This chapter of the anthology focuses on the career of Filipino revolutionary leader Emilio Aguinaldo, primarily in his capacity as an opponent of an openly imperialistic American incursion into the Philippine archipelago from 1898 to 1901. In particular, this paper will examine how Aguinaldo was depicted in the American popular press of his time and in historical accounts written after his death in 1964. However, Aguinaldo's career cannot be limited to the context of American imperialism alone. The Philippines from 1565 to 1946 was colonized by three different colonial powers: by Spain for the first 303 years; then by the United States for the next 50 years; and finally, by Japan during its imperialistic campaigns in Asia during World War II. Aguinaldo, a long-lived individual, was present for all three colonial eras. Moreover, in all three instances, Aguinaldo was involved in one way or another as either a sympathizer with, or opponent of, the imperial powers. In the case of the Spanish and the Americans, it could be argued that he even alternated between adversary and collaborator. The following chronology is intended to introduce the reader to some of the most pertinent facts and most telling details about the life and career of Emilio Aguinaldo-first as a revolutionary leader against the Spanish, then in cooperation with them; next as an ally to the Americans, then as their enemy; and finally, just in passing, as a collaborator with imperial Japanese forces in the Philippines. The chronology assumes no prior knowledge of Philippine history, and is therefore somewhat detailed in its narration.
March 22, 1869/2/
Emilio Aguinaldo is born in Kawit, in the province of Cavite.
Aguinaldo drops out of the College of San Juan de Letran after his father dies and family funds begin to dwindle. Engaged in his family's sugar cane and trading business, Aguinaldo becomes Binakayan district's cabeza de barangay (similar to a mayor of the township) at the age of 17. Officially, the minimum age to hold the office of cabeza de barangay is 21, but the Aguinaldo family is very influential in local politics. Aguinaldo holds this post for 8 years.
February 15, 1889
Publication of La Solidaridad newspaper and the rise of the Filipino Propagandists movement. A group of young Filipino students studying in Madrid, Barcelona, Paris, and London--among them Jose Rizal, the future canonized national hero of the Philippines--urge Spain to institute reforms in the Philippine colonial government. Their demands include: 1) to make the Philippines a regular province of Spain; 2) to secure Filipino representation in the Spanish Cortes (parliament); 3) the expulsion of the Spanish friars or at least the Filipinization of the religious orders; 4) equality of Spaniards and Indios (Filipinos) before the law; 5) freedom of speech, press, and assembly. Their success is limited, but Spain does in fact institute some modest reforms.
January 1, 1895
Aguinaldo elected Capitan municipal (mayor) of Kawit. One of his first accomplishments in this office was to unite the Aguinaldo clan with its principal rival in Kawit, the Tirona clan, thereby solidifying Aguinaldo's political base of popular support in his province. That evening, Aguinaldo is secretly initiated into the Masons. Many of the Filipino Propagandists were Masons as well. Those discovered to belong to the Masons, considered an enemy by both the Church and the State, were subject to imprisonment or execution by the Spanish government. Many Filipino Masons eventually became members of the revolutionary Philippine secret society, the Katipunan.
Aguinaldo journeys to the Tondo district of Manila and is initiated into the Kataastaasan, Kagalanggalangang Katipunan ng Anak ng Bayan (The Most High, Most Honorable League of the Sons of the Country; Katipunan for short), founded in 1892. Andres Bonifacio, founder of the Katipunan and its most influential leader, performs the initation rite himself. Aguinaldo takes for his secret Katipunan name Magdalo, for Santa Magdalena, the patron saint of Cavite. Unlike the Propagandist movement, the Katipunan sought from the very beginning complete independence from Spain through revolution, not just reform. Membership at the Katipunan's peak is estimated at anywhere from 20,000 to 200,000.
Katipunan membership in Aguinaldo's province of Cavite grows so large that Aguinaldo proposes to Bonifacio that the Katipunan form a provincial council rather than the smaller town council originally planned. Bonifacio agrees, and the enlarged council is called Sangguniang Magdalo (the Magdalo Council), though Aguinaldo himself does not head the council.
August 19, 1896
The existence of the Katipunan is made known to Spanish authorities by a traitorous katipunero, Teodoro Patino. Mass arrests, torture, and deportations of those on the Katipunan rosters soon follow. The Governor and Captain General of the Philippines, Ramon Blanco, places Manila and seven surrounding provinces--including Aguinaldo's province of Cavite--under martial law.
August 29, 1896
Bonifacio and the Katipunan set this date for the commencement of the revolt against Spain. The first attack is an attempt to take over the arms depot at San Juan del Monte. However, the Spanish troops expected such a move, and were waiting for the poorly equipped revolutionaries. Bonifacio and the katipuneros under his command fail and suffer heavy casualties. Bonifacio, a skillful organizer but inept military strategist, is handed the first of 29 military defeats still to come.
August 31, 1896
Aguinaldo gets word that the Revolution has begun. He renounces his position as capitan of Kawit, disarms the civil guard, organizes a revolutionary government for Kawit, and calls on other capitanes municipales to start the revolution throughout the province of Cavite. Aguinaldo fights and defeats the Spanish commander of the Guardia Civil, greatly enhancing his prestige as a soldier. Cavite becomes a hotbed of revolutionary activity.
September 3, 1896
Aguinaldo's troops defeat Spanish General Aguirre's forces in the Battle of Imus.
October 31, 1896
Aguinaldo issues his first two manifestoes urging the Filipino people to rally to the cause of the Revolution against Spain.
November 9-11, 1896
Aguinaldo wins the Battle of Binakayan, Cavite. Aguinaldo's victory incites thousands of Filipinos in the outer provinces to take up arms against the Spanish as well.
February 17, 1897
Aguinaldo defeats the Spanish forces under General Polavieja at the Battle of Zapote Bridge.
March 22, 1897
The Tejeros Convention. The two major factions in the Katipunan--Aguinaldo's Magdalo faction and Bonifacio's Magdiwang faction--meet in Tejeros, Cavite. They agree that lack of arms, supplies, and unified command has hindered their revolutionary cause, and they agree to disband the Katipunan and form instead a Revolutionary Government. That same night the convention elects officers for the new government. Aguinaldo, who is out in the battlefield during this entire meeting, is elected President in absentia over Bonifacio. Bonifacio, feeling slighted, storms out of the proceedings and, as Supremo of the Katipunan, unilaterally declares the night's proceedings null and void.
March 23, 1897
Bonifacio and those loyal to him set up their own revolutionary government in Naic with Bonifacio as president. Aguinaldo sends some men to arrest Bonifacio for treason and seditious action against the Aguinaldo revolutionary government, which was in fact largely considered to be the true Philippine revolutionary government.
April 29, 1897
Bonifacio is put to trial.
May 8, 1897
Bonifacio is given the death sentence. Aguinaldo, in a written order, commutes the death sentence, sentencing Bonifacio to permanent exile instead. Aguinaldo's advisors urge him to rescind the commutation of the death sentence. He does so, verbally.
May 10, 1897
Bonifacio is executed by firing squad.
June 24, 1897
After the rebels lose several battles, Cavite falls back under Spanish control, and Aguinaldo relocates the Revolutionary Government to Biyaknabato in Bulacan, on the Sierra Madre Mountain Range.
Spanish General Fernando Primo de Rivera, the third Spanish military commander of the Revolution, commissions a Madrid-educated Filipino neutralist, Pedro A. Paterno, to negotiate peace with Aguinaldo at Biyaknabato.
November 2, 1897
The Revolutionary Government adopts a constitution based on the constitution drafted by the rebels of Cuba. Aguinaldo is chosen as President. The constitution also provides for a separate legislature and judiciary. A Hong Kong junta of ex-patriated Filipinos working for the revolutionary cause is also formally organized.
November 18, 1897
December 14, 1897
December 15, 1897
The Pact of Biyaknabato. Agreement is reached in the negotiations between Aguinaldo's Revolutionary Government and Spain. Three documents are signed on these dates: a program, an act of agreement, and financial stipulation. The terms of the Pact of Biyaknabato were as follows: 1) payment of P800,000 to Aguinaldo and other revolutionary leaders in exchange for voluntary exile to Hong Kong; 2) payment of P900,000 by Spain for civil damages done during the hostilities; 3) laying down and surrender of arms by the rebels; 4) general amnesty for all; 5) a verbal promise to institute reforms. Spanish generals Celestino Tejero and Ricardo Monet are turned over to the Filipino leaders as hostages./4/
December 27, 1897
Aguinaldo and 25 other leaders of the Revolution leave the Philippines for voluntary exile in Hong Kong, as per the terms of the Pact of Biyaknabato.
December 29, 1897
Aguinaldo and his party reach Hong Kong. Spain deposits the first check of P400,000 into the Bank of Hong Kong. Aguinaldo and his cadre live off of the interest. Aguinaldo refuses to divide up the lump-sum payment among his followers and himself, noting that it might be needed to buy arms and munitions should Spain fail to keep its end of the Pact of Biyaknabato.
December 31, 1897
The surrender of arms by Filipinos begins and continues until February. Peace between the Spanish and the Filipinos takes hold for the first two months after the Pact of Biyaknabato./5/
Filipino uprisings take place in various parts of the country, some at the behest of Filipino leaders unsatisfied with the terms of the Pact of Biyaknabato. Diplomatic relations between Spain and the United States become strained. Commander Edward P. Wood, commander of the American gunboat Petrel, confers secretly with Aguinaldo on behalf, claims Wood, of Commodore George Dewey. Wood proposes that Aguinaldo return to the Philippines to incite once again the native population into an all-out uprising against Spain--this time with American support--should Spain and America go to war.
April 7, 1898
Aguinaldo and his cohorts leave for Singapore to avoid a lawsuit being filed by other Filipino revolutionary leaders for a share of the Bank of Hong Kong funds.
April 22, 1898
Discussions with Aguinaldo over a possible U.S.-Philippine collaboration against the Spanish is again taken up, this time by the American Consul General to Singapore, E. Spencer Pratt. Pratt gives a verbal promise to Aguinaldo that in exchange for Filipino military aid on the ground, the U.S. would guarantee Philippine independence under American protection./6/
April 25, 1898
The Congress of the United States declares war on Spain. Dewey is ordered by Assistant Secretary of the Navy Theodore Roosevelt to capture or destroy the Spanish fleet at Manila Bay.
May 1, 1898
Dewey's famous defeat of the Spanish fleet in Manila Bay. ("You may fire when ready, Gridley.")
May 4, 1898
With approval from the Americans, the Hong Kong Junta decides that Aguinaldo should go back to the Philippines to renew the Filipinos' war against Spain.
May 8, 1898
Archbishop Nozaleda of Manila issues a circular to the Filipino people urging them to defend their country and their Roman Catholic religion against the invasion of the Protestant Americans. Spanish Governor General Augustin also tries to woo Filipinos to fight on the Spanish side with promises of instituting a Philippine Consultative Assembly consisting of both Spaniards and Filipinos. Filipino leaders in the Philippines vacillate.
May 19, 1898
Aguinaldo and 13 other rebel leaders arrive in Cavite aboard the U.S. ship McCulloch. Upon arrival, he confers with Dewey on his flagship Olympia. That same day, Aguinaldo issues a proclamation urging his compatriots to renew the war against Spain for the cause of winning independence for the Philippines. Filipinos rally to his call. Even the Philippine Militia, organized by Governor General Augustin, deserts to Aguinaldo's camp. Aguinaldo initially arms his men with 2,000 rifles and hundreds of thousands of rounds of ammunition purchased by Aguinaldo for P50,000 through American Consul General to Hong Kong Rounseville Wildman. A second shipment of arms expected from Wildman never arrives, nor is the P65,000 given to Wildman for the purchase of those arms ever returned. Dewey, however, provides Aguinaldo with 4,000 rifles for his men.
May 26, 1898
Aguinaldo's troops win their first military battle after his return, near Aguinaldo's home town of Kawit. Within ten weeks, the provinces surrounding Manila would fall under Filipino control. Eventually, the Filipino troops would encircle Manila and force a Spanish surrender of the capital itself.
June 8, 1898
Aguinaldo shelves the Constitutional Plan drafted in Hong Kong, and, citing the need for order and unified control, declares martial law with himself in the position of Dictator.
June 12, 1898
Dictator Aguinaldo announces Philippine independence from the balcony of his home in Cavite. [See back of 5-peso bill.] The Philippine Independence Proclamation is signed by, among others, Dewey's secretary, Col. L.M. Johnson.
June 23, 1898
Apolinario Mabini, newly appointed counselor to Aguinaldo, suggests that, for public relations reasons, Aguinaldo change his title to President. Aguinaldo does so, but retains all civil and military authority.
Late June, 1898
The first American regiment--10,000 volunteers from California and Oregon--arrive in Manila. With Aguinaldo's consent, they are assigned to the arsenal of Cavite and the fort of San Felipe. Other regiments follow, and by the end of July, 20,000 American troops are stationed in the Philippines.
August 12, 1898
Filipino troops begin to attack the Spanish holed up in the walled city of Manila.
August 13, 1898
Spain surrenders Manila to the American forces under the command of General Wesley Merritt. Filipino forces are forbidden by General Anderson to enter Manila. That afternoon, the American and Spanish commissioners meet to discuss the terms of the surrender. General Merritt forbids Aguinaldo and other Filipino leaders from attending the meeting.
September 4, 1898
Aguinaldo calls for the Filipino people to send delegates to a congress to be held in Malolos, Bulacan.
September 15, 1898
The Malolos Congress convenes for the first time.
September 29, 1898
The newly formed Malolos Congress ratifies the independence of the Philippines.
October 1, 1898
Aguinaldo sends Felipe Agoncillo to Washington, D.C. to secure U.S. recognition of the new Philippine Republic. Agoncillo is granted an audience with McKinley himself, but it is made clear that he is being allowed the meeting as a private citizen, and not as the official representative of a foreign government. Agoncillo then travels to the Paris Conference but is denied admission on the grounds that neither the U.S. nor Spain recognized the new Philippine government.
November 29, 1898
The Malolos Congress ratifies the Malolos Constitution.
December 10, 1898
The Treaty of Paris is signed. Spain cedes Cuba, the Phililppines, Guam, and Puerto Rico to the U.S. The U.S. agrees to pay Spain the sum of $20 million for the Philippines./7/ The political and civil status of the Philippines is thereby entrusted to the U.S. McKinley instructs the military governor in the Philippines, General Ellwell Otis, to extend his coverage from the city of Manila to all parts of the Philippine archipelago. Filipino revolutionary troops grudgingly--though peacefully--yield their positions as the Americans extend their occupation.
December 21, 1898
McKinley delivers his Benevolent Assimilation Proclamation, claiming American jurisdiction over the Philippines and declaring the United States' intention to "win the confidence, respect, and affection of the inhabitants of the Philippines by assuring them in every possible way that full measure of individual rights and liberties which is the heritage of a free people, and by proving to them that the mission of the United States is one of benevolent assimilation, substituting the mild sway of justice and right for arbitrary rule."/8/
January 21, 1899
Aguinaldo promulgates the Constitution, and the Malolos Republic, the first republic in Asia, is established.
January 23, 1899
Aguinaldo is inaugurated President of the Philippine Republic under the Malolos Constitution.
February 4, 1899
On the San Juan Bridge, one-and-a-half miles from Manila's walled city, a Filipino soldier is ordered to halt by an American sentry. The Filipino does not halt, and the American shoots and kills him. Two other Filipinos are shot and killed. The Filipino troops fire upon the American soldiers.
February 5, 1899
Aguinaldo assures General Otis that the Filipinos acted without authority from Aguinaldo and his government. Otis informs Aguinaldo that since the fighting had begun, it must continue "to the grim end." Aguinaldo in response calls for war against the Americans. The Philippine-American War--mistakenly referred to as the Philippine Insurrection in most history books/9/--begins.
February 6, 1899
The U.S. Senate ratifies the Treaty of Paris. Imperialists in the Senate censor and misrepresent events in the Philippines in order to get the Treaty ratified. The Treaty passes by a margin of one vote over the necessary 2/3 majority.
April 5, 1899
The Schurman Commission proposes an autonomous American government in the Philippines which would effect "full civil liberty, the well-being of the inhabitants, just taxation, clean government, and a moral and efficient public administration in which the natives would be given proper share."/10/ Filipinos tear down the posted proclamations.
The Schurman Commission offers an armistice to the Filipinos. It proposes that, on the condition that Filipinos lay down their arms, the autonomous American government in the Philippines would permit a council of elected Filipinos to help run the affairs of the state, though the American governor general would keep full veto power. The American insistence that nothing may happen until the Filipinos lay down their arms remains unacceptable to the Filipinos.
June 2, 1899
General Antonio Luna, Assistant Secretary of War and Commander-in-Chief of the Filipino forces in Central Luzon, receives a telegram summoning him to Aguinaldo's headquarters in Cabanatuan. Luna, a fierce independentist, has made enemies among his men in the army, trying to apply his strict, European military training to the volunteer Filipino army. He had arrested members of the Cabinet whom he suspected were not fully supportive of the cause of independence. Moreover, rumors had been circulating that Luna was plotting to overthrow Aguinaldo himself. When Luna arrives at Aguinaldo's headquarters, Aguinaldo is not there. As he leaves the premises in anger over the slight, Luna is attacked by Aguinaldo's men and killed.
June - September 1899
Bloody campaigns continue as American generals attempt to capture Aguinaldo and vanquish Filipino opposition to American rule, while Filipino forces fight to protect Aguinaldo and Filipino-occupied territories. For almost two years, Aguinaldo is forced to continually relocate the capital of the Malolos Republic, which also served as his base of operations.
September 23, 1899
Aguinaldo publishes Resena Veridica de la Revolucion Filipina (A True Narrative of the Philippine Revolution), a pamphlet in which he asks the U.S. Congress to recognize Philippine independence on moral, cultural, and political grounds./11/ He also advocates Filipinos to free American prisoners and return them to General Otis.
November 12, 1899
Aguinaldo disbands the regular army and orders guerrilla warfare against the Americans.
December 5, 1899
President McKinley addresses the U.S. Congress, declaring that Filipino forces deliberately attacked American troops, and that U.S. forces are needed to reduce the Filipinos to submission. He also pushes for American schools, courts, and churches to be opened in the Philippines, and for industry, commerce, and agriculture to be fostered.
McKinley organizes the Taft Commission. Unlike the Schurman Commission, the Taft Commission is composed of civilians and is granted legislative powers. The Taft Commission is assigned the duty of setting up a civilian American government in the Philippines as soon as the country became peaceful.
June 3, 1900
The Taft Commission arrives in Manila and begins to issue manifestos calling for peace.
Late June 1900
General Arthur MacArthur, who had succeeded Otis as military governor of the Philippines, releases Filipino political prisoners and issues a general amnesty to those Filipinos who would lay down their arms and within three months take an oath of allegiance to the American flag. He offers to pay P30 for each gun surrendered. MacArthur also promises to extend to the Filipinos "all individual rights guarranteed [sic] by the Constitution of the United States, with the exception of trial by jury and the right to bear arms."/12/ Aguinaldo urges his people to reject MacArthur's offer. American soldiers carry out bloody massacres of Filipinos in order to reduce them to submission.
March 23, 1901
Aguinaldo is captured at his hideout in the isolated town of Palanan by General Frederick Funston. Funston employed a band of Macabebe soldiers and ex-officers of the Philippine revolutionary army to enter the Aguinaldo stronghold, taking with them Funston and four American soldiers posing as prisoners of war. Once inside, the Macabebes, the American soldiers, and the ex-officers attack Aguinaldo's forces within and capture the Philippine leader./13/
April 1, 1901
Aguinaldo, a prisoner of the Americans, takes the oath of allegiance to the United States government and flag, and renounces his connections with the Philippine Republic.
April 19, 1901
Aguinaldo issues a manifesto urging the Filipinos to lay down their arms for "the complete termination of hostilities."
July 4, 1901
The military government cedes control of the Philippines to Taft's civilian government.
Aguinaldo retreats from public life. He tends to his farm in Cavite, though he does not prosper as a farmer. He organizes a veterans administration for revolutionary soldiers, securing for Filipino ex-soldiers small pensions from the government. He serves as president of the veterans adminstration until his death.
March 24, 1920
The Philippine Legislature passes Act No. 2922, which grants Aguinaldo an annual life pension of P12,000.
The Tydings-McDuffie Act passes in U.S. Congress, declaring the Philippines an independent commonwealth.
Aguinaldo runs for President during the first elections of the Philippine Commonwealth. He loses badly to Manuel Quezon, a powerful and experienced politician. The new administration strips Aguinaldo of his P12,000 annual pension, claiming that it was granted to him by the outgoing American-controlled Philippine government.
December 10, 1941
A Japanese fleet of warships arrives in the Philippines and Japanese troops commence an invasion of the Philippines.
January 2, 1942
Japanese General Masaharu Homma declares that the Japanese are in the Philippines to rid the Filipinos of "the American yoke of oppression, and enable the Filipinos to establish a free and peaceful nation." The Japanese occupy Manila without resistance from the Filipinos. Despite Japanese public pronouncements that they are a friendly occupying force, Filipinos are generally treated rather cruelly by the Japanese.
January 23, 1942
Aguinaldo is appointed to the Japanese-organized Council of State which would administer the Japanese-organized Philippine territory.
In a radio broadcast, Aguinaldo makes an appeal for American and Filipino troops fighting in Bataan to surrender to the Japanese forces.
June 20, 1943
After the Japanese government declares that it intends to grant the Philippines its independence, Aguinaldo is appointed member of the Preparatory Commission for Philippine Independence.
October 18, 1943
Aguinaldo is appointed to the Council of State of the Republic of the Philippines, established during WWII.
September 2, 1945
Japan surrenders, ending the war in the Pacific.
July 4, 1946
With the war over, the U.S. recognizes the independence of the Philippines. Aguinaldo and other aging veterans of the Revolution march in the independence parade.
Aguinaldo is again appointed a member of the Council of State by President Elpidio Quirino.
President Diosdado Macapagal officially changes the date of Philippine Independence Day from July 4 to June 12, acknowledging, as Aguinaldo had always hoped for, the date of the first declaration of independence, against Spain. (July 4 is now recognized as "U.S.-Philippine Friendship Day" in the Philippines.)
February 6, 1964
Aguinaldo dies at Veterans Hospital in Quezon City at the age of 95.
June 19, 1965
Congress renames the municipality of Bailen, Cavite the municipality of Emilio Aguinaldo.
Whole-year celebration of the Aguinaldo centenary in the Philippines. The General Emilio Aguinaldo National Centennial Commission, appointed by President Ferdinand Marcos in October 1967, holds a convention from March 19-21 to commemorate the event. Many scholarly works on Aguinaldo's life and accomlishments are presented at this convention.
/1/ In compiling this chronology, I have relied largely on Eufronio M. Alip's In the Days of General Emilio Aguinaldo (Manila: Alip & Sons, 1969). Other books which I have found useful--primarily to corroborate or supplement Alip--were Mauro Garcia, ed., Aguinaldo in Retrospect (Manila: Philippine Historical Association, 1969); Henri Turot, Emilio Aguinaldo: First Filipino President, 1898-1901 (Paris: n/a, 1900) trans. Pacifico A. Castro, 2d ed. (Manila: Foreign Service Institute, 1981); and Gregorio F. Zaide and Sonia M. Zaide, Philippine History, Corrected Edition (Manila: National Bookstore, 1987). One of the major problems one encounters in writing about Philippine history--as the reader will soon discover from this chronology alone--is that accounts by Philippine historians often conflict with one another in significant ways. Thus, it is difficult to adjudicate between conflicting accounts unless one has knowledge of corroborating primary source material. As I did not have access to such materials in the writing of this chronology, I relied on corroboration among secondary sources where it was available. [back]
/2/ Aguinaldo's date and place of birth is subject to some degree of uncertainty. According to most accounts, he was born on March 22, 1869 in Kawit in the province of Cavite. However, some claim Aguinaldo was born in Imus, Cavite in 1871. Henri Turot, a French socialist who wrote a brief account of Aguinaldo's life and exploits in the Philippine-American War, claims that Aguinaldo was actually born on March 29, 1869 in Kawit. Turot claims this date to be authoritative on the basis of facts gathered from conversations with Aguinaldo's intimate Tagalog friends (cf. Turot, Emilio Aguinaldo, 3). I have chosen the first date and place of birth, largely because this is the version most universally accepted by Filipino historians--such as Alip and Zaide. Three of my sources cite this date and place of birth, while Turot's version is as of yet uncorroborated by any additional sources. [back]
/3/ Zaide and Zaide claim Aguinaldo joined the Katipunan in 1894 (cf. Zaide & Zaide, History, 143). However, the Zaide and Zaide book is the only book consulted that indicates this particular year. Thus, I side with Alip, Garcia, and the Philippine Historical Association in indicating March 1895 as the month and year Aguinaldo joined the Katipunan. [back]
/4/ Spain never pays the P900,000 indemnity to civilian Filipinos, nor does it really grant amnesty. [back]
/5/ Again, Philippine historians contradict one another. Zaide and Zaide claim that there was never was a period of peace after the signing of the Pact of Biyaknabato, nor did the Filipino rebels ever surrender their arms (cf. Zaide & Zaide, History, 149) while Alip argues there was a two-month truce and surrender of arms by Filipinos (cf. Alip, In the Days, 40-1). Alip backs up his statement with actual numbers of weapons and ammunition surrendered, so I am inclined to believe Alip's account. [back]
/6/ This verbal guarantee of independence was later denied by Pratt. However, because Aguinaldo spoke little English and the American Consul General little Spanish, a Englishman named H.W. Bray acted as interpreter during the meeting. Bray later swore that Pratt did in fact make a promise to Aguinaldo guaranteeing Philippine independence in exchange for Philippine support in the fight against Spain. Cf. Alip, In the Days, 47-9. The issue of whether American officials promised Aguinaldo independence for the Philippines in exchange for military support was the focus of a Senate hearing in 1902. For selected transcripts of the testimony, cf. Henry Graff, American Imperialism and the Philippine Insurrection (Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1969), 1-63. [back]
/7/ Some critics of the move wryly noted that, with the Philippine population estimated at 10 million, America had just purchased the Filipino population at $2 a head. [back]
/8/ Stuart Creighton Miller, Benevolent Assimilation (New Haven: Yale U. Press, 1982), frontispiece. [back]
/9/ Cf., for example, Graff, American Imperialism and the Philippine Insurrection. [back]
/10/ Alip, In the Days, 82. [back]
/11/ Some historians believe that the true author of the Resena was Aguinaldo's advisor Felipe Buencamino, who officially took credit only for the pamphlet's translation from Tagalog to Spanish. For an English translation of the pamhplet, see Garcia, ed., Retrospect. [back]
/12/ Quoted in Alip, In the Days, 96. [back]
/13/ Funston, a general of a volunteer regiment, is promoted to general in the regular army for capturing Aguinaldo. Funston's ruse is applauded by some Americans, and denounced as underhanded trickery by others, e.g. Mark Twain. [back]
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