The Arctic

Quark Expeditions




























About The Arctic


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Expedition Logs

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Wellmans Hut

The success of such an expedition depends on the application of the expedition leader. Here it was a real success.
 
LDP & VD

ARCTIC EXPLORATION - CHRONOLOGY
330 B.C. ca Pytheas of Massilia spends six years exploring Britain and the waters north of Scotland.
870 A.D. ca Floki Vilgerdarson discovers Iceland.
983 Erik the Red discovers Greenland.
1000 Leif Eriksson seeks America crosses the Atlantic to Newfoundland.
1594-1597 Willem Barents makes three journeys to the north and discovers Spitsbergen.
1607-1610 Henry Hudson makes three voyages to Greenland, Spitsbergen, Jan Mayen, Hudson River and Hudson Bay.
1615-1616 William Baffin and Robert Bylot make two voyages to Hudson Bay and Baffin Bay.
1725-1742 The Great Northern Expedition takes place led by Bering Chirikov Khariton and Dmitri Laptev Chelyuskin and others to the Bering Sea and Arctic Siberia
1778 Captain James Cook goes to Northeast Siberia and Alaska; establishes the separation between the Asian and American continents.
1819-1820 William Edward Parry's first voyage in search of the Northwest Passage reaches Melville Island.
1819-1822 John Franklin's first overland/canoe expedition down the Coppermine River and east to Point Turnagain in search of the Northwest Passage (in conjunction with the Parry voyage.) It ends disastrously with eleven members of the expedition losing their lives.
1821-1823 Parry's second voyage in search of the Northwest Passage reaches Fury and Hecla Strait from Hudson Bay.
1824-1825 Parry's third and final voyage to the Canadian Arctic again in search of the Northwest Passage ends with the wreck of one of his vessels on Fury Beach Somerset Island.
1825-1827 John Franklin's second overland/canoe expedition to the Arctic Sea coast of the Canadian mainland. His parties explore and map more than a thousand miles of coastline from Coronation Gulf to Prudhoe Bay Alaska.
1827 Parry's expedition attempting to reach the North Pole via Spitsbergen; he reaches 82°45' North and establishes a farthest north that will stand for fifty years.
1831 James Clark Ross is the first to reach the North Magnetic Pole.
1837-1839 Peter Dease and Thomas Simpson of the Hudson Bay Company overland/boat expedition to fill in gaps on the coastline left by Franklin from Point Barrow in the west to Castor and Pollux Bay (Rae Strait) in the east.
1845-1847 Sir John Franklin's expedition aboard the vessels Erebus and Terror in search of the Northwest Passage.
1848-1849 James Clark Ross expedition in search of Sir John Franklin with vessels Investigator and Enterprise.
1848-1851 John Richardson accompanied by Dr. John Rae leads land expedition to the Mackenzie River Wollaston Peninsula and elsewhere on Victoria Island in search of Franklin.
1848-1851 Plover and Herald reach Bering Strait; Lieutenant W.J.S. Pullen leads expedition by boat in search of Franklin exploring the Arctic coastline to the Mackenzie delta.
1850-1854 Robert McClure leads expedition in Investigator through the Bering Strait in search of Franklin. He establishes the last link in one route of the Northwest Passage and claims the parliamentary award for its discovery.
1850-1855 Richard Collinson commands the Enterprise part of the expedition through the Bering Strait in search of Franklin.
1850-1851 William Penny expedition with the Lady Franklin and Sophia to the eastern Arctic in search of Franklin.
1850-1851 Horatio T. Austin commands official four-ship Admiralty expedition to the eastern Arctic in search of Franklin.
1850-1851 Sir John Ross aged seventy three leads a private expedition in search of Franklin.
1850 Charles Codrington Forsyth leads Lady Franklin's privately financed expedition in search of her husband on the Prince Albert.
1850-1851 Edwin J. DeHaven leads the first U.S. expedition to the Arctic in search of Franklin. Elisha Kent Kane is surgeon on one of DeHaven's two vessels.
1851-1852 William Kennedy accompanied by Joseph-René Bellot leads another expedition privately financed by Lady Franklin in search of her husband.
1852-1854 Sir Edward Belcher leads a five-ship Admiralty expedition in search of Franklin.
1852 Edward A. Inglefield explores Smith and Jones Sounds returning to England with the (false) story that Franklin had been murdered by Greenland Eskimos.
1853-1855 Elisha Kent Kane leads the second U.S. expedition in search of Sir John Franklin choosing a Smith Sound route.
1853-1854 Dr. John Rae sent by the Hudson's Bay Company to complete a coastal survey in the area of King William Land and Boothia discovers relics of the Franklin Expedition in the possession of the Eskimos. British authorities gave him the $10000 reward for establishing the fate of the expedition.
1857-1859 Francis Leopold M'Clintock leads the Fox expedition financed by Lady Franklin that confirms Rae's report of Franklin's fate.
1860-1861 Issac Hayes leads a U.S. expedition in search of the open Polar Sea.
1860-1862 American, Charles Hall, makes his first Arctic journey in search of Franklin survivors.
1864-1869 Hall's second expedition reaches King William Island.
1871-1873 Charles Hall's third expedition in search of the North Pole aboard the Polaris Hall dies under mysterious circumstances in November 1871. On the return voyage half the Polaris' crew are stranded on the ice in a storm and drift for six months before being rescued by whalers.
1875-1876 George Nares leads the British Navy's last attempt at Arctic exploration in search of the North Pole. His two ships were based in north Ellesmere Island.
1878 Baron Nordenski´┐Żld completes the first successful navigation of the Northeast Passage.
1879-1882 Lieutenant George Washington DeLong of the U.S. Navy commands the ill-fated Jeannette expedition searching for the North Pole from Siberia.
1881-1884 Adolphus Greely leads an American expedition to Ellesmere Island as part of the First International Polar Year. His junior officer Lieutenant Lockwood establishes a farthest north taking from the British a record they have held for three centuries. Only six of twenty-four expedition members survive.
1886 Robert Peary attempts and fails to cross Greenland.
1888 Fridtjof Nansen makes the first crossing of Greenland.
1891-1892 Peary's first large Arctic expedition to North Greenland.
1893-1895 Peary's second Greenland expedition.
1893-1895 Fridtjof Nansen with Otto Sverdrup in the Fram drifts across the Arctic Ocean and establishes a new farthest north.
1898-1902 Peary's third Arctic expedition fails in its attempt to reach the North Pole.
1899-1900 The Duke of Abruzzi leads an expedition in search of the Pole from Franz Josef Land; Lieutenant Cagni establishes a farthest north 22 miles beyond Nansen's.
1903-1905 Roald Amundsen completes the first successful navigation of the Northwest Passage.
1905-1906 Peary's fourth Arctic expedition fails in its attempt at the Pole but establishes a new farthest north.
1907-1909 Frederick Cook claims to have reached the North Pole.
1908-1909 Peary claims to have reached the North Pole.
1921-1924 Knud Rasmussen's 5th Thule Expedition across Arctic America.
1926 Richard E. Byrd overflies the Pole in a Fokker trimotor plane.
1958 U.S.S. Nautilus (nuclear submarine) passes under the Pole.
1958 The Skate becomes the first submarine to surface through the ice at the Pole.
1968 Ralph Plaisted reaches the Pole using snowmobiles with air support.
1969 Wally Herbert leads a dogsled expedition from Alaska to Svalbard with air support.
1977 Naomi Uemura makes a solo overland trek to the Pole.
1986 Paul Schurke and Will Steger lead a dogsled expedition to the Pole without resupply. Ann Bancroft becomes the first woman to complete such an expedition.
1992 Helen Thayer does a one-woman solo trek to the Pole.


 
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