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Course Descriptions


ASM 102 Asian Medicine Fundamentals

This course will focus on the fundamentals of Asian medicine including Yin/Yang theory, five elements, and Zang-Fu theory.  There will also be discussion on the four pillars of examination.

ASM 103 Asian Medicine Point Location I

This course will cover the location, function, and use of a variety of acupuncture points from the 12 regular meridians, as well as associated meridian pathways. (Corequisite:  BAS100)

BAS100 Anatomy

The emphasis is on regional, functional and clinically oriented anatomy. The course involves a survey of gross regional anatomy of all organ systems and neuroanatomy. Teaching methods include lectures, case studies, the study of prosected human cadavers and physical examination. In addition, students will apply anatomical concepts to the study of the human form as a living, moving entity. The idea that the collective function of muscles, joints, connective tissues, and surrounding tissue is complex, integrated and interdependent is stressed. Accordingly, students will learn the basic skills of observation of movement, posture and tissue tone. (Corequisites:  ASM102, ASM103)

BAS111 Histopathology

The structure of major tissues of the body and the arrangement of tissues to form organs will be discussed.  There will be an emphasis on the histology of the human body as well as the integration of basic pathology.  The course will allow students to better understand how the organization of cells and tissues contributes to the function of the body, and how disease affects the body at the cellular, tissue and organ levels.

BAS103 Biochemistry

An overview of carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism as it applies to the human being in health and disease. Students will learn the control of biochemical pathways in the cell, tissue, and organ in an integrated approach.

BAS115 Immunology

This course presents the field of immunology from the viewpoint of the host’s interaction with an environment containing various potential harmful microbes.  It also examines the molecular mechanisms used by the immune system to recognize foreign invaders and describes the process of activation of the immune system that results from this recognition.  The means by which the stimulated immune system eliminates foreign molecules, cells and organisms will also be discussed.  Clinical aspects of immunology, such as allergy, autoimmunity, immunodeficiency, vaccination and immunity to tumors, will be treated as variations of this basic protective function in which the nature of the antigen is the major variable.

BAS107 Physiology

This course, primarily a lecture-based format, will present an evidence-based examination of the physiological function in the human body. There will also be an opportunity for students to perform physiology labs and therefore learn how human physiology can be studied in a practical setting. The student is provided with an opportunity to explore and incorporate a detailed knowledge of the functional organization and operational mechanisms used by cells, tissues, organs and organ systems.  This course addresses the homeostatic functioning of systems making up the human body and the interaction among systems in the generation of function and the maintenance of wellness.

BAS108 Embryology

The basic physical mechanisms of human development from the time of conception to shortly after birth are discussed. The normal development of each of the body's systems is reviewed, and examples of how abnormal development may occur are given. (Corequisite: BAS100)

BOT101 Botanical Medicine I

This course provides a foundation for the naturopathic student in the therapeutic use of botanical medicines in naturopathic practice.  Traditional prescribing of herbs will be discussed within a context of body systems and common pathologies of patients, while the study of pharmacognosy will provide a framework for understanding the pharmacological aspects of herbs.  Much of the course will be case and problem-based, providing opportunity for group and individual learning.  Students will also learn how to prepare herbal medicines in naturopathic practice based on an independent group assignment.

CPH101 Public Health

This course examines the determinants of health from an environmental and community perspective. Topics included are: concepts of health promotion, public health and preventive medicine, ecological health, basic principles of toxicology, clinical ecology and the determinants of health. The role of the naturopathic doctor in the delivery of both health care and social services is reviewed. The role of multicultural factors in health and illness is also reviewed.

HOM100 Homeopathic Medicine I

This is an introductory course in homeopathic medicine. It reviews basic concepts of homeopathy, including introduction to repertory, principles of homeopathic treatment, first aid prescribing, acute prescribing and basic case taking. The course will be taught using both textbook and homeopathic computer software. Students will have the choice to acquire their required material in either hard copy book format or software format.

NMS101 Ethics and Jurisprudence

This course examines the medico-legal aspects of naturopathic practice in Ontario and other Canadian provinces.  The emphasis in first year is on identifying and discussing the ethical duties of naturopathic physicians to their patients, other medical practitioners and to society. 

NPH101 Naturopathic History, Philosophy and Principles

This course engages the student in an exploration of the basic underlying principles of naturopathic medicine. These principles are understood through philosophical discussion of concepts such as holism, vitalism, and health. The historical evolution of medicine and the naturopathic profession are examined. Students will know and understand the Naturopathic Physician's Oath, and identify what the values and principles in the oath mean to them.

NPH102 Art and Practice of Naturopathic Medicine

A review of the many facets of naturopathic medicine, including its major disciplines and the manner in which they are incorporated into a unified approach to healing. The major qualities and skills required for naturopathic medicine are discussed, in the context of the program, and ongoing experience being necessary to cultivate those skills and qualities. Examples of how the principles discussed in NPH101 in a clinical and interpersonal setting are given.

NUT102 Clinical Nutrition I

The structure and function of macro and micronutrients required for human health will be examined in this course in terms of physiological function and requirements. This knowledge will serve as a foundation for Clinical Nutrition courses taught in second and third years. (Prerequisite:  BAS103)

PHM104 Massage/Hydrotherapy

This course is an introduction to the practice and principles of soft tissue manipulation, as explored through the teaching of basic relaxation massage. An emphasis will be placed on consciously developing self-awareness, presence and a respectful and healing intention with which to approach the doctor/patient relationship.  As a result of their own experience of giving and receiving massage, students will learn to use and appreciate touch and bodywork as a valuable tool for patient therapy and stress management.  This course will also include an overview of the history, principles and practice of Naturopathic Hydrotherapy.  An emphasis will be placed on developing an understanding and appreciation of the importance of water, both as an essential therapeutic tool in the practice of Naturopathic Medicine, as well as a powerful example of the Healing Power of Nature – Vis Medicatrix Naturae.

PSY 103 Health Psychology I

This course is designed to support naturopathic medical students in their understanding of human psychology and the ways that individual factors relate to health, wellness, and disease. Year 1 provides a foundation in health psychology theory and research, addresses basic principles of counseling psychology and intentional interviewing, deals with the specific dynamics of communication in a medical setting, and looks at a variety of factors relevant to health and behavior.  Students will be challenged to address their own psychological habits, gain insight into their own patterns of communication, and develop confidence in their clinical skills.  The course will consist of lectures, case-based problem solving, large and small group discussions/activities, assignments, and in-class examinations.

RES100 Principles in Research

This course serves as an introduction to the methodological principles of clinical research and emphasizes the critical assessment of scientific literature in the health sciences. The purpose of the curriculum is to allow students to acquire an efficient, critical approach to making clinical decisions based on an objective assessment of health-care literature.




ASM202 Asian Medicine Diagnosis and Pathology

This course will add to the principles of Zang-Fu theory and the four pillars of examination taught in ASM 100 Asian Medicine I.  Students will learn the various Zang-Fu pathologies of each organ system as well as their signs and symptoms. (Prerequisites: ASM100 05/06, BAS100)

ASM203 Asian Medicine Point Location II

This course will cover the location, function, and use of a variety of acupuncture points from the 12 regular and eight extraordinary meridians, as well as associated meridian pathways. (Prerequisites: ASM100 05/06, BAS100)

ASM204 Asian Medicine Point Location III

This course will cover the location, function, and use of a variety of acupuncture points from the 12 regular and eight extraordinary meridians, as well as associated meridian pathways.  Students will also learn extra points and special point groupings. (Prerequisites: ASM100 05/06, BAS100)

BAS205   Microbiology

The focus of this course is on understanding the role of medically important micro-organisms in clinical disease. The student will be able to describe the disease process arising from infection, understand the mode of transmission and determine the laboratory techniques necessary for diagnosis of the micro-organisms studied.  This course also will teach students to integrate basic science information with naturopathic approaches to treating infectious diseases. (Prerequisites:  BAS107, BAS115)

BAS206   Pathology

This course is designed to provide a rationale for the diagnosis and treatment of human pathologies. An evidence-based examination of disease processes as they present in the human body is highlighted. The student is provided a structured opportunity to explore and incorporate a detailed knowledge of the functional organisation and operational mechanisms used by cells, tissues, organs and systems. Upon completion, students will be able to demonstrate a clinically practical knowledge of the incidence, etiology, histo-pathology and clinical course of selected disease entities. (Prerequisites: BAS100, BAS107, BAS111)

BAS208   Pharmacology

Through the study of pharmacological principles, students develop a strong foundation in understanding the factors influencing drug action. This course examines the most common pharmaceutical drugs.   Indications, mechanisms of action, adverse effects and interactions are all studied.  Team-based learning opportunities, through case analysis and group research projects, are utilized to further develop student’s clinical reasoning skills in their understanding of pharmacological agents, their management, the influence of naturopathic modalities on them, and their influence on the practice of naturopathic medicine.

(Prerequisites: BAS103, BAS107)

BOT202  Botanical Medicine II

This is the first of two courses on the use of botanical medicine by body systems. The course provides training in phytochemistry and the clinical use of whole plants and extracts. Topics include: dosage, indications, contraindications, interactions, prescribing, therapeutic categories of herbs and principles of botanical practice. Empirical data on traditional uses for plants as medicines is integrated with modern scientific research on their pharmacological actions and clinical use. (Prerequisites: BAS107, BOT101)

CLE200 Clinic I

Students enter the Robert Schad Naturopathic Clinic and provide, under registered naturopathic supervision, hydrotherapy and massage treatments to clinic patients. Students have the option of beginning this course in May or in September. (Prerequisites:  BAS100, NMS101, PHM102 05/06, PHM103 05/06)

CLS201   Differential Diagnosis

Teaches the techniques and skills necessary to produce a differential diagnosis and assessment of treatment from the various signs and symptoms presented to the primary contact practitioner in clinical practice. The emphasis is placed on the latest clinical and diagnostic studies so that students may recognize signs of life-threatening disorders, identify and interpret clinical manifestations of common diseases and the rationale of treatment. The course covers most common diseases of the skin, ear, nose, throat, eye, respiratory, cardio-vascular and gastrointestinal systems as well as breast diseases, disorders of female and male genitalia and reproductive system, renal and urinary tract diseases, disorders of musculoskeletal system, and neurologic and endocrine diseases. The course enables students to develop clear clinical judgment and problem solving abilities.

(Prerequisites:  BAS100, BAS107. Corequisites: CLS202, CLS220, FNM200)

CLS202   Laboratory Diagnosis

A survey of commonly used laboratory tests including chemistries, hematology, urinalysis, and endocrine panels. The advantages and limitations of using laboratory services to diagnose and manage a variety of common diseases will be demonstrated using case histories followed by discussion. The students will interpret and critically evaluate laboratory results, deduce a diagnosis or suggest further tests necessary for differential diagnosis.  They will also counsel the patient in lifestyle changes and possible treatment options. Laboratory clinical rounds will assist in developing case presentation and decision making skills.  (Prerequisites:  BAS100, BAS107. Corequisites: CLS201, CLS220, FNM200)

CLS220   Physical and Clinical Diagnosis

This course develops skills and provides students with practical training in physical and clinical diagnosis for naturopathic medicine with the goal of producing a differential diagnosis. Students will be trained in history taking, physical examination techniques, patient data analysis emphasizing normal variations and abnormal findings, derivation of a differential diagnosis and identification of the working diagnosis. The course assists students in acquiring the skills, attitudes, and cognitive abilities necessary for patient management. (Prerequisites:  BAS100, BAS107. Corequisites: CLS201, CLS202, FNM200)

FNM200 Foundations of Naturopathic Medicine

This course will introduce the student to the skills of naturopathic clinical reasoning in a case study format. The concept of naturopathic medicine as a unique school of medical thought, with its own process of reasoning and investigation is emphasized. Case presentations by faculty will be followed by small group discussion. Obtaining an accurate medical diagnosis, discovering causes of disease, and synthesizing diverse information will be the focus of this course. (Prerequisites: ASM100 05/05, BAS100, BAS107, BOT101, HOM100, NUT102. Corequisites:  CLS201, CLS202, CLS220)

HOM202  Homeopathic Medicine II  Advanced Fundamentals

Students will further their knowledge of the history of homeopathy, its philosophy and principles.  The Organon of the Medical Art will be used as the basis of studying and understanding homeopathic philosophy and principles.  The course includes interactive lectures on homeopathic materia medica where remedies will be taught according to their classification in the animal, plant or mineral kingdoms, as well as the families and/or groups within the kingdoms.  The course will be taught using both textbook and computer software.  Students will have the choice to acquire their required material in either hard copy book format or software format. (Prerequisite: HOM100)

HOM203  Homeopathic Medicine II Clinical Applications

The homeopathic repertory, case-taking, posology and case analysis are covered in detail. The course will focus on the practical application of homeopathy through repertorization and case analysis. The course will have a clinical basis to help orient the student to the practice of homeopathy. The principles of single-remedy prescribing are taught according to the fundamental principles contained in the Organon of the Medical Art. The course will be taught using both textbook and computer software. Students will have the choice to acquire their required material in either hard copy book format or software format. (Prerequisite: HOM100)

NUT202   Clinical Nutrition II

Nutrition provides the framework upon which all modalities of naturopathy are built. The course outlines objective evidence in the field of nutritional science as it relates to health promotion, disease prevention, and disease treatment. Focus resides on diet and lifestyle-based interventions. The goal is to provide students with evidence-based intervention plans which safely and effectively allow for primary care management of presenting metabolic diseases.

(Prerequisites:  BAS103, NUT102)

PHM201 Naturopathic Manipulation I

This course introduces the student to the assessment and examination of the vertebral column, costosternal and costo-vertebral joints. Also included is a guide to the examination of the extremities and an introduction to motion palpation and static assessment of the vertebral column and the pelvis. The student will also learn to assess and diagnose various peripheral joint irregularities. (Prerequisites: BAS100)

PSY203 Health Psychology II

This course is designed to support naturopathic medical students as they deepen their understanding of health psychology and explore counselling as a naturopathic modality.  Students are encouraged to utilize a biopsychosocial framework, allowing for multifactorial interactions between biological, psychological, and social factors within the individual. Year two builds on the foundation established in year one and encourages students to consider the relationships between thoughts, emotions, behaviors, relationships, and health. Year two also introduces concepts in behavioral medicine that are relevant to the clinical practice of naturopathic medicine. The goals for this course are for students to understand the role of personality and psychological factors as they relate to stress, health, and disease; to gain confidence in applied counselling skills; and to better understand how their own psychological processes will influence their clinical practice. (Prerequisite: PSY103)




ASM302 Asian Medicine Therapeutics

 This course will look at various western medicine diagnoses from an Asian Medicine perspective.  The focus of this course will be on diagnosis and treatment of common western pathologies seen in clinical practice.  (Prerequisites: ASM201 05/06, CLS220)

ASM303 Asian Medicine Advanced Techniques and Therapeutics

This course will focus on adjunct Asian Medicine applications as well as clinical treatment strategies.  Students will learn appropriate point selection strategies as well as treatment plans for various medical conditions.  (Prerequisite: ASM201 05/06)

BOT302  Botanical Medicine III

A continuation of the use of botanical medicine by body systems. Indications, dosage, contraindications, interactions, and associated pharmacological data on each herbal agent are presented. Use of eclectic botanical formulas, advanced therapeutics, references and clinical cases, and homeopathic and Asian interrelationships are explored.

Empirical data on traditional uses for plants as medicines is integrated with modern scientific research on their pharmacological actions and clinical use.  Formulation and prescribing principles are presented. (Prerequisites:  BOT202, CLS201, BAS206)

CLE300 Clinic II

Students work in the Robert Schad Naturopathic Clinic in an observational and assisting role to fourth-year students. They develop skills of physical examination, medical history taking, case analysis and treatment planning under the supervision of regulated naturopathic doctors. This course provides an opportunity to practice and develop diagnostic physical examination skills, as taught in second year Physical and Clinical Diagnosis, as well as to understand the diagnostic relevance of each part of the examination.  This course creates a solid foundation from which students can gain confidence in their diagnostic skills.  Upon passing the Clinical Skills Lab component of the course, students will be able to skillfully perform both complaint-oriented examinations and complete screening examinations on patients in the clinic setting during Clinical Observation. (Prerequisites: BAS100, CLE200, CLS201, CLS202, CLS220. Concurrent enrollment: CLE303)

CLE303 Primary Care

Primary care standards are practice guidelines that govern the systematic process of symptom/sign recognition, cost-effective laboratory investigation, procedural diagnosis, proper follow-up and case management for naturopathic physicians. The overriding objective to be achieved in this course is the demonstrated ability to identify, analyze and manage clinical problems in order to provide effective, efficient and humane patient care. The competencies achieved by graduates will qualify them to proceed to clinical rotations, independent medical practice, as well as further postgraduate training. (Prerequisites: BAS206, CLS201, CLS202, CLS220. Corequisite: CLE300)

CLS301 Obstetrics

This course covers natural childbirth in the home or clinic. Diagnosis, prevention and treatment of problems of labour and delivery are addressed. Recognition of high-risk birthing situations and appropriate management are stressed. (Prerequisites: BAS206, CLS201, CLS202, CLS220)

CLS302 Pediatrics

A general overview of pediatric conditions seen in naturopathic practice. This includes early diagnosis, naturopathic treatment and referral as deemed appropriate. (Prerequisites: BAS206, CLS201, CLS202, CLS220)

CLS304   Emergency Medicine

Emergency medicine encompasses the framework of making fast-paced decisions and devising appropriate treatment protocols to address actual or potential life-threatening or disabling conditions.  The course supports the promotion of superior patient care standards by enabling students to provide appropriate and effective emergency care when required by their patients.  Through the integration of clinically relevant case scenarios and supervised practical sessions, students will acquire the key principles of basic life support and develop the thought process necessary to effectively and efficiently handle emergency situations when they arise.  In addition, the course specifically incorporates emergency procedures used at the Robert Schad Naturopathic Clinic, and students will attain the knowledge and skill necessary to implement emergency protocols during their internship. Subsequently, upon entering private practice, naturopathic medical graduates will possess the knowledge, skill and experience to develop appropriate emergency protocols for their own clinical practice.  (Prerequisites: BAS206, CLS201, CLS202, CLS220)

CLS306 Men's Health/Women's Health

This course looks at some of the most frequently encountered topics related to men's and women's health as seen in clinical practice. All students will develop their ability in performing gender-specific physical examinations and clinical interpretations of relevant tests, with a focus on naturopathic treatments. The practicums are in small group format with a low teacher-student ratio. (Prerequisites: BAS206, CLS201, CLS220)

FNM300   Advanced Topics in Naturopathic Medicine

This course prepares third year students for clinical internship through discussion of clinically relevant health topics and advanced exploration of the naturopathic modalities, while maintaining a firm grounding in naturopathic principles. Some of the course objectives include understanding the foundations of naturopathic medicine and being able to apply them clinically, synthesizing detailed information about a patient, conceptualizing the disease process in a particular person, planning and making provisions for a process of healing, and choosing a therapeutic regimen based on clearly defined principles. Case studies are led by faculty and will emphasize complex or frequently encountered syndromes. Managing the patient with a focus on different naturopathic therapeutic styles will be explored. Current events in naturopathic medicine will also be presented.  (Prerequisite:  FNM200)

HOM300   Homeopathic Medicine III

The principles of the management of chronic disorders are presented by advanced training in repertorization and prescribing. The homeopathic dif­ferential diagnosis of complex disease processes is also presented. Materia medica will be studied in case format. The course will be taught using both textbook and homeopathic computer software. Students will have the choice to acquire their required material in either hard copy book format or software format. (Prerequisites: HOM201 05/06)

NMS310   Practice Management I

The goals of this course are to provide students with a framework for understanding the steps in the development of their future business as a Naturopathic Doctor and to provide students with a general knowledge of business concepts, practices and activities.  This course focuses on the soft side of business.  Understanding your business purpose, understanding the differences in different patient segments, attracting and retaining patients, as well as marketing and presentation skills will be covered. Emphasis is placed on the structure and utility of a business plan. Students are required to construct an entire business plan and to create drawings of their future office.

NPS300 Venipuncture/Parenteral Therapy

A theoretical and practical course which first introduces practice and safety considerations in drawing blood as a laboratory specimen, and also in tube draw. It also covers the administration of naturopathic parenteral preparations of diagnostic and therapeutic benefit to patients. The focus of the course is on the safe procedural execution of intramuscular and intravenous applications. It serves as a basis for more advanced study. Topics include safety, vitamins, minerals, chelators, immune stimulation, botanical and homeopathic preparations. (. Prerequisites: BAS100, NUT202. Corequisites: CLS304, NUT302)

NUT302 Clinical Nutrition III

The application of the biomedical and clinical sciences with nutrition enables the naturopathic medical student to receive a well-rounded perspective on the treatment and prevention of disease and the optimization of health. To encourage clinically relevant learning this course will be taught in modules as opposed to being lecture based.  Some of the module topics include biochemical individuality, clinical nutritional examination, and toxicology of commonly used vitamins. Naturopathic medical students learn the required material through a variety of methods, which include: (1) didactic teaching, (2) case-based problem solving, and (3) Socratic teaching. The course instructor will be both teacher and facilitator, thus putting forth various methods of educational delivery, which strive to meet the needs of adult learners and future naturopathic doctors. (Prerequisites:  NUT202, CLS201, CLS202)

PHM301   Naturopathic Manipulation II

The naturopathic manipulation lecture component will expose students to the clinical assessment and treatment of subluxations/fixations in the cervical, thoracic, lum­bar, and sacro-iliac portions of the axial skeleton, as well as costo-sternal, costo-vertebral and peripheral articulations. Clinical assessment of the subluxation/fixation complexes will primarily involve the use of motion palpation of these areas, augmented with instruction in static palpation and basic visual assessment techniques. Treatment of the subluxation/fixation complexes, by high velocity, low amplitude spinal and peripheral manipulative techniques, will be accomplished by means of an initial one-hour lecture/demonstration session led by the session leader, followed by indications and contraindications for spinal and peripheral joint manipulative therapy.  Indications for referral, when needed, will be discussed. (Prerequisites:  PHM201)

PHM312 Physical Medicine Theory

This course explores the history taking, clinical evaluation, diagnosis and rehabilitation of musculoskeletal disease or injury. Students are provided with an overview of the clinical, mechanical and significant pathological features of various diseases, injuries or body systems and the differential diagnosis of these injuries or diseases.

Physical examination is emphasized as a means of identifying or differentially diagnosing among various conditions. Some discussion on the management of these conditions will follow, including the appropriateness for referral of serious conditions to specialists. Rehabilitation will focus on condition specific education, exercise, soft tissue techniques and physical modalities for common pathologies seen in clinical practice. (Prerequisites: BAS100, CLS201, CLS220, PHM201 05/06. Corequisite: PHM313)

PHM313 Physical Medicine Practicum

The physical medicine practicum is designed to integrate the principles and develop the skills presented in the physical medicine theory component.  There will be hands-on sessions in small tutorial groups assisted by a session leader. (Prerequisites: BAS100, CLS201, CLS220, PHM201 05/06. Corequisite: PHM312)

PSY303 Health Psychology III

Health psychology is a field of study that is especially pertinent to naturopathic medicine.  The fundamental goal in year 3 Health Psychology is to explore the effects of an individual’s thoughts, emotions, motivations, and behaviours on their health.  This will provide an understanding in order to facilitate change in patients as naturopathic physicians.  A focus on health psychology allows naturopathic doctors to promote well-being for patients and to be cognizant of the factors that influence treatment effectiveness.  The practice of naturopathic medicine is advance since clinicians learn to understand the significance of mental and emotional factors on health and health habits, how to appraise factors that influence an individual’s reaction to disease and illness, and how to understand the molecular expression of “root cause.”  A scope such as this allows naturopathic clinicians to promote health and well-being by addressing the true causative factors that influence one’s health.  Year 3 Health Psychology will provide students with the skills and confidence to engage in therapeutic conversation and develop health relationships with their patients, allowing them to model psychological adjustment.  This course will focus on various clinical topics including: stress management and health maintenance, psychopathology and the DSM-IV, the experience of illness, coping with the challenges of disease and medical care on an individual basis, life span challenges, and crisis intervention.  (Prerequisite: PSY203)

RAD302  Radiology and Advanced Imaging

An introduction to diagnostic imaging modalities will be presented, including plain film radiography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, nuclear medicine, mammography, and ultrasonography.  Image acquisition techniques will be discussed, including the various indications, contraindications, risks, and benefits of each modality.  Emphasis will be placed on the selection of appropriate imaging modalities for the diagnosis or differential diagnosis of various diseases.  Cases will be presented that allow formulation of a diagnosis based upon the integration of imaging findings with clinical information and laboratory test results.  Patient management will also be discussed.

Imaging interpretation will focus upon normal radiographic anatomy of the musculoskeletal system, as well as the cross sectional anatomy of the chest, abdomen and pelvis as seen in special imaging studies.  Congenital anomalies and normal variants of the skeleton will be explored, as well as various arthritic conditions.  Imaging findings that are associated with more serious pathology will also be introduced. (Prerequisites:  BAS206, CLS201)


YEAR 3 (Summer Semester)


CLE304 Clinic III

Students participate at an entry level in treating patients in the Robert Schad Naturopathic Clinic or one of its satellite teaching clinics. Students are supervised by regulated naturopathic doctors, and are required to demonstrate competency in all six core modalities to successfully complete the course. (Prerequisites: completion of all academic courses. Students entering the program 2004/2005 or later may need to have successfully completed NPLEX basic science exams as well as receive a passing grade on the primary clinician entrance examination)

NPH304 Integrated Clinical Studies I

Integrated Clinical Studies (ICS) is designed to integrate and build upon the curriculum content of earlier years. Its core content is the art and science of naturopathic practice, the fabric of which involves a thoughtful integration of basic science, epidemiology of disease, pathophysiology, assessment, diagnosis, philosophy and therapeutic intervention and/or referral. (Prerequisite: CLE303. Corequisite: CLE304)



Students entering the College in 2007 may be required to pass the first round of NPLEX before entrance to the clinic year is granted in 2010.

CLE401 Clinic IV

Students take on an active primary role in treating patients in the Robert Schad Naturopathic Clinic or one of its satellite teaching clinics. Registered naturopathic doctors supervise students. Students are required to demonstrate competency in all six core modalities to successfully complete the course.

Clinical requirements also include completion of a minimum number of hours under the following programs: preceptor program, community service program and seminar hours program.

NMS400 Practice Management II

Students learn to evaluate and implement successful practice management strategies. Topics covered include marketing, record maintenance, establishing a practice, accounting, tax structure, financial planning and adequate insurance requirements. (Prerequisite: fourth-year standing)

NMS401 Ethics and Jurisprudence II

The course concludes the study of the medico-legal aspects of naturopathic practice. Civil litigation is emphasized as it relates to medical malpractice. Students are taught how to provide written and oral testimony as expert witnesses. The business aspects of establishing a practice are also discussed including such topics as commercial leases, employment arrangements and partnership law.

NPH402 Integrated Clinical Studies II

Integrated Clinical Studies (ICS) is designed to integrate and build upon the curriculum content of earlier years.  Its core content is the art and science of naturopathic practice the fabric of which involves a thoughtful integration of basic science, epidemiology of disease, pathophysiology, assessment, diagnosis, and therapeutic intervention and/or referral. (Prerequisite: CLE303; Corequisite: CLE401)

NPS401 Minor Surgery

This is an introductory course in the use of minor surgical procedures in naturopathic practice. Basic surgical principles such as suturing, lancing of wounds, the use of topical anesthetics and basic surgical instrumentation are reviewed. Minor surgery is not a part of the scope of practice in Ontario. This course prepares the student for more advanced training in minor surgery in those jurisdictions where such licensing applies. (Prerequisite: fourth-year standing)

CLE402 Grand Rounds

The purpose of grand rounds is to provide a forum that strives to present current knowledge and information regarding basic disease mechanisms, diagnostic approaches, clinical management, and treatment utilizing a case-based approach.  Students of all years attend these in-depth presentations and panel discussions on a wide range of clinical conditions.  At the conclusion of each grand rounds, students are encouraged to participate by asking clinically relevant questions, and to debate the merits of the clinical concepts that were presented.

CLE403 Case Management Forms and Presentations*

Fourth-year students in the RSNC prepare detailed written management forms of patient cases that they have dealt with in the clinic. Twenty-five written case summaries are required from each student. A detailed description of the summaries is outlined in the clinical curriculum.

Fourth-year students in the RSNC are also required to present one case of clinical interest at a designated time during their internship year. This presentation is made to at least two clinic supervisors and an audience of the student's peers. A detailed description of the requirements of a case presentation is outlined in the clinical curriculum. (Corequisite: Clinic III and IV)


*Adjustments may be made to CLE403

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