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IBRA Version 4.0

An Interim Biogeographic Regionalisation for Australia: A Framework for Setting Priorities in the National Reserves System Cooperative Program

R Thackway and I D Cresswell (Editors)
Australian Nature Conservation Agency, 1995
Version 4.0


Appendix 1:

Description of IBRA Regions for Australia

[A-F] [G-L] [M-R] [S-Z]
AA Australian Alps

A series of high elevation plateaux capping the South Eastern Highlands (Region SEH) and the southern tablelands in NSW. The geology consists largely of granitic and basaltic rocks. Vegetation is dominated by alpine herbfields, and other treeless communities, snow gum woodlands and montane forests dominated by alpine ash.

AW Avon Wheatbelt

Area of active drainage dissecting a Tertiary plateau in Yilgarn Craton. Gently undulating landscape of low relief. Proteaceous scrub-heaths, rich in endemics, on residual lateritic uplands and derived sandplains; mixed eucalypt, Allocasuarina huegeliana and Jam-York Gum woodlands on Quaternary alluvials and eluvials. Semi-arid (Dry) Warm Mediterranean.

BEN Ben Lomond

Moist and dry subhumid warm coastal plains mantled in siliceous gravels, and humid cool/cold mountain ranges comprised of Devonian granites and Silurian-Devonian siltstones and mudstones, covered with sandy loams and siliceous gravels. Lowland vegetation comprising mainly open sclerophyll woodlands and heath while the upper slopes consist of wet sclerophyll forests, some rainforest and alpine vegetation in the highest regions. Land use primarily forestry, mining and agriculture (grazing).

BHC Broken Hill Complex

Hills and colluvial fans on Proterozoic rocks; desert loams and red clays, lithosols and calcareous red earths; supporting chenopod shrublands Maireana spp. - Atriplex spp. shrublands, and mulga open shrublands Acacia aneura.

BBN Brigalow Belt North

Permian volcanics and Permian-Triassic sediments of the Bowen and Galilee Basins, Carboniferous and Devonian sediments and volcanics of the Drummond Basin and coastal blocks, Cambrian and Ordovician rocks of the Anakie inlier and associated Tertiary deposits. Subhumid to semiarid. Woodlands of ironbarks (E. melanophloia, E. crebra), poplar box and Brown's box (E. populnea, E. brownii) and brigalow (Acacia harpophylla), blackwood (A. Argyrodendron) and gidgee (A. cambagei). Region reaches the coast in the dry caostal corridor of Proserpine - Townsville.

BBS Brigalow Belt South

Predominantly Jurassic and younger deposits of the Great Artesian Basin and Tertiary deposits with elevated basalt flows. Subhumid. Eucalyptus woodlands and open forests of ironbarks, poplar box, spotted gum (E. maculata), cypress pine (Callitris glaucophylla), Bloodwoods (eg. E. trachyphloia, E. hendersonii ms) brigalow-belah forests (E. harpophylla, Casuarina cristata) and semi-evergreen vine thicket.

BRT Burt Plain

Plains and low rocky ranges of Pre-Cambrian granites with mulga and other acacia woodlands on red earths.

CA Central Arnhem

Gently sloping terrain and low hills on Cretaceous sandstones and siltstones and lateritised Tertiary material; yellow earthy sands and shallow stony sands; Darwin Woollybutt and Darwin Stringybark open forest to woodland with grass understorey.

CAR Carnarvon

Quaternary alluvial, aeolian and marine sediments overlying Cretaceous strata. A mosaic of saline alluvial plains with samphire and saltbush low shrublands, Bowgada low woodland on sandy ridges and plains, Snakewood scrubs on clay flats, and tree to shrub steppe over hummock grasslands on and between red sand dune fields. Limestone strata with Acacia startii / bivenosa shrublands outcrop in the north, where extensive tidal flats in sheltered embayments support Mangal. Arid

CH Central Highlands

Perhumid cool to cold high plateau surface underlain by Jurassic dolerite and Tertiary basalts, with skeletal soils to alluvium in valleys, and humid cool to cold lower plateau surface underlain by Jurassic dolerite, Permo-Triassic sediments and Tertiary basalts, with sandy to clay loam soils. Vegetation ranging from dry sclerophyll woodlands and wet sclerophyll forest on the lower plateau to alpine complexes and coniferous forest patches on the higher plateau. Land use a combination of conservation, forestry, agriculture (grazing) and water catchment.

CHC Channel Country

Low hills on Cretaceous sediments; forbfields and Mitchell grass downs, and intervening braided river systems of coolibah E.coolibah woodlands and lignum/saltbush Muehlenbeckia sp./Chenopodium sp. shrublands. (Includes small areas of sand plains.)

CK Central Kimberley

Hilly to mountainous country with parallel siliceous ranges of Proterozoic sedimentary rocks with skeletal sandy soils supporting Plectrachne pungens hummock grasses with scattered trees, and with earths on Proterozoic volcanics in valleys supporting Ribbon Grass with scattered trees. Open forests of River Gum and Pandanus occur along drainage lines. Dry hot tropical, sub-humid to semi-arid, summer rainfall.

CMC Central Mackay Coast

Humid tropical coastal ranges and plains. Rainforests (complex evergreen and semi-deciduous notophyll vine forest), Eucalyptus open forests and woodlands, Melaleuca spp. wetlands.

COO Coolgardie

Granite Strata of Yilgarn Craton with Archaean Greenstone intrusions in parallel belts. Drainage is occluded. Mallees and scrubs on sandplains associated with lateritised uplands, playas and granite outcrops. Diverse woodlands rich in endemic eucalypts, on low greenstone hills, valley alluvials and broad plains of calcareous earths. In the west, the scrubs are rich in endemic Proteaceae, in the east they are rich in endemic acacias. Arid to Semi-arid Warm Mediterranean.

CP Cobar Peneplain

Plains and low hills on Palaeozoic rocks; earths, lithosols; E. populnea and E. intertexta woodlands.

CR Central Ranges

High proportion of Proterozoic ranges and derived soil plains, interspersed with red Quaternary sandplains. The sandplains support low open woodlands of either Desert Oak or Mulga over Triodia basedowii hummock grasslands. Low open woodlands of Ironwood (Acacia estrophiolata) and Corkwoods (Hakea spp.) over tussock and hummock grasses often fringe ranges. The ranges support mixed wattle scrub or Callitris glaucophylla woodlands over hummock and tussock grasslands. Arid, with summer and winter rain.

CYP Cape York Peninsula

Low hills and plains, tropical humid/maritime; Eucalyptus and Melaleuca woodlands.

DAB Daly Basin

Gently undulating plains and scattered low plateau remnants on Palaeozoic sandstones, siltstones and limestones; neutral loamy and sandy red earths; Darwin Stringybark and Darwin Woollybutt open forest with perennial and annual grass understorey.

DE D'Entrecasteaux

Mainly humid cool mountainous areas with some undulating coastal lowlands. Permo-Triassic sediments and Jurassic dolerite, mantled with sandy to clay loams. Vegetation heavily forested, grading from mixed forest, wet sclerophyll forest and patches of rainforest in the uplands to dry sclerophyll forest and heath on the coastal lowlands. Land use primarily forestry and agriculture (grazing and cropping).

DEU Desert Uplands

Ranges and plains on dissected Tertiary surface and Triassic sandstones; woodlands of E.whitei, E.similis and E.trachyphloia.

DL Dampierland

  1. Quaternary sandplain overlying Jurassic and Mesozoic sandstones with Pindan. Hummock grasslands on hills.
  2. Quaternary marine deposits on coastal plains, with Mangal, samphire - Sporobolus grasslands, Melaleuca acacioides low forests, and Spinifex - Crotalaria strand communities.
  3. Quaternary alluvial plains associated with the Permian and Mesozoic sediments of Fitzroy Trough support tree savannas of Crysopogon - Dichanthium grasses with scattered Eucalyptus microtheca - Lysiphyllum cunninghamii. Riparian forests of River Gum and Cadjeput fringe drainages.
  4. Devonian reef limestones in the north and east support sparse tree steppe over Triodia intermedia and T. wiseana hummock grasses.

Dry hot tropical, semi-arid summer rainfall.

DRP Darling Riverine Plain

Alluvial fans and plains; summer/winter rainfall in catchments, including occasional cyclonic influence; grey clays; woodlands and open woodlands dominated by Eucalyptus spp.

EIU Einasleigh Uplands

High plateau of Palaeozoic sediments, granites, and basalts; dominated by ironbark (Eucalyptus spp) woodlands.

ESP Esperance Plains

Proteaceous Scrub and mallee heaths on sandplain overlying Eocene sediments; rich in endemics. Herbfields and heaths (rich in endemics) on abrupt granite and quartzite ranges that rise from the plain. Eucalypt woodlands occur in gullies and alluvial foot-slopes. Warm Mediterranean.

EYB Eyre and Yorke Block

Archaean basement rocks and Proterozoic sandstones overlain by undulating to occasionally hilly calcarenite and calcrete plains and areas of aeolian quartz sands, with mallee woodlands, shrublands and heaths on calcareous earths, duplex soils and calcareous to shallow sands, now largely cleared for agriculture.

FIN Finke

Arid sandplains, dissected uplands and valleys formed from Pre-Cambrian volcanics with spinifex hummock grasslands and acacia shrublands on red earths and shallow sands.

FOR Flinders and Olary Ranges

Semi-arid to arid Proterozoic ranges, alluvial fans and plains, and some outcropping volcanics, with native cypress, black oak (belah) and mallee open woodlands, Eremophila and Acacia shrublands, and bluebush/saltbush chenopod shrublands on shallow, well-drained loams and moderately-deep, well-drained red duplex soils.

FRE Freycinet

Subhumid cool to subhumid warm coastal plains and low mountain ranges comprised of Jurassic dolerite and Permo-Triassic sediments with significant areas of granite. Soils predominantly clay to sandy loams. Vegetation predominantly dry sclerophyll forest, with patches of wet sclerophyll forest, relict rainforest, coastal heath and dry coniferous forest. Land use primarily agriculture (grazing) and forestry.

FUR Furneaux

Moist subhumid warm granitic island chain, comprising coastal plains dominated by siliceous soils and low ranges with sandy loams. Vegetation comprising a gradation from heath, scrub and dry woodlands to dry sclerophyll forest with gullies of wet sclerophyll forest and rainforest remnants on the ranges. Coastal plain region heavily modified by agriculture (grazing).

GAS Gascoyne

Rugged low Proterozoic sedimentary and granite ranges divided by broad flat valleys. Open mulga woodlands occur on shallow earthy loams over hardpan on the plains, with mulga scrub and Eremophila shrublands on the shallow stony loams of the ranges. The Carnegie Salient, in the east, is characterised by extensive salt lake features supporting succulent steppes. Arid.

GAW Gawler

Semi-arid to arid, flat-topped to broadly rounded hills of the Gawler Range Volcanics and Proterozoic sediments, depositional plains and salt-encrusted lake beds, with black oak (belah) and myall low open woodlands, open mallee scrub, bluebush/saltbush open chenopod shrublands and tall mulga shrublands on shallow loams, calcareous earths and hard red duplex soils

GD Gibson Desert

Lateritised upland on flat-lying Jurassic and Cretaceous sandstones of Canning Basin. Mulga parkland over Triodia basedowii on lateritic "buckshot" plains. Mixed shrub steppe of Acacia, Hakea and Grevillea over Triodia pungens on red sand plains and dune fields. Lateritic uplands support shrub steppe in the north and mulga scrub in the south. Quaternary alluvia associated with palaeo-drainage features support Coolabah woodlands over bunch grasses. Arid, mainly summer rainfall.

GFU Gulf Fall Uplands

Undulating terrain with scattered low, steep hills on Proterozoic and Palaeozoic sedimentary rocks, often overlain by lateritised Tertiary material; skeletal soils and shallow sands; Darwin Boxwood and Variable-barked Bloodwood woodland to low open woodland with spinifex understorey.

GS Geraldton Sandplains

Mainly proteaceous scrub-heaths, rich in endemics, on the sandy earths of an extensive, undulating, lateritic sandplain mantling Permian to Cretaceous strata. Extensive York Gum and Jam woodlands occur on outwash plains associated drainage. Semi-arid (Dry) warm Mediterranean.

GSD Great Sandy Desert

Mainly tree steppe grading to shrub steppe in south; comprising open hummock grassland of Triodia pungens and Plectrachne schinzii with scattered trees of Owenia reticulata and Bloodwoods, and shrubs of Acacia spp, Grevillea wickhamii and G. refracta, on Quaternary red longitudinal sand dune fields overlying Jurassic and Cretaceous sandstones of the Canning and Armadeus Basins. Casuarina decaisneana (Desert Oak) occurs in the far east of the region. Gently undulating lateritised uplands support shrub steppe such as Acacia pachycarpa shrublands over Triodia pungens hummock grass. Calcrete and evaporite surfaces are associated with occluded palaeo-drainage systems that traverse the desert; these include extensive salt lake chains with samphire low shrublands, and Melaleuca glomerata - M. lasiandra shrublands. Monsoonal influences are apparent in the north-western sector of this region. Arid tropical with summer rain.

GUC Gulf Coastal

Gently undulating plains with scattered rugged areas on Proterozoic sandstones and Tertiary sediments; sandy red earths and shallow gravelly, sandy soils; Darwin Stringybark woodland with spinifex understorey.

GUP Gulf Plains

Marine and terrestrial deposits of the Carpentaria and Karumba basins; plains, plateaus and outwash plains; woodlands and grasslands.

GVD Great Victoria Desert

Arid active sand-ridge desert of deep Quaternary aeolian sands overlying Permian and Mesozoic strata of the Officer Basin. Tree steppe of Eucalyptus gongylocarpa, Mulga and E. youngiana over hummock grassland dominated by Triodia basedowii. Arid, with summer and winter rain.

HAM Hampton

Quaternary marine dune systems on a coastal plain of the Eucla Basin, backed by stranded limestone scarp. Areas of marine sand are also perched along the top edge of the scarp. Various mallee communities dominate the limestone scree slopes and pavements, as well as the sandy surfaces. Alluvial and calcareous plains below the scarp support eucalypt woodlands and Myall open low woodlands.

JF Jarrah Forest

Duricrusted plateau of Yilgarn Craton characterised by Jarrah-Marri forest on laterite gravels and, in the eastern part, by Marri-Wandoo woodlands on clayey soils. Eluvial and alluvial deposits support Agonis shrublands. In areas of Mesozoic sediments, Jarrah forests occur in a mosaic with a variety of species-rich shrublands. Warm Mediterranean.

LB Lofty Block

Temperate, well-defined uplands of Cambrian and Late Proterozoic marine sediments with eucalypt open forests and woodlands and heaths on mottled yellow and ironstone gravelly duplex soils in the wetter areas and red duplex soils in drier areas; now largely cleared for agriculture and urban development

LSD Little Sandy Desert

Red Quaternary dune fields with abrupt Proterozoic sandstone ranges of Bangemall Basin. Shrub steppe of acacias, Thryptomene and grevilleas over Plectrachne schinzii on sandy surfaces. Sparse shrub-steppe over Triodia basedowii on stony hills, with River Gum communities and bunch grasslands on alluvial deposits in and associated with ranges. Arid with summer rainfall.

MAC MacDonnell Ranges

High relief ranges and foothills covered with spinifex hummock grassland, sparse acacia shrublands and woodlands along watercourses.

MAL Mallee

The south-eastern part of Yilgarn Craton is gently undulating, with partially occluded drainage. Mainly mallee over myrtaceous-proteaceous heaths on duplex (sand over clay) soils. Melaleuca shrublands characterise alluvia, and Halosarcia low shrublands occur on saline alluvium. A mosaic of mixed eucalypt woodlands and mallee occur on calcareous earth plains and sandplains overlying Eocene limestone strata in the east. Semi-arid (Dry) Warm Mediterranean.

MDD Murray - Darling Depression

An extensive gently undulating sand and clay plain of Tertiary and Quaternary age frequently overlain by aeolian dunes. Vegetation consists of semi-arid woodlands of Black Oak / Belah, Bullock Bush/ Rosewood and Acacia spp., mallee shrublands and heathlands and savanna woodlands.

MGD Mitchell Grass Downs

Undulating downs on shales and limestones; Astrebla spp. grasslandsand Acacia low woodlands. Grey and brown cracking clays.

MII Mount Isa Inlier

Rugged hills and outwash, primarily associated with Proterozoic rocks; skeletal soils; low open eucalypt woodlands dominated by Eucalyptus leucophloia and E.pruinosa, with a Triodia pungens understorey. Semi-Arid.

ML Mulga Lands

Undulating plains and low hills on Cainozoic sediments; red earths and lithosols; Acacia aneura shrublands and low woodlands.

MUR Murchison

Mulga low woodlands, often rich in ephemerals, on outcrop and fine-textured Quaternary alluvial and eluvial surfaces mantling granitic and greenstone strata of the northern part of the Yilgarn Craton. Surfaces associated with the occluded drainage occur throughout with hummock grasslands on Quaternary sandplains, saltbush shrublands on calcareous soils and Halosarcia low shrublands on saline alluvia. Areas of red sandplains with mallee-mulga parkland over hummock grasslands occur in the east.

NAN Nandewar

Hills on Palaeozoic sediments; lithosols and earths; Eucalyptus albens woodlands; summer rainfall.

NCP Naracoorte Coastal Plain

A broad coastal plain of Tertiary and Quaternary sediments with a regular series of calcareous sand ridges separated by inter-dune swales. Vegetation is dominated by heathy woodlands and mallee shrublands with wet heaths in the inter-dune swales. Now extensively cleared for agriculture

NET New England Tableland

Elevated plateau of hills and plains on Palaeozoic sediments, granites and basalts; dominated by stringy bark/peppermint/box species, including E. caliginosa, E. nova-anglica, E. melliodora and E. blakleyi.

NK North Kimberley

Dissected plateau of Kimberley Basin. Savanna woodland of Woolybutt and Darwin Stringy bark over high Sorghum grasses and Plectrachne schinzii hummock grasses on shallow sandy soils on outcropping Proterozoic siliceous sandstone strata. Savanna woodlands on Eucalyptus tectifica - E. grandiflora alliance over high Sorghum grasses on red and yellow earths mantling basic Proterozoic volcanics. Riparian closed forests of paperbark trees and Pandanus occur along drainage lines. Extensive Mangal occurs in estuaries and sheltered embayments. Numerous small patches of monsoon rainforest are scattered through the district. Dry hot tropical, sub-humid, summer rainfall.

NNC NSW North Coast

Humid; hills, coastal plains and sand dunes; Eucalyptus - Lophostemon confertus tall open forests, Eucalyptus open forests and woodlands, rainforest often with Araucaria cunninghamii (complex notophyll and microphyll vine forest), Melaleuca quinquenervia. wetlands, and heaths.

NSS NSW South West Slopes

An extensive area of foothills and isolated ranges comprising the lower inland slopes of the Great Dividing Range extending through southern New South Wales to western Victoria. Vegetation consists of wet/damp sclerophyll forests, peppermint forests and box/ironbark woodlands.

NUL Nullarbor

Tertiary limestone plain; subdued arid karst features. Bluebush - Saltbush steppe in central areas; low open woodlands of Myall over bluebush in peripheral areas, including Myoporum platycarpum and E. oleosa in the east and west. Arid Non-seasonal.

OVP Ord-Victoria Plains

Level to gently undulating plains with scattered hills on Cambrian volcanics and Proterozoic sedimentary rocks; vertosols on plains and predominantly skeletal soils on hills; grassland with scattered Bloodwood and Snappy Gum with spinifex and annual grasses. Dry hot tropical, semi-arid summer rainfall. The lithological mosaic has three main components:

  1. Abrupt Proterozoic and Phanerozoic ranges and scattered hills mantled by shallow sand and loam soils supporting Triodia hummock grasslands with sparse low trees.
  2. Cambrian volcanics and limestones form extensive plains with short grass (Enneapogon spp.) on dry calcareous soils and medium-height grassland communities (Astrebla and Dichanthium) on cracking clays. Riparian forests of River Gums fringe drainage lines.
  3. In the south-west, Phanerozoic strata expressed as often lateritised upland sandplains with sparse trees. This component recurs as the Sturt Plateau Region in central Northern Territory.
PCA Pine Creek- Arnhem
  1. PCK Pine Creek: Hilly to rugged terrain on Proterozoic sandstones and siltstones; skeletal soils and shallow, silty profiles; Darwin Boxwood and Round-leaved Bloodwood woodland with sorghum understorey.
  2. ARP Arnhem Plateau: Rugged dissected terrain and plateaux on Proterozoic sandstones; skeletal soils and rock outcrop; variable-barked Bloodwood and Darwin Woollybutt low open forest to woodland with spinifex understorey.
PIL Pilbara

There are four major components to the Pilbara Craton.

  1. Hamersley. Mountainous area of Proterozoic sedimentary ranges and plateaux with Mulga low woodland over bunch grasses on fine textured soils and Snappy Gum over Triodia brizoides on skeletal sandy soils of the ranges.
  2. The Fortescue Plains. Alluvial plains and river frontages. Salt marsh, mulga-bunch grass, and short grass communities on alluvial plains. River Gum woodlands fringe the drainage lines. This is the northern limit of Mulga (Acacia aneura).
  3. Chichester. Archaean granite and basalt plains supporting shrub steppe characterised by Acacia pyrifolia over Triodia pungens hummock grasses. Snappy Gum tree steppes occur on ranges.
  4. Roebourne. Quaternary alluvial plains with a grass savanna of mixed bunch and hummock grasses, and dwarf shrub steppe of Acacia translucens over Triodia pungens. Samphire, Sporobolus and Mangal occur on marine alluvial flats. Arid tropical with summer rain.
RIV Riverina

An ancient riverine plain and alluvial fans composed of unconsolidated sediments with evidence of former stream channels. Vegetation consists of river red gum and black box forests, box woodlands, saltbush shrublands, extensive grasslands and swamp communities.

SB Sydney Basin

Mesozoic sandstones and shales; dissected plateaus; forests, woodlands and heaths; skeletal soils, sands and podzolics.

SCP South East Coastal Plain

Undulating Tertiary and Quaternary coastal plains. Vegetation consists of heathy woodlands, dry sclerophyll forests and heathlands.

SEC South East Corner

A series of deeply dissected near coastal ranges composed of Devonian granites and Palaeozoic sediments, inland of a series of gently undulating terraces (piedmont downs) composed of Tertiary sediments and flanked by Quaternary coastal plains, dunefields and inlets. The regional climate is strongly influenced by the Tasman Sea and the close proximity of the coast to the Great Dividing Range. Vegetation consists of high elevation woodlands, wet and damp sclerophyll forests interspersed with rain-shadow woodlands in the Snowy River Valley. Lowland and coastal sclerophyll forests, woodlands, warm temperate rainforest and coastal communities occur in the lower areas.

SEQ South East Queensland

Metamorphic and acid to basic volcanic hills and ranges (Beenleigh, D'Aguilar, Gympie, Yarraman Blocks) sediments of the Moreton, Nambour and Maryborough Basins, extensive alluvial valleys and Quaternary coastal deposits including high dunes. Humid. Eucalyptus-Lophostemon-Syncarpia tall open forests, Eucalyptus open forests and woodlands, rainforests often with Araucaria cunninghamii emergents (complex notophyll and microphyll), Melaleuca quinquenervia wetlands and Banksia low woodlands and heaths.

SEH South Eastern Highlands

Steep dissected and rugged ranges extending across southern and eastern Victoria and southern NSW. Geology predominantly Palaeozoic rocks and Mesozoic rocks. Vegetation predominantly wet and dry sclerophyll forests, woodland, minor cool temperate rainforest and minor grassland and herbaceous communities.

SSD Simpson - Strzelecki Dunefields

Arid dunefields and sandplains with sparse shrubland and spinifex hummock grassland, and cane grass on deep sands along dune crests

STP Stony Plains

Arid stony silcrete tablelands and gibber and gypsum plains with sparse low chenopod shrublands on duplex soils and calcareous earths

STU Sturt Plateau

Gently undulating plains on lateritised Cretaceous sandstones; neutral sandy red and yellow earths; variable-barked Bloodwood woodland with spinifex understorey.

SWA Swan Coastal Plain

Low lying coastal plain, mainly covered with woodlands. It is dominated by Banksia or Tuart on sandy soils, Allocasuarina obesa on outwash plains, and paperbark in swampy areas. In the east, the plain rises to duricrusted Mesozoic sediments dominated by Jarrah woodland. Warm Mediterranean. Three phases of marine sand dune development provide relief. The outwash plains, once dominated by A. obesa-marri woodlands and Melaleuca shrublands, are extensive only in the south.

TAN Tanami Desert

Mainly red Quaternary sandplains overlying Permian and Proterozoic strata which are exposed locally as hills and ranges. The sandplains support mixed shrub steppes of Hakea suberea, desert bloodwoods, acacias and grevilleas over Triodia pungens hummock grasslands. Wattle scrub over T. pungens hummock grass communities occur on the ranges. Alluvial and lacustrine calcareous deposits occur throughout. In the north they are associated with Sturt Creek drainage, and support Crysopogon and Iseilema short-grasslands often as savannas with River Gum. Arid tropical with summer rain.

TEC Top End Coastal
  1. ARC Arnhem Coast: Gently undulating plains and low plateaux on lateritised Cretaceous sandstones and siltstones; sandy red and yellow earths and siliceous sands; Darwin Woollybutt/Darwin Stringybark open forest with sorghum understorey.
  2. DAC Darwin Coastal: Gently undulating plains on lateritised Cretaceous sandstones and siltstones; sandy and loamy red and yellow earths and siliceous sands; Darwin Woollybutt/Darwin Stringybark open forest with sorghum understorey, and flood plains on recent alluvium; vertosols, sedgeland and grassland.
  3. TIW Tiwi-Cobourg: Gently sloping terrain on lateritised Cretaceous sandstones and siltstones; sandy and loamy red and yellow earths and siliceous sands; Darwin Woollybutt/Darwin Stringybark/Melville Island Bloodwood open forest with sorghum understorey.
TM Tasmanian Midlands

Dry-moist subhumid cool inland lowland plain underlain by Tertiary basalts, Jurassic dolerite, Permo-Triassic sandstones, and recent alluvium. Heavily modified vegetation comprising grasslands and grassy woodlands on deep loams and alluvium. Land use primarily agriculture (grazing) with some forestry.

VB Victoria Bonaparte

Phanerozoic strata of the Bonaparte Basin in the north-western part are mantled by Quaternary marine sediments supporting Samphire - Sporobolus grasslands and mangal, and by red earth plains and black soil plains with an open savanna of high grasses. Plateaux and abrupt ranges of Proterozoic sandstone, known as the Victoria Plateau, occur in the south and east, and are partially mantled by skeletal sandy soils with low tree savannas and hummock grasslands. In the south east are limited areas of gently undulating terrain on a variety of sedimentary rocks supporting low Snappy Gum over hummock grasslands and also of gently sloping floodplains supporting Melaleuca minutifolia low woodland over annual sorghums. Dry hot tropical, semi-arid summer rainfall.

VM Victorian Midlands

An extensive area of foothills and isolated ranges comprising the lower inland slopes of the Great Dividing Range extending from North-eastern Victoria to Casterton in Western Victoria. Vegetation consists of wet/damp sclerophyll forests, peppermint forests and box/ironbark woodlands.

VVP Victorian Volcanic Plain

An extensive basaltic plain with numerous volcanic cones and eruption points. Vegetation formerly consisted of damp sclerophyll forests, woodlands and grasslands, now mostly cleared.

WAR Warren

Dissected undulating country of the Leeuwin Complex and Albany Orogen with loamy soils supporting Karri forest, laterites supporting Jarrah-Marri forest, leached sandy soils in depressions and plains supporting paperbark/sedge swamps, and Holocene marine dunes with Agonis flexuosa woodlands. Moderate Mediterranean.

WOO Woolnorth

Humid warm coastal plains and deeply dissected lowland hills, with soils from deep basaltic loams to acid sandy coastal soils. Complexes of Cambrian and Pre Cambrian metasediments, basic-intermediate volcanics, and post-Carboniferous sediments covered with wet sclerophyll, dry sclerophyll and coastal heaths with some rainforest, swamp forest and scrub. Land use primarily forestry and agriculture (cropping).

WSW West and South West

Perhumid cold lowlands, low hills and low ranges, comprising a complex mosaic of rainforest, scrub and buttongrass moorlands. Soils generally oligotrophic acid peat. Principal land uses are conservation, mining and forestry.

WT Wet Tropics

Tropical wet coastal ranges and plains; rainforest and forests.

YAL Yalgoo

Mulga, Callitris-E. salubris, and Bowgada open woodlands and scrubs on earth to sandy-earth plains in the western Yilgarn Craton. Rich in ephemerals. This is an inter-zone. Arid to semi-arid warm Mediterranean.

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