical tastes and culture; to maintain the interest of audiences; to introduce to the young generation different types of Turkish Music and present singers and musicians, composers, songwriters, arrangers and the lyricists of Turkish folk and classical music. It also aims to reinforce the unity of language and culture by the presentation of Turkish Music, and to introduce the activities of musical institutions, organizations and groups. 

Broadcasts

Radio-4 broadcasts 24 hours a day from Radio Ankara stations. 

Transmitters

Radio-4 broadcasts on 1200 kW MW to İstanbul- Çatalca, on 600 kW MW to Malatya, on 600 kW MW to Denizli via transmitters as well as 20 FM transmitters.

Co­ve­ra­ge 

FM Population Coverage is 75 %             FM Area Coverage is 50 %

AM Population Coverage is 35 %

Ankara, İstanbul and İzmir broadcasts are on the air 24 hours a day, while the Antalya, Çukurova, Erzurum, Trabzon, and GAP-Diyarbakır regions have broadcasts  on the air between 18.00-07.00 during their shared broadcasts. 

Rating

No rating is available as of yet.

First Broadcasts

Test Broadcasting: December 6, 1999- January 3, 2000

Official Broadcasting: January 3, 2000 

REGIONAL RADIO STATIONS 

ANKARA RADIO, ISTANBUL RADIO, İZMİR RADIO, ÇUKUROVA RADIO, ANTALYA RADIO, ERZURUM RADIO, TRABZON RADIO, GAP-DİYARBAKIR RADIO, HATAY PROVINCIAL RADIO (TRT HATAY FM) 

ANKARA RADIO

Aim 

The target of Ankara Radio is to produce and broadcast radio programs in accordance with the socio-economic and cultural characteristics, and requirements of the coverage area. 

Broadcasting

Ankara Radio offers 24 hours of broadcasts everyday (between 06:00-13:15 and 14.00-06.00 shared with Radio-1. The remaining 45 minutes of the broadcast is regional). 

Transmitters

 

Ankara Radio broadcasts are transmitted via 1200 kW LW Ankara- Polatlı, 1000 kW MW Ağrı and Radio-1 FM transmitters.

 

Co­ve­ra­ge 

An­ka­ra, Kırıkkale, Çorum, Çankırı, Konya, Kayseri, Sivas, Kırşehir, Nevşehir, Eskişehir, Afyon and partially Kütahya, Amasya, Bolu, Tokat, Niğde and Aksaray. 

Rating

No rating is available as of yet.

First Broadcasts

Ankara radio, which began broadcasting in October 1927 at the Ulus Post Office, was officially launched on October 28, 1938 with its 120 kW LW transmitter. Ankara Radio was connected to the Radio-1 National network on January 1, 1975. 

ISTANBUL RADIO

Aim 

The aim of İstanbul Radio is to produce and broadcast radio programs in accordance with the socio-economic and cultural characteristics and the requirements of the coverage area. 

Broadcasting

İstanbul Radio broadcasts everyday around-the-clock (between 06.00-13.15 and 14.00-06.00 is shared with Radio-1. The remaining 45 minutes of broadcast time is an exception since it is regional). 

Transmitters 

İstanbul Radio broadcasts are transmitted via the 1200 kW MW İstanbul-Mudanya transmitter in addition to the 30 kW FM ( 95.6 MHz-) transmitter.

 

Coverage 

İstanbul, Kırıkkale, Tekirdağ, Edirne, Çanakkale, Bursa, Yalova, Sakarya, Kocaeli, Bolu and partially Eskişehir. 

Rating

No rating is available as yet.

First Broadcast

İstanbul Radio began its broadcasts on May 6, 1927, and it was connected to the Radio-1 national network on January 1, 1975.

İZMİR RADIO

Aim 

The target of İzmir Radio is to produce and broadcast radio programs in accordance with the socio-economic and cultural characteristics of the coverage area. 

Broadcasting

İzmir Radio broadcasts everyday around-the-clock (between 06.00-13.15 and 14.00-06.00 is shared by Radio-. The remaining 45 minutes of the broadcast is regional). 

 

Transmitters

İzmir Radio broadcasts are transmitted via 200 kW MW İzmir- Torbalı and other AM transmitters whose total power reaches 800 kW MW plus a 30 kW MW FM transmitter. 

Coverage 

İzmir, Manisa, Aydın, Muğla, Uşak, Kütahya, Balıkesir, Çanakkale and Denizli. 

Rating

No rating is available as of yet.

First Broadcast

İzmir radio which began to broadcast in 1967, was connected to the Radio-1 national network on January 1, 1975. 

ÇUKUROVA RA­DIO 

Aim 

The target of Çukurova Radio is to produce and broadcast radio programs in accordance with the socio-economic, and cultural characteristics of the coverage area. 

Broadcasting

Çukurova Radio offers 24 hours of broadcasting everyday. The broadcast is Radio-4 shared between 18.00-06.00, and regional between 06.00-18.00. 

Transmitters 

Çukurova Radio broadcasts are transmitted via 300 kW MW Çukurova transmitter, and 5 kW Mersin and 30 kW Adana FM transmitters.

Coverage 

Adana, İçel, Hatay, Kahramanmaraş, Gaziantep, and partially Antalya, Konya and Niğde. 

Rating

According to a survey which conducted in October 2001 covered Adana, Osmaniye and Hatay, a sampling of the 1000 14+ year-old audience resulted in Çukurova Radio being rated as the best in the region with a yield of 42%

First Broadcast 

Çukurova radio which began to bro­adcast in 1968, was connected to the Radio-1 national station on January 1, 1975. Çukurova radio broadcasts 12 live shows between 06:00-18:00 and joins RADIO-4 for shared broadcasts between 18:00-06:00.

ANTALYA RADIO

Aim 

The target of Antalya Radio is to produce and broadcast radio programs in accordance with the socio-economic and cultural characteristics and requirements of the coverage area. 

Broadcasting

Antalya Radio offers around-the-clock broadcasts everyday. The broadcast is shared with Radio-4 between 18.00-06.00, and it is regional between 06.00-18.00. 

Transmitters 

Antalya Radio broadcasts  through 600 kW MW Antalya- Aksu transmitter plus 30 kW MW Isparta and 5 kW MW Antalya FM transmitters.

Coverage 

Antalya, Isparta, Burdur, and partially Afyon, Konya, Mersin and Muğla. 

Rating

No rating is available as of yet.

First Broadcast

Antalya radio which began to broadcast as a Provincial Radio in 1961 was connected to the Radio-1 National network on January 1, 1975, and began to broadcast regionally on January 1, 1993. Antalya radio broadcasts live regionally for 12 hours a day between 06:00-18:00, and joins RADIO-4 for shared broadcasts between 18:00-06:00.

ERZURUM RADIO

Aim 

The objective of Erzurum Radio is to produce and broadcast radio programs in accordance with the socio-economic and cultural characteristics and requirements of the coverage area. 

Broadcasting

Erzurum Radio broadcasts 24 hours daily. The broadcast is Radio-4 which is shared between 18.00-06.00 and regional between 06.00-18.00. 

Transmitters 

Erzurum Radio broadcasts are transmitted via 200 kW LW Erzurum transmitter and a 5 kW FM transmitter.

 

Coverage 

Erzurum, Kars, Ardahan, Iğdır, Ağrı, Muş, Bingöl, Tunceli, Bayburt, Erzincan and partially Trabzon, Artvin, Van, Gümüşhane, Elazığ, Malatya, Sivas. 

Rating

No rating is available as of yet.

First Broadcast

Erzurum Radio, which began to broadcast in 1967, was connected to the Radio-1 National network on January 1, 1975 and started regional broadcasts on January 1, 1990. The Erzurum radio broadcasts live regionally for 12 hours between 06:00-18:00; and joins RADIO-4 for shared broadcasting between 18:00-06:00. 

TRABZON RADIO

Aim 

The target of Trabzon Radio is to produce and broadcast radio programs in accordance with the socio-economic and cultural characteristics and requirements of the coverage area. 

Broadcasting

The broadcasts of Trabzon Radio are 24 hours daily. The broadcast is Radio-4 shared between 18.00-06.00, and regional between 06.00-18.00. 

Transmitters

Trabzon Radio broadcasts via  300 kW MW Trabzon transmitter, and 30 kW and 1 kW FM transmitters.

Coverage 

Trabzon, Rize, Artvin, Giresun, Ordu, Samsun, Sinop and partially Erzurum, Erzincan, Bayburt, Gümüşhane, Amasya and Tokat. 

Rating

No rating is available as of yet.

First Broadcast

Trabzon Radio which began to broadcast in 1968 earned the Status of a Regional Radio and was connected to the Radio-1 National network in 1978. It started to broadcast regionally on January 6, 1992. The Trabzon radio broadcasts 12 hours live everyday regionally between 06:00-18:00; and joins RADIO-4 for shared broadcasts between 18:00-06:00. 

 

GAP-DİYARBAKIR RADIO

Aim

The target of GAP-Diyarbakır Radio is to produce and broadcast radio programs in accordance with the socio-economic and cultural characteristics and requirements of the coverage area. Moreover its goal is to provide support to development projects, and to contribute to the efforts exerted at strengthening national integrity and unity. These broadcasts are also heard abroad which is considered when producing programs. 

Broadcasting

GAP-Diyarbakır Radio broadcasts 24 hours everyday. The broadcast is Radio-4 shared between 18.00-06.00 and regional between 06.00-18.00. 

Trans­mit­ters 

GAP_Diyarbakır Radio broadcasts through 300 kW MW Diyarbakır, 600 kW MW Gaziantep, 600 kW LW Van transmitters, and 30 kW Adıyaman, 30 kW Ağrı, 30 kW Bingöl, 5 kW Bitlis, 30 kW Diyarbakır, 30 kW Elazığ, 30 kW Erzurum, 30 kW Gaziantep, 30 kW Hatay, 5 kW Kars, 5 kW Kilis, 5 kW Mardin (Nusaybin), 5 kW Siirt, 30 kW Siirt (Kurtalan), 30 kW Şanlıurfa, 30 kW Şırnak, 30 kW Tunceli, 30 kW Van (Özalp) FM transmitters. (20 in total) 

Coverage 

Hakkari, Van, Şırnak, Batman, Siirt, Muş, Mardin, Diyarbakır, Bingöl, Bitlis, Elazığ, Malatya, Adıyaman, Şanlıurfa, Kahramanmaraş, Kilis, Gaziantep, Tunceli, Hatay and partially Sivas, Erzurum, Kayseri, Adana and Mersin.

FM Population Coverage 17.6 %

Rating

No rating is available as of yet.

First Broadcast

GAP-Diyarbakır Radio began to broadcast in late 1968 (At the time it was called Radio Diyarbakır) with its 300 kW MW transmitter and was connected to the Radio-1 National network on January 1, 1975. It started regional broadcasts on 2 October 1989. The Radio began broadcasting under the name "GAP" on 15 April 1991 and with name "GAP-Diyarbakır" on 1 January 1997. GAP-Diyarbakır radio broadcasts live regionally 12 hours between 06:00-18:00 and joins RADIO-4 for shared broadcasts between 18:00-06:00. 

 

TRT HATAY FM

Aim

The target of TRT Hatay FM is to broadcast educational, informative and recreational radio programs in accordance with the traditions and requirements of the coverage area, to provide information about current events which occur in the world, in the country and especially in the region. These broadcasts are aimed at creating a favorable social, cultural and psychological milieu, and to contribute to the efforts aimed at increasing the devotion to national culture and to the principles set down by Atatürk. 

Broadcasting

TRT Hatay FM offers 24 hours a day of continuous stereo broadcasts which is TRT-FM shared between 18.00-07.00 and provincial between 07.00-18.00. 

Transmitters

The TRT Hatay FM broadcast is transmitted via the 30 kW Hatay-Çobandede (88.0 MHz) and the 5 kW Hatay-Yayladağı (89.6 MHz) FM transmitters. 

Coverage

The broadcasts on TRT Hatay FM which started on March 18, 1996 on a trial basis and commenced its regular broadcasting on April 20, 1996, was originally planned to cover the city of Hatay. However, the broadcasts, in accordance with the requirements, may be heard beyond the city and the Turkish border. 

Rating

According to a survey covering the area which was conducted in October 2001, TRT-HATAY FM’s rating was 51.8%.

First Broadcast

TRT Hatay FM commenced its regular broadcasts on April 20, 1996. Since January, 29 2001, TRT-HATAY FM has been broadcasting regionally and live between 07:00-18:00, and joins TRT-FM for shared broadcasts between 18:00-07:00.

 

TOURISM RADIO

The Tourism Radio, in Antalya, broadcasts in English, German, Russian, French and Greek and caters to foreign tourists visiting Turkey.

Besides its music and news programs, the Tourism Radio, with its around-the-clock daily broadcasts, also presents useful information for tourists on Turkey and its culture.

The Tourism Radio started broadcasting on July 9, 1990.

 

 

 

TOURISM  RADIO  FM  TRANSMITTERS

 

Broadcast Region

ERP Power
(Watt)

Frequency

Antalya (Sarıçınar)
             (Lara)

5000
1000

92.1
101.6

Alanya

1000

88.7

Ankara

5000

100.3

Ayvalık

5000

101.1

Bodrum

5000

97.4

Fethiye

5000

103.1

İstanbul

30000

101.6

İzmir

5000

101.6

Kalkan

5000

105.9

Kapadokya

5000

103.0

Kuşadası

5000

101.9

Marmaris

5000

101.0

Pamukkale

5000

101.0

 

“VOICE OF TURKEY” RADIO 

Turkey’s first external broadcast began on January 8, 1937 by the Ankara Radio Corporation. This broadcast designed to help resolve the Hatay issue was in fact the transmission in Arabic of an address delivered about this issue by the then Prime Minister İsmet İnönü. External broadcasts on a regular basis from Turkey began as of October 28, 1938.

Today, the Voice of Turkey carries the external radio transmissions of the Turkish Radio and Television, TRT.

 

Turkish Broadcasts:

 

The Turkish broadcasts which are presented around-the-clock by the Voice of Turkey for Turkish nationals living abroad and those of Turkish origin focus on education, culture, music and news programs.

 

 

The Regions in which Turkish Broadcasts are heard And Their Duration

 

Broadcast Regions

Broadcast Durations

Europe

24 hours

Europe - North America

common

Australia- Asia

common

Asia

common

Asia - Africa

common

Africa

common

TOTAL

24 hours

 

Foreign Language Broadcasts:

 

In addition to Turkish, Voice of Turkey broadcasts on a daily basis for a total of 37 hours 30 minutes in 25 languages. These broadcasts in which culture, music and news programs weigh heavier aired in German, Albanian, Arabic, Azeri, Bosnian, Bulgarian, Croatian, Chinese, Persian, French, Georgian, English, Spanish, Kazakh, Kyrgyz, Hungarian, Macedonian, Uzbek, Rumanian, Russian, Serbian, Tatar, Turkmen, Urdu and Greek.

 

 

 

THE REGIONS BEAMED BY FOREIGN LANGUAGE BROADCASTS AND THEIR DURATIONS

 

 

Broadcast Region

Broadcast Language

Broadcast Duration

Studio Output

EUROPE

German

2 hours

Albanian

1 hour

Bosnian

1 hour

Bulgarian

1 hour

French

1 hour

Croatian

30 minutes

English

2 hours

Spanish

30 minutes

Hungarian

1 hour

Macedonian

1 hour

Rumanian

1 hour

Serbian

30 minutes

Greek

2 hours

EUROPE/NORTH AMERICA

English

2 hours

AUSTRALIA/ASIA

English

1 hour

Common

ASIA

Arabic

2 hours

Azeri

2 hours 30 minutes

Chinese

1 hour

Persian

2 hours 30 minutes

Georgian

1 hour

Kazakh

1 hour

Kyrgyz

1 hour

Uzbek

2 hours

Russian

2 hours

Tatar

1 hour

Turkmen

1 hour

Urdu

1 hour

Greek

Common

ASIA/AFRICA

Arabic

2 hours

Common

English

Common

AFRICA

Arabic

Common

French

Common

  TOTAL

37 hours 30 minutes

 

The Turkish and foreign language broadcasts of the Voice of Turkey are transmitted via a total 10 ( 7   500 Kw and 3   250 Kw ) transmitters, all situated in Emirler  and Çakırlar in Ankara.

 

 

E - MAIL ADDRESSES

 

 

 

tsr@trt.net.tr

 

Voice of Turkey

tsr.turkce@trt.net.tr

 

Turkish Broadcasts

tsr.yabancidil@trt.net.tr

 

Foreign Language Broadcast

tsr.turizmradyo@trt.net.tr

 

Tourism Radio

arabi@trt.net.tr

 

Arabic

azerbaycan@trt.net.tr

 

Azeri

bilgarski@trt.net.tr

 

Bulgarian

bosanski@trt.net.tr

 

Bosnian

deutsch@trt.net.tr

 

German

englishdesk@trt.net.tr

 

English

espanol@trt.net.tr

 

Spanish

farsi@trt.net.tr

 

Persian

francais@trt.net.tr

 

French

georgian@trt.net.tr

 

Georgian

greek@trt.net.tr

 

Greek

hrvatski@trt.net.tr

 

Croatian

huayu@trt.net.tr

 

Chinese

kazak@trt.net.tr

 

Kazakh

kyrgyz@trt.net.tr

 

Kyrgyz

macarca@trt.net.tr

 

Hungarian

makedonski@trt.net.tr

 

Macedonian

romana@trt.net.tr

 

Rumanian

russian@trt.net.tr

 

Russian

shqiponja@trt.net.tr

 

Albanian

srpski@trt.net.tr

 

Serbian

tatar@trt.net.tr

 

Tatar

turkmen@trt.net.tr

 

Turkmen

urdu@trt.net.tr

 

Urdu

uzbek@trt.net.tr

 

Uzbek

 

 

 

The number and coverage of radio Transmitters

Name of Program

Rad-1

Rad-2

Rad-3

Rad-4

Voice of

Tourism

Hatay

GAP-D.B

Regional

Total

T-DAB trans

 

    1

  1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

GM Trans.

5+4

 

 

1

10

 

 

4

 

24

FM Trans.

107

253

105

22

 

13

2

20

7

529

Total Trans.

116

253

105

23

10

13

24

554

GM Pop.

98.6

 

 

96

 

 

 

 

 

 

Coverage %

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

FMF Pop.

97

99

97

75 

 

12

 

17.5*

 

 

Notes:  

1) RADIO-1, RADIO-2(TRT-FM), RADIO-3, RADIO-4 and HATAY FM transmit 24 hours daily. 

2) Seven transmitters with amplitude modulation for RADIO-1 broadcast regionally 

3) Analog Radio-1, TRT FM, are broadcast to Turkey-Central Asia via the sub-carrier of the TRT-1 TV, TRT-2 TV and TRTTURK TV respectively on the east beam of TURKSAT 1C Satellite.

4) All of the radio programs on TRT are broadcast digitally to Europe-Turkey via the TRT Digital Packet on the west beam of TURKSAT 1C satellite.

5) The TRT-FM and TSR-Turkish, TSR- Foreign Language Radio Programs are broadcast both in analog and digital format to Europe, the Middle East and North Africa via the EUTELSAT   HotBird-6 satellite and also these programs are broadcast to Europe digitally by the EUTELSAT Sesat 36°E satellite.

The TRT-FM and TSR-Turkish, TSR- Foreign Language Radio Programs are broadcast to Australia and New Zealand on Thaicom-3 and Optus B-3 and to North America on Intelsat 907 and Telstar 5 in digital format.

TRT-FM and Radio 3 radio programs are also available on the Digiturk platform in clear (without encryption) form via the Eutelsat W3 satellite covering Turkey-Europe

6) ) TRT launched T-DAB test transmissions on Band 3 in Ankara (the capital) on March 1, 2002, following the completion of regulatory procedures for frequency allocation.

One transmitter covers the metropolis of Ankara and reaches approximately 2 million people. TRT broadcasts on two stations via DAB. Radio 3 presents classical music and Radio 2 presents popular Turkish music.

An SFN (Single Frequency Network) application had been planned in Ankara with the addition of a 1kWatt new transmitter. In order to  increase the awareness of DAB,  the new 1 kW transmitter will be transferred to Istanbul, Turkey’s largest city.

 

Furthermore, TRT has also planned to distribute the DAB ETI signal via the existing  MCPC DVB-S infrastructure. After the installation of the 1 kW transmitter and the transmission of the DAB ETI signal, TRT DAB signals will  reach  approximately  8 million listeners .

In order to  enrich  the content of the DAB stream, three new channels ( Radio-1,  Radio-4, Voice of Turkey-VOT) are planned to be added in a few months time. In addition to these radio programs, SI (Service Information) PAD (Program Associated Data) including the broadcasters name, channel name and program  type are also transmitted on digital radio together with Non-PAD data such as weather and road/traffic information.

TRT has also bought DAB IP Data  Tunneling equipment for broadcast streaming services and is ready to develop new services based on IP, one of the more powerful and attractive multimedia features of DAB. The equipment is able to carry out several IP services on the same platform. The IP services may be broadcast in one or more N-PAD channel.

With such a product,

-          -          -          -          -          -          -          -          -          -          -          -          -          MPEG 4  video over DAB,

-          -          -          -          -          -          -          -          -          -          -          -          -          Enrich  the audio with services (web pages,   video clips, electronic program guide, vote, purchase tickets services)

-          -          -          -          -          -          -          -          -          -          -          -          -          Added radio services such as cartoons, news files, games,

-          -          -          -          -          -          -          -          -          -          -          -          -          City information,

-          -          -          -          -          -          -          -          -          -          -          -          -          Real time streaming such as video , file downloading,

TRT plans  to broadcast the MPEG–4 video over DAB in the near future. For this application, new software and MPEG- 4 Video Encoder  which is capable of IP encapsulation will be added.

(*) The population coverage of GAP-DB. RADIO is 95% in the GAP Region

 

OTHER RA­DI­OS

36 radio stations which have applied for FM Radio Na­ti­o­nal Bro­ad­cas­ting Licenses, 102 for regional broadcasting licenses and 958 for local broadcasting licenses are currently broadcasting. 

TRT TELEVISION BRO­AD­CASTS

TRT has been broadcasting via seven channels inc­lu­ding TRT-1, TRT-2, TRT-3, TRT-4, TRT-INT, TRT-TÜRK and GAP-TV sin­ce December 31, 1998.

With the participation of TRT-AVR, seven channels began to broadcast on April 12, 1993. The name of the TRT-AVR TV channel was changed to TRT-TÜRK on January 31, 2001.

TRT CHANNEL 1

 

It is based in Ankara and has 51 ma­in trans­mit­ters, 1,850 auxiliary transmitters and reaches 98.2 % of the country and 98.4 % of the population. Analog TRT-1 TV channel  broadcasts via trans­pon­der No: 16 in the eastern coverage on the TÜRKSAT 1C satellite which covers Turkey-Cent­ral Asia, Digital TRT-1 TV channel broadcasts via transponder No:7 in the western coverage on the TURKSAT 1C satellite which covers Turkey-Europe. It can be viewed in all ci­ti­es where cable-TV systems are available in Turkey and in Azerbaijan. In addition, the TRT-1 channel is also available on the Digiturk platform in clear (without encryption) form via the Eutelsat W3 satellite which covers Turkey-Europe

 

TRT CHANNEL 2

 

It is based in Ankara and has 51 main and 1,595 auxiliary trans­mit­ters and reaches 98 % of the population and 97.5 % of the co­untry. TRT-2 TV channel can be viewed in analog form via transponder No: 14 in the eas­tern coverage and also in digital format via transponder No:7 in the western coverage on the TÜRKSAT 1C satellite and on cable-TV in Turkey. In addition, the TRT-2 channel is also available in Digiturk platform in clear (without encryption) form via the Eutelsat W3 satellite covering Turkey-Europe 

 

TRT CHANNEL 3

 

It is based in Ankara and has 51 main and 1,205 auxiliary trans­mit­ters and reaches 96.8 % of the population with a 93 % area co­ve­ra­ge. The TRT-3 TV channel can be viewed digitally via transponder No: 7 in the western coverage on TÜRKSAT 1C satellite covering Turkey-Europe and on cable-TV network in Turkey. In addition, the TRT-3 channel is also available on the Digiturk platform in clear (without encryption) form via Eutelsat W3 satellite covering Turkey-Europe

 

TRT CHANNEL 4

 

 It is based in Ankara and has 51 main and 146 auxiliary trans­mit­ters and reaches 92% of the population and 91 % of the co­untry. TRT-4 TV can be viewed digitally via transponder No: 7 in the western coverage of the TURKSAT 1C satellite which covers Turkey-Europe and on cable-TV in Turkey. In addition, the TRT-4 channel is also available on the Digiturk platform in clear (without encryption) form via Eutelsat W3 satellite covering Turkey-Europe 

 

TRT-INT TV

 

The broadcast center is located in Ankara. Viewers receive TRT-INT prog­rams;

-  via TÜRKSAT 1C 42°E satellite in digital format in Turkey and Europe.

-   via EUTELSAT HotBird-6, 13°E satellite in digital and analogue format in Turkey, Eu­ro­pe, North Africa and the Middle East.

-   via EUTELSAT Sesat 36°E satellite in digital format in Europe,

-   via THAICOM-3 78,5° E satellite in digital format in Asia, Africa and Australia using large dishes.

-  via Optus B3 156° E satellite in digital format in Australia and New Zealand.

-   via PAS 8 166° E satellite in TARBS digital packet in Australia.

-   via the Intelsat 907 332,5° E satellite in North and South America using large dishes.

-   via Telstar 5 263° E in digital format in North America.

Additionally, 7 % of the population is reached throughout Turkey, with one terrestrial transmitter, in Istanbul.

 

TRT-INT can also be viewed in all cities where cable-TV systems are available in Turkey.

TRT-INT has been transmitted via cable to many countries since1990 and the number of subscribers are as follows: Germany (14,716,668) Austria (624,000) The Netherlands (3,959,819) Belgium (1,502,956) Switzerland (1,521,379) and Denmark (6,211), Romania (17,000) Bulgaria (40,000) and Macedonia.. 

TRT-INT is transmitted via cable networks to Sweden, Norway, Bulgaria, Poland, Kazakhstan and the Moldovia-Gagauz Autonomous Region. Negotiations with Australia, South Korea, Georgia, Qatar, Kyrgyzstan and Mongolia for TRT-INT are still in progress. 

TRT-INT program broadcasts have been on a digital turn-around via the Atlantic Bird 2 satellite and the Eutelsat vision platform and cable networks in Germany since 01.05.2002, and these broadcasts will begin in Austria, Switzerland, Liechtenstein, France, Benelux and if possible, in the UK.

Broadcasts to Australia and New Zealand began on July 25, 1999, while the broadcasts to the US and to Canada began on June 7, 2000. 

Therefore, TRT-INT can be viewed with a small dish antenna in Turkey, all of Europe, the Middle East, the North African countries, Australia, New Zealand, the USA and densely populated areas in Canada. 

By using a large dish antenna, TRT-INT can be viewed in Asia, Africa, Australia, and in North and South America.

 

TRT-TURK TV  

 

It is based in Ankara and broadcasts via transponder No:10 in the eastern coverage on the TÜRKSAT 1C  satellite covering Turkey-Central Asia on the SECAM broadcasting system. 

Bro­ad­casts can be viewed with the installation of a sa­tel­li­te receiver system and terrestrial transmitters in all capitals of the Cent­ral Asi­an Turkish-Speaking Republics by the Türk Telekom Corp.

 

GAP-TV 

 

It is based in Ankara and broadcasts on Mondays, Fridays, Saturdays and Sundays from 07.00-19.00 hours and on Tuesdays, Wednesdays and Thursdays from 07.00-14.00 hours via the main and auxiliary TRT-3 TV transmitters. Live and taped programs made in the Diyarbakır Production Center are also aired during the broadcasts.

The planning, establishment and function of TRT te­le­vi­si­on trans­mit­ters was carried out by the TRT.

TRT-GAP broadcasts are underway in a rotating fashion with TRT-3 and during the months when the TBMM-TV is not broadcasting at 07.00-15.00. When sessions are held TBMM-TV broadcasts are on the air at 07.00-14.00.

 

      Number of television channels
and their coverage
 

 (27 September 2001)

Name of Prog.

TRT-1

TRT-2

TRT-3

TRT-4

TRT-INT

Total

Number of Main Trans.

51

51

51

51

1

205

Number of Auxiliary Trans.

1850

1595

1205

146

0

4796

Auxiliary Trans.

1901

1646

1256

197

1

5001

Viewer Capacity (%)

98.4

98.1

96.8

92

7

 

Coverage Capacity (%)

98.2

97.5

93

91

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  Note: 1) TRT-GAP and TRT-3 broadcast using a rotating method 

             2) Telegun-Teletext programs are broadcast by TRT-1, TRT-2 and TRT-INT 

             3) The TRT-1 and TRT-INT main transmitters have spare transmitters. 

TURKISH RADIO AND TELEVISION CORPORATION (TRT)    

Address: TRT Turan Güneş Bulvarı

Oran/Ankara

Tel: +90 (312) 490 10 58

Fax: +90 (312) 490 11 09

e-mail: trtgnsec@trt.net.tr 

OTHER TELEVISION CHAN­NELS 

A total of 258 private TV networks 21 of which are seen na­ti­onally, 18 regionally and 219 locally have applied to the Sup­re­me Council of Radio and Television Broadcasts (RTÜK) for licenses. The following television networks broadcast nationally. 

ATV

Address.........: Gayrettepe Mah.Barbaros Bul. No:125

                         80700  Balmumcu-Beşiktaş/İSTANBUL

Tel...................: 212 3543000-3543950(Public Relations)

Fax..................: 212 3543911

Web................: www.atv.com.tr

 

Ankara Office

=============

Address.......: Söğütözü Cad.Söğütözü İş Merkezi

                       No:14/C Beştepe/ANKARA

Tel................: 312 2925050

Fax...............: 312 2925073

 

Cine 5

Address.........: Büyükdere Cad. No:163

                         34394 Esentepe/İSTANBUL

Tel...................: 212 3361515

Fax..................: 212 2173424-2171986

Web................: www.cine5.com.tr

 

CNN Türk

Address.........: Doğan Medya Center

                          34204 Bağcılar/İSTANBUL

Tel...................: 212 4135600

Fax..................: 212 4135850(News Center)

Web................: www.cnnturk.com

 

Ankara Office

Address.........: Atatürk Bulvarı No: 125

                          Kat:5-6 Bakanlıklar/ANKARA

Tel..................: 312 4174117

Fax.................: 312 4176304

 

CNBC-e

 

Address.........: Eskibüyükdere Cad.No:61

                          USO Center 80660 Maslak/İSTANBUL

Tel...................: 212 3350000

Fax..................: 212 3300035-36,3350087(Human Resources)

Web................: www.cnbce.com

 

 

Ankara Office

Address.........: Atatürk Bulvarı No:211/A

                          Kavaklıdere/ANKARA

Tel...................: 312 4685353

Fax..................: 312 4672974-4676973

 

Ege TV (Regional-Cable-Satellite)

Address.........: 1542 Sok.No:10/A K:1-2-3

    Alsancak/İZMİR

Tel..................: 232 4440343

Fax.................: 232 4887717 (News Center)

 

 

 ETV (Local-Cable-Satellite)

 

Address.........: Cumhuriyet  Cad. Cumhuriyet Apt. No:37/1

                         K:2 Taksim Elmadağ/İSTANBUL

Tel..................: 212 3616815-16-17

Fax.................: 212 3616820(Advertisement and Press)

Web...............: www.eytv.com.tr

 

Ankara Office

Address.......: Çetin Emeç Bul.6.Cad.No:61/7-8

                       Öveçler/ANKARA

Tel................: 312 4725757

Fax...............: 312 4726196

E-Mail..........:ankara@eytv.com.tr

                      turgayturker@pmd.org.tr

 

Flash TV

Address.........: Altıparmak Mah. Stadyum Cad.

    No:16  K:17 Tower Plaza/BURSA

Tel...................: 224 2733700 (20 Lines)

Fax..................: 224 2733722

E-Mail.............: bursa@flashtv.com.tr

                          yılmaztunca@flashtv.com.tr

 

Ankara Office

Address.......: Karyağdı Sok. No: 18

                       Aşağı Ayrancı/ANKARA

Tel.................: 312 4398270

Fax................: 312 4398245

 

 

 HABER TÜRK (Cable-Satellite)

 

Address.........: Tevfik Bey Mah.20 Temmuz Cad. No:24

    Sefaköy-Küçükçekmece/İSTANBUL

Tel...................: 212 5998286

Fax..................: 212 4264241

Web................: www.haberturk.com.tr

 

Ankara Office

 Address.........: Hoşdere cad. Özvatan Sok. No:34/1

                          Y.Ayrancı/ANKARA

Tel...................: 312 4428989-90

Faks................: 312 4407844

 

Kanal D

Address ........: Kanal D TV Center Bağcılar

                         34204 İSTANBUL

Tel...................: 212 4135111

Fax..................: 212 4135400(News Center)

 

Ankara Office

Address.........:Ballı Sok.8/4

                          Aşağı Ayrancı/ANKARA

Tel..................:312 4192667-6(Lines)

Fax.................:312 4192672

 

Address.........: Otakçılar Cad.No:60

                          34030  Eyüp/İSTANBUL

Tel...................: 212 6129090

Fax..................: 212 6122776-5677007(Public Relations)

E-Mail.............: yenidunya@kanal7com.tr

Web.................: www.kanal7.com.tr

 

Ankara Office

 Address........: Oğuzlar Mah.2.Cad.32.Sok.

                          No:42  Balgat/ANKARA

Tel..................: 312 2840400(10 Lines)

Fax.................: 312 2858534

  

 NTV (National-Cable-Satellite)

 

Address.........: Eskibüyükdere Cad. Uso Center No:61

                         34398 Maslak/İSTANBUL

Tel...................: 212 3350000

Fax..................: 212 3300050

E-Mail.............: ntv@ntvcom.tr

Web................: www.ntv.com.tr

 

Ankara Office

 Address.........: Atatürk Bulvarı No:211/A

                          Kavaklıdere/ANKARA

Tel...................: 312 4685353 (24 Lines)

Fax..................: 312 4672974-4676973

 

 

Olay TV (Cable-National)

 

 

Address.........: Ankara Yolu Gürsu Kavşağı 11.km

    Olay Medya/BURSA

Tel..................: 224 3317000

Fax:................: 224 3317065

 

SAMANYOLU TV (National-Cable-Satellite)

 

Address.........: Kısıklı Mah. Ferah cad.

                         Reşatbey Sokak  No:12

                         Çamlıca/İSTANBUL

Tel.......: 216 3448560 (18 Hat)3448570

                3297669 (News Center)

Fax...........: 216 3448568-3297124(Economy)-3443803

Web...........: www.stv.com.tr

 

Ankara Office

Address.........: Plevne Cad.No:30/5

                Aktaş/ANKARA

Tel.......: 312 3205200(pbx)

Fax...........: 312 3205225

 

 SHOW TV (National-Cable-Satellite)

 

Address.........: Yapı Kredi Plaza E Blok

                1.Levent/İSTANBUL

Tel.......: 212 3550101                 

Fax...........: 212 2792575(News Center)2801191

Web...........: www.showtvnet.com.tr

 

Ankara Office

Address.......: Cinnah Cad. No:15

              Çankaya/ANKARA

Tel.....: 312 4669111

Fax.........: 312 4669128

 

 SKY TÜRK (Cable-Satellite)

 

Address.........: Davutpaşa Cad.No:34

                Topkapı/İSTANBUL

Tel.......: 212 4490700               

Fax...........: 212 4816420

 

 

Ankara Office

 Address.......: Cinnah Cad. No:15

              Çankaya/ANKARA

Tel.....: 312 4669000

Fax.........: 312 4677365

 

 STAR TV (National-Cable-Satellite)

 

Address.........: Basın Expres Yolu               

                Star Sok. No:2

                İkitelli/İSTANBUL

Tel.......: 212 4489000 (4 Lines)

Fax...........: 212 4489364-65-4489201

Web...........: www.startv.com.tr

 

Ankara Office

Address.........: Atatürk Bul.No:231/11       

                Kavaklıdere/ANKARA

Tel.......: 312 4667000

Fax...........: 312 4280500

 

 

 

TV 5 (National-Satellite)

 

Address.........: Ziyabey Cad. 13. Sok. No:12

                Balgat/İSTANBUL

Tel.......: 312 2201300-2844360

Fax...........: 312 2847905

 

 

TV 8 (National-Cable-Satellite)

 

Kuruluş Tarihi: 8 Ağustos 1996

Address.........: Ihlamur Dere Cad. Yeşil Çimen Sok.No:5

                Beşiktaş/İSTANBUL

Tel.......: 212 2885152

Fax...........: 212 2880401

Web...........: www.tv8.com.tr

 

 

Ankara Office

 Address.........: Atatürk Bul.No:185

                Kavaklıdere/ANKARA

Tel.......: 312 4192200

Fax...........: 312 4240121-4193303

 

 

 TGRT (National-Cable-Satellite)

 

Address.........: 29 Ekim Cad.No:23

                Yenibosna/İSTANBUL

Tel.......: 212 4545600

Fax...........: 212 4545656

Web...........: www.tgrt.com.tr

 

Ankara Office

Address.......: Meşrutiyet Cad. Hatay Sok. No:27

              Kızılay/ANKARA             

Tel.....: 312 4192601

Fax.........: 312 4192620

 

Turkish Radio and Television Corporation (TRT)

 

Address.........: TRT Sitesi Oran Yolu Üzeri

                Çankaya/ANKARA

Tel.......: 312 4904300 (100 Hat)

Fax...........: 312 4901109 (General Secretariat)

                312 4904494 (Clerical Office)

                312 4900155 (News Department)

Web...........: www.trt.net.com.tr

 

İstanbul Office

 Address.........:TRT İstanbul Regional Office

               Harbiye/İSTANBUL

Tel.......:212 2321200

Fax...........:212 2258530

 

CABLE TV 

Cable TV world-wide was established to find a solution to insufficient or unavailable broadcasts. As time passed, it became the only means to provide more broadcasting to audience. Finally, the cable networks boomed with the extensive utilization of satellites in broadcasting. As a result of developments in equipment technology used in system and the extensive utilization of computers, not only in radio and TV broadcasts also in many services such as data transmission, control systems, home shopping services and teletext, the cable system has become beneficial. 

Cab­le TV broadcasts have been carried out by the Pos­tal Te­leg­raph and Telephone (PTT), since 1991 in li­ne with developments in world cable television. Today, the Tur­kish Telecommunications Corp. (Türk Telekom Corp.) has pre­pa­red the infrastructure for 2,060.264 Cable-TV subscribers in ni­ne pro­vin­ces (Ankara, İstanbul, İzmir, Adana, Gaziantep, Kon­ya, Kayseri, Bursa) in the country. Nearly 994,263 households an actually take advantage of the services as of December 2004 the "Revenue Share TV system project applications, where all investment expenditures met by for domestic companies, aimed at inc­re­a­sing the number of subscribers and channels existing Cab­le-TV services throughout the country, providing in­te­rac­ti­ve ser­vi­ces and new systems. Within the framework bids ha­ve be­en held in 10 provinces (Eskişehir, Tarsus, Samsun, Denizli, İzmit-Gölcük, Adapazarı, Balıkesir-Bandırma, Zonguldak-Karadeniz Ereğli, Yalova-Çiftlikköy, Tekirdağ-Çerkezköy-Çorlu, Er­zu­rum) and links have already been installed. In these 10 cities, the capacity of cable TV is reached 382,326 while the total number of subscribers amounted to 133,110 Individual subscribers and subscriptions for buildings are be­ing pro­ces­sed.   

9 cities of capacity: 2. 178.364

10 cities of  capacity 382.326

9 cities of Subscribers: 994.263 (Dec. 2004)

10 cities of Subscribers: 133.110 (Dec. 2004)

Testing procedures and the selection of appropriate Cable Modem standards for throughout the entire network have been completed and (the Cable Modem) a data-internet access services over the system have begun in some regions, 42.700 modem subscribers (Dec. 2004)

For of digital TV service a Super Headed system installed in Istanbul in 2004. The system is capable of broadcasting digital 48 channels. These 48 channels are transmitted to the Ankara, Adana and Konya via transmission system. In the currently the test signal is available at these cities. In next phases other cities will also be covered.

Cable TV services have been provided in 19 cities namely, Ankara, Istanbul, Bursa, Antalya, Konya, Adana, Izmir, Kayseri, Balıkesir, Denizli, Erzurum, Eskişehir, Mersin, Samsun, Tekirdağ, Yalova, Zonguldak, Gaziantep, Kocaeli and 9 provinces, Tarsus, Gebze, Korfez, Cerkezkoy, Corlu, Bandırma, Ciftlikkoy, and Gölcük on the revenue sharing since 1997.

The cable TV network has been put into service and enables the transmission 52 television program broadcasts in Ankara, İstanbul, İzmir, Bursa, Adana, Gaziantep, Konya, Kayseri, Adana and 60 television program broadcasts in Eskişehir, Mersin-Tarsus, Kocaeli-Gölcük-Körfez-Gebze, Zonguldak-Karadeniz Ereğli, Denizli, Balikesir-Bandirma, Samsun, Adapazari, Tekirdağ-Corlu-Cerkezkoy, Erzurum, Yalova-Cinarcik-Ciftlikköy).

Local TV Program Channels for 19 cities: Turkish TV, TGRT, STAR TV, CINE-5, NTV, KANAL 6, SHOW TV, KANAL A, TRT1, TRT 2, TRT 3, TRT 4, TRT INT, KANAL 7, EY TV, SAMANYOLU, CNBC-e, NUMBER ONE, HABER TURK, OLAY TV, SKY TURK, CNN TURK, DISCOVERY CHANNEL, DREAM, TV 8, ATV, NR+, KANAL TURK, EXPO CHANNEL, FB TV, TGRT HABER, POWER TURK, KANAL1.

Local TV Program Channels for only 9 cities:

FLASH TV and MESAJ TV

Local TV Program Channels for 10 cities:

GALA, VIVA, METRO+, SİNEKLASİK, DİZİ TV, SUPER SPORT, GALAKSİ, MMC EUROTURK, BJK, YEŞİLÇAM TV.

Foreign TV Program Channels for 19 cities:

CNN, BBC PRIME, NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC, CNBC, MTV, BBC WORLD, EUROSPORT, RTL, JETİX, TVE, VH1, NBA and AZ TV has been transmitted only in 14 cities (Ankara, İstanbul, Izmir, Samsun, Kayseri, Eskisehir, Erzurum, Mersin, Kocaeli, Adana, Antalya, Bursa, Gaziantep and Konya )

Local TV Program channels have been transmitted based on city:

IZMIR TV (Izmir), EGE TV (Izmir), YENI TV (Izmir), SKY TV (İzmir), KANAL 5 (Gaziantep), OLAY TV (Gaziantep), AS TV (Bursa),  AKDENİZ TV (Adana), KANAL A (Adana), ÇUKUROVA TV (Adana), KTV (Adana), KON TV (Konya), ERCIYES TV (Kayseri), ELİF TV (Kayseri), KANAL 38 (Kayseri), DEHA TV (Denizli), ART TV (Denizli), MMC TV WORLD (Istanbul), 41 TV (Kocaeli), KANAL VIP (Antalya), ERT TV (Zonguldak), SUN TV (Mersin).

INSTITUTIONS AFFILIATED WITH RADIO-TELEVISION 

* Anadolu Newspaper, Radio and Television Publishers' and Broadcasters' Union  

Address (Center) : Sultan Orhan Mah.1113 Sok.

                                No:15 Gebze/KOCAELİ

Tel                         : +90 (262) 6414399-6414605

Fax                        : +90 (262) 6414605

Web                      : www.agrt.net

E-mail                   : iskahraman60@mynet.com

 

Radio-TV Journalists' Association

 

Address            : Büklüm Sok.No:6/7
                              K.Dere/ANKARA
Tel                     : +90 (312) 4197135-36
Fax                    : +90 (312) 4197156

 

Radio and TV Publishers' Association

 

Address          : TRT Or-An Sitesi C Blok
                           No:640 ANKARA
Tel                   : +90 (312) 4912561-4904300/2494
Fax                  : +90 (312) 4912561

 

Radio Publishers’ Association

 

Address        : Meşrutiyet Cad. Bayındır 2 Sok.

                        No:59/3-A Kızılay/ANKARA

Tel                 : +90 (312) 2200970

Fax                : +90 (312) 2878483

Web              : www.rayad.org

E-Mail           : habibe@rayad.org

 

 

TV Publishers’ Association

 

Address     : Cevdet Paşa Cad.İnşırah Sok.No:1 Kat:1

                      Bebek/İSTANBUL

Tel/Fax.......: +90 (212) 3585958-3585969

E-Mail........: tvyd@kablonet.com.tr

 

Private Radio And TV Publishers' Association

Address: Mahatma Gandi Caddesi. No: 67/8 G.O.P

 Tel………………… +90 (312) 447 77 50

Fax…………………+90 (312) 447 77 53

*Theatre and TV Authors' Union

Address : Yıldız Sarayı  Beşiktaş/İstanbul

Tel: +90 (212) 259 16 36

Fax : +90 (212) 258 77 00 

*Television Correspondents' Union

Address: Ortaköy Dereboyu Cad. Refik Tamer Sok. No: 19 K: 1 Beşiktaş/İstanbul

Tel: +90 (212) 232 00 00

Fax: +90 (212) 225 85 04 

*Television Cameramen's Union 

Address: Yunus Emre Kültür Merkezi Bakırköy/İstanbul

Tel: +90 (212) 232 00 00

Fax: +90 (212) 225 85 04

 

Local Televisions’ Union

 

Address       : Cevat Dündar Cad.

                     No:15/39 Ostim/ANKARA

Tel               : +90 (312) 3856361-62

Fax              : +90 (312) 3854554

Web             : www.ytb.org.tr

E-Mail          : sinanburhan@hotmail.com