The 1990s refers to the years 1990 to 1999; the last decade of the 20th Century. The 90s were marked with rapid progression of globalization and global capitalism following the collapse of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War. Key forces shaping the decade were the Gulf War; popularization of Personal Computer and Internet leading to the dot.com boom.
Events and trends
While optimism and hopes were high following the collapse of Communism, the backlash of the Cold War's effect was only beginning, precipitating the continuation of terrorism in Third World regions that were once the frontlines for American and Soviet foreign politics, particularly in Asia. However, during the 1990s many First World economies such as the United States, Canada, Ireland, Australia, and South Korea experienced steady economic growth for nearly the entire decade. The United Kingdom, after the recession of 1991-92 and Black Wednesday, experienced a run of 51 consecutive quarters of economic growth that stretched into the new millenium. Even less affluent nations such as Malaysia saw tremendous improvements in economic prosperity and quality of life during the 1990s. Many countries, institutions, companies, and organizations also viewed the 90s decade as "a prosperous time", meaning that almost all of them rebounded after many years of failure. Some examples include Apple Computer's revival of power after being at the edge of bankruptcy, breakthroughs in many fields of technology that includes the Internet, virtual reality. Oil and Gas was discovered in many countries and Pope John Paul II's papacy reached its peak.Nevertheless, the 1990s brought tragic conflicts as well, like the Balkan Wars, the Rwandan genocide, the Battle of Mogadishu in Somalia and the first Gulf War.
Criticism/Backlash of the DecadeDespite denials from various sociologists and media pundits, some feel that the 90s were an era of increasing materialism and growing hypocrisy continued from the 1980s. In general it could still be said that the mindset of the 1980s and 1990s were more or less the same. The 1990s are also widely critized for their controversial pop culture obsessed with gore, sex, violence, and language, along with the 2000s to a somewhat lesser extent. The 1990s nonetheless have a very positive receiving into the 2000s and are still considered quite "modern" even as of 2006, with many genres of media from the decade still being quite cool among youth during the 2000s as no great revolutions in pop culture have occurred for some time and only moderate backlash of the decade itself has yet occurred. Also, while not a criticism of the decade per se, some people see the 1990s as the beginning of the 21st Century rather than the end of the 20th Century in an abstract sense based on the fact that the Cold War, a definitive phoenomenon of the 20th Century, was over by about 1991 and the tech boom began to take off a couple years after, and very 21st Century events such as the rise of the Internet and other information technologies and the expansion of Islamic terrorism began to become prominent in the 1990s.
- The Pentium processor is developed by Intel.
- Microsoft introduces Windows 95 to the market, which gained immediate popularity.
- Explosive growth of the Internet, decrease in the cost of computers and other technology.
- Advancements with computer modems, ISDN, cable modems and DSL lead to faster connection to the Internet.
- The development of web browsers such as Netscape and Internet Explorer makes surfing the World Wide Web easier and more user friendly.
- The Java programming language is developed by Sun Microsystems.
- Businesses begin E-commerce websites; companies such as Amazon.com, eBay, AOL, and Yahoo! grew rapidly on the Internet.
- Cell phones burst in popularity and decrease in size, becoming a necessity for modern life.
- Pagers and PDAs become popular communication tools.
- E-mail becomes popular; as a result Microsoft acquires the popular Hotmail.com.
- Year 2000 problem (commonly known as Y2K).
- Microsoft Windows operating system becomes virtually ubiquitous on IBM PCs.
- Development of free operating system Linux is started.
- Breakthrough of compact disc technology, introduced in the 1980s, later branching into DVD.
- Detection of extrasolar planets orbiting stars other than the sun.
- The cloning of Dolly the sheep is achieved.
- Human Genome Project begun.
- DNA identification of individuals finds wide application in criminal law.
- Hubble Space Telescope launched in 1990; revolutionizes astronomy.
- Protease inhibitors introduced allowing HAART therapy against HIV; drastically reduces AIDS mortality.
- NASA's spacecraft Pathfinder lands on Mars and deploys a small roving vehicle, Sojourner, that analyzes the planet's geology and atmosphere.
- The Hale-Bopp comet swings past the sun for the first time in 4,200 years.
- Development of biodegradable products, replacing products made from styrofoam; advanced methods for recycling of waste products (such as paper, glass, aluminum) are developed.
- Genetically engineered crops are developed for commercial use.
- Discovery of dark matter, dark energy, and brown dwarves, and first confirmation of black holes.
- The Galileo probe orbits Jupiter, studying the planet and its moons extensively.
War, peace, and politics
- Reunification of Germany on October 3 1990.
- End of apartheid in South Africa (1990) and election of ANC government of Nelson Mandela.
- Gulf War (resulting from Iraq's invasion of Kuwait) and United Nations embargo on Iraq in 1991.
- North Yemen and South Yemen merge to form Yemen (1991).
- Break up of the Soviet Union in 1991 - the end of the Cold War, United States as sole world superpower.
- The bombing of the World Trade Center in 1993 by an explosive-filled van leads to awareness of international terrorism as a rising threat.
- Eritrea gains independence from Ethiopia (1993).
- European Union is declared in 1992.
- Military actions in Somalia in 1993 lead to questions of the United States' role as a policing officer of the world. (see also, Black Hawk Down).
- Rwandan genocide kills one million people, in 1994.
- The birth of the "Second Republic" in Italy, with the Mani Pulite investigations of 1994.
- Peace process begins in Northern Ireland in 1995
- Balkan war in former Yugoslavia in 1995.
- A decade of women presidents in the Republic of Ireland.
- The United Kingdom hands sovereignty of Hong Kong to the People's Republic of China on July 1, 1997.
- U.S. Congressman Newt Gingrich crafts his manifesto "Contract with America", leading his Republican Party to become the controlling majority in the U.S. House of Representatives.
- U.S. president Bill Clinton's sex scandal with Monica Lewinsky and his impeachment trial in 1998, which lasts the entire year.
- Anti-globalization protests.
- The Second Congo War start in 1998 in central Africa and includes 5 different cultures and 7 different nations. It goes on until 2002.
- In May 1999, Pakistan sends troops covertly to occupy strategic peaks in Kashmir. A month later the Kargil War with India results in a political fiasco for Nawaz Sharif, followed by a military withdrawal to the Line of Control. The incident leads to a military coup in October in which the Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif is ousted by Army Chief Pervez Musharraf.
- Portugal hands sovereignty of Macau to the People's Republic of China on December 20, 1999.
- Development of GATT, the World Trade Organization and other global economic institutions.
- The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), which phases out trade barriers between the United States, Mexico and Canada is signed into law by U.S. President Bill Clinton.
- After 1992 the booming of the US stock market, in reference to which Alan Greenspan coined the memorable phrase "irrational exuberance", which eventually stretched into the dot-com boom / dot-com bubble.
- Financial crisis hits East and Southeast Asia in 1997 and 1998 after a long period of phenomenal economic development. See East Asian Tigers.
Trends/Various=* The Gay 1990s The 1990s saw an increase in gay visibility. Tv shows like thirtysomething,My So called Life and Ellen featured gay characters, Movies like The Birdcage,In and Out and Kiss Me Guido saw mainstream sucess, and celebrities like K.D Lang and George Michael coming out of the closet. Even President Bill Clinton generally held a pro gay rights viewpoint.* Douglas Coupland publishes the novel ''Generation X: Tales for an Accelerated Culture'', popularizing the term Generation X as the name of the generation born in the late 1960s and early 1970s (then college-age).*Reality television explodes on MTV with the popularity of ''The Real World'' (1992-); along with ''Road Rules'' (1995-), ''Real World/Road Rules Challenge'' (1998), and ''Real World'' reunions, these shows remained popular throughout the 1990s.* Video games become more advanced, but still a far cry from the systems of the 2000s. The more influential game systems of the Nineties include the Super Nintendo Entertainment System, the Sony Playstation, and the Sega Dreamcast.* Extreme sports reached a new height in popularity, and by 1995, were given their own annual tournament on US cable network ESPN, the X-Games.* Black becomes a dominant color in fashion, among several dark colors (see Goth, ''The Matrix'', and Regis Philbin).* Dogma 95 becomes the leading European artistic film movement by the end of the decade.* Professional wrestling became extremely popular. After scandals and near bankruptcy due to competition from ''World Championship Wrestling'' (WCW), the ''World Wrestling Federation'' was repackaged more edgier and realistic. Superstars such as Stone Cold Steve Austin, The Rock, Mick Foley, Steve Borden (Sting), Bill Goldberg, Raven, Sabu and others became household names. At the same time, ''Extreme Championship Wrestling'' (ECW) led wrestling's entry into edgier angles.* Recreational sports such as rock climbing, mountain biking, sky diving, snowboarding, mountain climbing, bungee jumping, in-line skating, kayaking and rowing become hugely popular.* Extended alcohol sales are implemented to reduce alcohol abuse.* The 1990s remains a somewhat "cool" decade into the 2000s as many aspects of the 90s continue to be important into the next decade, see New Nineties.=
Music=*Grunge music, popularized by Nirvana, big from the fall of 1991 through 1994 but influential to rock up to 2005 (see Post-Grunge), Grunge movement followed by the Britpop movement of about 1995 to 1997 which was in turn followed by numetal.*Teen pop held over from the late 1980s popular into 1990, returns with Backstreet Boys and Spice Girls in latter third of the decade*Radiohead comes to be one of the most critically and commercially loved bands since The Beatles. Two of their albums, The Bends and Ok Computer top lists at the end of the decade.* Rap music gains widespread mainstream acceptance throughout the decade, starting with the success of MC Hammer, Public Enemy and Vanilla Ice around 1989-91 and ending with hip-hop inspired by Puff Daddy, Dr. Dre and Eminem c. 1997-99. By 1999 hip hop had definitely passed rock and roll in popularity.* Music festivals such as Lollapalooza became popular; a fusing of genres from alternative rock, rap, punk rock and garage bands.*Rock music begins to be referred to as "alternative" as it is originated in 1980s underground rock and 1970s punk and begins to lose popularity to hip hop.* Trance, techno and electronica music becomes widely popular at rave parties in Europe/USA and in pop culture, particularly later in the decade. The drug Ecstasy, (aka MDMA or 'X') is popularized by rave culture. *1980s backlash, beginning in about 1991 and lasting into the 2000s. During most of the 1990s anything "Eighties" was considered to be ultimately uncool.*Music becomes more profane, by end of decade a Parental Advisory sticker becomes acceptable rather than controversial.* In America, country music becomes more mainstream with popular chart topping artist such as Garth Brooks, Shania Twain, LeAnn Rimes, Faith Hill, and Tim McGraw. The trend decreases somewhat in the 2000s.=
Television=*Japanimation becomes popular in the United States in the late 1990s with shows Pokemon, Dragonball Z, and Cowboy Bebop.* Mighty Morphin' Power Rangers gains popularity with kids in the mid 90s; leading to entire Power Rangers series. Barney and Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles also popular*MTV moves away from music videos and into original television shows such as The Real World, which is cited as the inspiration for the Reality TV boom of the 2000s.* Cartoons aimed at an adult audience become popular. Among the most successful are ''The Simpsons'' (1989-), ''Ren & Stimpy'' (1991-1995), ''Beavis and Butt-head'' (1993-1997), ''South Park'' (1997-), ''King of the Hill'' (1997-), and ''Family Guy'' (1999-2002, 2005-).* Television networks increase programs aimed at twenty- and thirty-somethings. Some of the popular are ''Beverly Hills 90210'' (1990-2000), ''Melrose Place'' (1992-1999), ''Party of Five'' (1994-2000), ''Ally McBeal'' (1997-2002), ''Friends'' (1994-2004), and ''Seinfeld'' (1989-1998).* Notable television sitcoms aimed at the teen/preteen market include ''Boy Meets World'' (1993-2000), ''Full House'' (1987-1995), ''Family Matters'' (1989-1998), and ''Third Rock From The Sun'' (1996-2001), among many others.* Major 1990s slang words/phrases, mostly related to hip hop include "homie", "phat", "da bomb", "Audi 5000", "tight", "word to your mother", "Talk to the hand", "You go girl!", and "Wasssuppp!"
Other significant events
- The massive global human impact on the environment, which first garnered attention in the 60s, was widely acknowledged.
- Divorce and scandal rocked the British Royal House of Windsor.
- The assassination of Selena Quintanilla.
- Sex and violence in the media increase, especially in the late part of the decade. Profanity in music reaches peak in the late 90s.
- O.J. Simpson's trial, described in the media as the "trial of the century".
- ''You go, girl!'' becomes a popular phrase in the media as feminism is more widely accepted and publicised in the media with The Spice Girls, the WNBA, women's boxing, ''Sex and the City'' and others showcasing modern femininity.
- The Vieques controversy.
- The Oklahoma City Bombing, the bombing of a federal building in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, killing 168.
- The Waco massacre prompts a nationwide debate in the U.S. about the freedom of association right of the Michigan Militia, Montana Militia and other radical groups.
- Crime levels in the U.S. peak in 1991, begin to fall afterwards to the lowest levels since the late 1960s at end of decade.
- Drug use in the U.S. reaches an all-time low in 1992 before increasing, reaching its peak in 1997 before declining again.
- Princess Diana dies in a car accident in 1997. Debates of accident vs assassination rage.
- Mother Teresa, the Roman Catholic nun who won the Nobel Peace Prize, dies at age 87.
- 21-year-old Golfer Tiger Woods wins the Masters Tournament by a record 12 strokes; becoming the youngest and first African-American to win the Masters.
- The Omagh bombing in Omagh, County Tyrone, Ireland which kills 29 civilians (including a woman pregnant with twins) and injures hundreds more.
- John F. Kennedy, Jr., his wife Carolyn Bessette and sister-in-law Lauren Bessette are killed when Kennedy's private plane crashes off the coast of Martha's Vineyard.
- American cyclist Lance Armstrong wins his first Tour de France in 1999, less than two years after battling testicular cancer.
- Beer keg registration becomes popular public policy in U.S.
- Prime Minister Bob Hawke (Australia)
- Prime Minister Paul Keating (Australia)
- Prime Minister John Howard (Australia)
- President Fernando Affonso Collor de Mello (Brazil)
- President Itamar Franco (Brazil)
- President Fernando Henrique Cardoso (Brazil)
- Prime Minister Brian Mulroney (Canada)
- Prime Minister Kim Campbell (Canada)
- Prime Minister Jean Chrétien (Canada)
- "Paramount Leader" Deng Xiaoping (People's Republic of China)
- President Jiang Zemin (People's Republic of China)
- President Lee Teng-hui (Republic of China on Taiwan)
- President Franjo Tuđman (Croatia)
- Prime Minister Poul Nyrup Rasmussen (Denmark)
- President Hosni Mubarak (Egypt)
- President François Mitterrand (France)
- President Jacques Chirac (France)
- Chancellor Helmut Kohl (Germany)
- Chancellor Gerhard Schröder (Germany)
- Governor David Clive Wilson (Hong Kong (under British rule))
- Governor Christopher Francis Patten (Hong Kong (under British rule))
- Chief Executive Tung Chee Hwa (Hong Kong, People's Republic of China)
- Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee (India)
- President Mohammad Khatami (Iran)
- President Saddam Hussein (Iraq)
- Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin (Israel)
- Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu (Israel)
- Emperor Akihito (Japan)
- Governor Vasco Joaquim Rocha Vieira (Macau (under Portuguese rule))
- Chief Executive Edmund Ho (Macau, People's Republic of China)
- President Yasser Arafat (Palestinian Authority)
- Pope Pope John Paul II
- President Corazon Aquino (Philippines)
- President Fidel Ramos (Philippines)
- President Joseph Estrada (Philippines)
- Prime Minister Mike Moore (New Zealand)
- Prime Minister Jim Bolger (New Zealand)
- Prime Minister Jenny Shipley (New Zealand)
- Prime Minister Helen Clark (New Zealand)
- President Ion Iliescu (Romania)
- President Emil Constantinescu (Romania)
- President Boris Yeltsin (Russia)
- Taoiseach Charles Haughey (Republic of Ireland)
- Taoiseach Albert Reynolds (Republic of Ireland)
- Taoiseach John Bruton (Republic of Ireland)
- Taoiseach Bertie Ahern (Republic of Ireland)
- President Boris Yeltsin (Russia)
- President Wee Kim Wee (Singapore)
- President Ong Teng Cheong (Singapore)
- President Sellapan Ramanathan (Singapore)
- President Frederik Willem de Klerk (South Africa)
- President Nelson Mandela (South Africa)
- President Kim Dae-jung (South Korea)
- President Mikhail Gorbachev (Soviet Union)
- King Juan Carlos I (Spain)
- President Felipe González (Spain)
- President José María Aznar (Spain)
- Queen Elizabeth II (United Kingdom et al.)
- Prime Minister John Major (United Kingdom)
- Prime Minister Tony Blair (United Kingdom)
- President George H.W. Bush (United States)
- President Bill Clinton (United States)
- President Slobodan Milošević (Federal Republic of Yugoslavia)
Jim Carrey as Ace Ventura]]
Mariah Carey'''#1's''' (1998)]]
- Ace of Base
- Adam Sandler
- Alice in Chains
- Alanis Morrissette (''Jagged Little Pill'')
- Annie Lennox
- Anthony Hopkins (''The Silence of the Lambs'', ''Titus'')
- Ashley Judd
- Beavis and Butt-Head
- Ben Affleck (''Good Will Hunting'')
- Bill Hicks
- Billy Bob Thornton
- Boyz II Men
- Bret Hart
- Britney Spears
- Bruce Willis (the ''Die Hard'' series, ''Pulp Fiction'')
- Mariah Carey
- Dana Carvey (''Wayne's World'')
- Dean Cain
- Carmen Electra
- Christina Aguilera
- Cuba Gooding Jr (''Boyz N the Hood'', ''Jerry Maguire'')
- Amy Grant
- Dave Matthews Band
- Demi Moore (''Ghost'', ''Striptease'', ''A Few Good Men'')
- Denzel Washington ('' Malcolm X'', ''Mo' Better Blues'', ''Philadelphia'')
- Destiny's Child (''Destiny's Child'', ''The Writing's On The Wall'')
- Ellen DeGeneres (''Ellen'')
- Elizabeth Berkley (''Saved by the Bell'', ''Showgirls'')
- The Fugees
- Green Day (''Dookie'', ''Nimrod'')
- Gwyneth Paltrow (''Shakespeare in Love'', ''The Talented Mr. Ripley'', ''Se7en'')
- Liam Gallagher of Oasis
- Noel Gallagher of Oasis
- Teri Hatcher
- Whitney Houston (''The Bodyguard'', ''Waiting to Exhale'')
- Halle Berry (''Introducing Dorothy Dandridge'',''Bullworth'')
- Harrison Ford
- Helen Hunt (''Mad About You'', ''Twister'', ''As Good as It Gets'')
- Hootie & The Blowfish
- Jack Nicholson
- Jerry Seinfeld (''Seinfeld'')
- Jerry Springer
- Jim Carrey (''Ace Ventura: Pet Detective'', ''The Mask'')
- Julia Roberts (''Pretty Woman'', ''Notting Hill'')
- Kate Winslet (''Titanic'')
- Keanu Reeves (''The Matrix'')
- Kurt Cobain
- Leonardo DiCaprio (''Titanic'')
- Liam Neeson
- Macaulay Culkin (''Home Alone'')
- The Undertaker
- Martin Lawrence (''House Party'', ''Martin'', ''Bad Boys'')
- Mary J Blige (''What's the 411?'')
- Matt Damon (''Good Will Hunting'')
- Meg Ryan
- Mel Gibson (''Braveheart'')
- Michael Jackson
- Michael Keaton
- Michelle Pfeiffer (''The Age of Innocence'', ''Batman Returns'')
- Mike Myers (''Wayne's World'', ''Saturday Night Live'', '' Austin Powers'')
- Mira Sorvino
- Nicole Kidman (''My Life'', ''Eyes Wide Shut'')
- Notorious B.I.G.
- Phil Collins
- Pamela Anderson (''Baywatch'')
- Pearl Jam
- "Image:Princesymbol.png" The artist formerly known as Prince
- Queen Latifah (''Living Single'', ''Set It Off'')
- Quentin Tarantino (''Pulp Fiction'')
- Ralph Fiennes (''Schindler's List'', ''The English Patient'')
- Jeri Ryan (''Star Trek: Voyager'')
- Samuel L. Jackson (''Goodfellas'', ''Pulp Fiction'')
- Sandra Bullock (''Speed'', ''A Time to Kill'')
- Shawn Michaels
- Spice Girls
- Stone Cold Steve Austin
- Tim Burton (''Edward Scissorhands'', ''Batman Returns'')
- Tiffani-Amber Thiessen (''Saved by the Bell'','' Beverly Hills 90210 '')
- TLC (Lisa "Left-Eye" Lopes, T-Boz, Rozonda "Chilli" Thomas)
- Tom Hanks (''Forrest Gump'', ''Saving Private Ryan'', ''Philadelphia'', ''Toy Story'', ''The Green Mile'')
- Toni Braxton ('' Toni Braxton (album) '')
- U2 (''Achtung Baby'')
- Uma Thurman (''Pulp Fiction'')
- Whoopi Goldberg (''Sister Act'', ''Ghost'', ''Ghosts of Mississippi'', ''Hollywood Squares'')
- Will Smith (''The Fresh Prince of Bel Air'', ''''Men In Black'''')
- ''Austin Powers: International Man of Mystery'' (1997)
- ''The Blair Witch Project'' (1999)
- ''Beauty and the Beast'' (1991)
- ''Beavis and Butt-Head Do America'' (1996)
- ''The Bodyguard'' (1992)
- ''Braveheart'' (1995)
- ''Clueless'' (1995)
- ''The Crying Game'' (1992)
- ''A Few Good Men'' (1992)
- ''Fight Club'' (1999)
- ''Forrest Gump'' (1994)
- ''Goodfellas'' (1990)
- ''Home Alone'' (1990)
- ''Jurassic Park'' (1993)
- ''I Know What You Did Last Summer'' (1997)
- '' Independence Day'' (1996)
- '' Kids'' (1995)
- '' Men In Black'' (1997)
- '' Scream'' (1996)
- ''Sleepless in Seattle'' (1993)
- ''Star Trek: First Contact'' (1996)
- ''Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace'' (1999)
- ''The Matrix'' (1999)
- ''Terminator 2: Judgment Day'' (1991)
- ''The Lion King'' (1994)
- ''The Shawshank Redemption'' (1994)
- ''The Sixth Sense'' (1999)
- ''The Silence of the Lambs'' (1991)
- ''Thelma & Louise'' (1991)
- '' Titanic'' (1997)
- ''Toy Story'' (1995)
- ''Waiting for Guffman'' (1996)
- ''Waiting to Exhale'' (1995)
- ''Wayne's World'' (1992)
- ''The Usual Suspects'' (1995)
- ''Unforgiven'' (1992)
Books & Literature''See also'' : 1990s Books* The Bridges of Madison County, by Robert James Waller* Chicken Soup for the Soul, by Jack Canfield and Mark Victor Hansen
- The Client, by John Grisham
- Cold Mountain, by Charles Frazier
- Divine Secrets of the Ya-Ya Sisterhood , by Rebecca Wells
- The Firm, by John Grisham
- The Greatest Generation, by Tom Brokaw
- Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone, by J. K. Rowling
- How to Make an American Quilt, by Whitney Otto
- It Takes A Village, by Hillary Clinton
- Jazz, by Toni Morrison
- Men Are From Mars, Women Are From Venus, by John Gray
- The Perfect Storm, by Sebastian Junger
- The Way Things Ought to Be, by Rush Limbaugh
- The Sum of All Fears, by Tom Clancy
; American Football :
: Troy Aikman
: Terrell Davis
: John Elway
: Brett Favre
: Jim Kelly
: Dan Marino
: Joe Montana
: Jerry Rice
: Bruce Smith
: Emmitt Smith
: Barry Sanders
: Reggie White
: Steve Young; Athletics :
: Sergey Bubka
: Linford Christie
: Haile Gebrselassie
: Hicham El Guerrouj
: Michael Johnson ; Australian Rules Football :
: Tony Lockett ; Baseball :
: Roger Clemens
: Derek Jeter
: Greg Maddux
: Mark McGwire
: Cal Ripken Jr
: Sammy Sosa
: Larry Walker ; Basketball :
: Charles Barkley
: Larry Bird
: Kobe Bryant
: Tim Duncan
: Kevin Garnett
: Allen Iverson
: Michael Jordan
: Karl Malone
: Shaquille O'Neal
: Scottie Pippen
: David Robinson
: Dennis Rodman
: John Stockton; Boxing :
: Oscar De La Hoya
: George Foreman
: Evander Holyfield
: Mike Tyson; Cricket :
: Curtly Ambrose
: Allan Donald
: Ian Healy
: Brian Lara
: Glenn McGrath
: Muttiah Muralitharan
: Mark Taylor
: Sachin Tendulkar
: Courtney Walsh
: Shane Warne
: Steve Waugh ; Cycling :
: Marco Pantani
: Lance Armstrong
: Miguel Induráin ; Football (soccer):
: Dennis Bergkamp
: Ryan Giggs
: Oliver Kahn
: Jurgen Klinsmann
: Paolo Maldini
: Alan Shearer
: George Weah
: Zinedine Zidane; Golf :
: Tiger Woods ; Ice Hockey :
: Wayne Gretzky ; Motor Sport :
: Dale Earnhardt
: Jeff Gordon
: Michael Schumacher
: Ayrton Senna ; Rowing
: Steve Redgrave
: Matthew Pinsent; Rugby Union :
: Jonah Lomu; Rugby League :
: Andrew Johns
: Brad Fittler; Skating :
: Michelle Kwan
: Nancy Kerrigan; Alpine Skiing :
: Alberto Tomba; Nordic Skiing :
: Bjørn Dæhlie; Tennis :
: Andre Agassi
: Jennifer Capriati
: Steffi Graf
: Martina Hingis
: Anna Kournikova
: Pete Sampras
: Monica Seleš
: Serena Williams