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General Dentistry Abstracts

Elder abuse update
DART 157
Michael C. Herren, DMD
Raymond J. Byron Jr., DMD


The following article offers an update on the topic of elder abuse.  As the baby boomer generation ages, the number of elderly patients seeking all forms of dentistry will increase.  This article is designed to inform dentists of their responsibility to the entire health of their patients.  Guidelines and suggestions are made to ensure that dentists are able to diagnose and manage patients that may be in an abusive relationship.

Received:  October 6, 2004
Accepted:  November 2, 2004

Treatment Planning
DART 158
Acupuncture in the treatment of xerostomia:  Clinical report
Warren M. Morganstein, DDS, MPH

This article reviews the etiology and symptomatology of xerostomia and approaches for treating it, including the use of acupuncture.  Seven xerostomia patients who were treated using acupuncture and the subsequent results of that treatment are discussed.  Actual outcomes exceeded the author’s expectations with all patients reporting an increase in salivary flow and the ability to eat and speak and improved sleep.

Members of the dental team should consider referral for acupuncture as a viable
adjunct when treating xerostomia.  Dentists also might consider equipping themselves to provide such treatment in states that allow them to perform acupuncture.

Received:  December 21, 2004    
Accepted:  March 8, 2005

Practice Management
DART 159
Myers Briggs Type Indicator, burnout, and satisfaction in Illinois dentists
Ronald B. Baran, DDS, MBA, MA

There is conflicting research concerning satisfaction and burnout levels in dentistry.  High levels of burnout can have deleterious effects on the dentist, his or her family, and patients.  A random sample of Illinois general dentists was examined using the Myers Briggs Type Indicator, the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the Dentist Satisfaction Survey, and a demographic questionnaire.  Areas examined were the frequency of types compared to a base population as well as the relationship of type to levels of satisfaction, burnout, and demographic items.

Three of the 16 Myers Briggs types were overrepresented in this sample, while two types were underrepresented.  Slightly less than half of the dentists were satisfied with their profession; 7.4% had reached significant levels of burnout and 83% perceived dentistry as being “very stressful.”  The personality types overrepresented in dentistry tended to have a higher level of satisfaction and a lower level of burnout compared to their cohort group.

Received:  January 12, 2005
Accepted:  March 17, 2005

Caries Prevention
Antimicrobial substantivity of cavity disinfectants
Murat Turkun, DDS, PhD
Ferit Ozata, DDS, PhD
Esra Uzer, DDS
Mustafa Ates, DDS, PhD

This study involved a comparative examination of different disinfectant solutions and their antimicrobial substantivity against Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Candida albicans.  All of the disinfectants containing chlorhexidine and benzalkonium chloride demonstrated substantive antibacterial activity.  Chlorhexidine-based solutions displayed the longest and most effective antimicrobial activity.

Received:  May 27, 2004   
Final revisions:  September 9, 2004   
Accepted:  September 13, 2004

Clinical case report: Capillary hemangioma
Karin Soares Goncalves Cunha, DDS, MSD
Luiz Geolas de Moura Carvalho Neto, DDS, MSD
Fernanda Maria Garcia Saraiva, DDS, MSD
Eliane Pedra Dias, MD, MSc, PhD
Marcos Salles Cunha, DDS, MD, MSD

The gingival cyst of the adult is an uncommon odontogenic cyst of developmental origin that is believed to represent the soft tissue counterpart of the lateral periodontal cyst. This article describes a case of gingival cyst of the adult, located in the alveolar mucosa on the facial aspect of the mandibular lateral incisor-canine region. The lesion was nodular with a sessile base, nonulcerated, and nonpainful; it was normal in color and measured 5.0 mm in diameter. An excisional biopsy was performed and surgical exploration revealed osseous surface erosion. Histopathological analysis confirmed the clinical hypothesis. Although gingival cyst of the adult is an uncommon lesion, clinical diagnosis usually is easy to establish and dentists should be aware of the characteristics of this disease.

Received: August 24, 2004
Accepted:December 1, 2004

Severe localized periodontal destruction associated with cervical cemental separation
Collins T. Lyons, DDS, MS
Mark E. Peacock, DMD, MS
Michael F. Cuenin, DMD
Gary D. Swiec, DDS, MS
David J. Dickey, DMD

Cemental separations and tears are secondary etiological factors that may lead to rapid periodontal destruction if the lesion communicates with the oral cavity and allows bacterial invasion. Although many cemental tears that occur on proximal surfaces can be diagnosed radiographically, separations on the facial or lingual surface that cannot be detected on radiographs may present a diagnostic dilemma. This article describes a case of lingual cemental separation on a maxillary incisor, with subsequent successful surgical correction utilizing an osseous graft.

Received: October 5, 2004
Accepted: November 2, 2004

Influence of drinking patterns of carbonated beverages on dental erosion
Mohamed A. Bassiouny, DMD, MSc, PhD
Jie Yang, DMD, MMS, MS

As a hard tissue dental disease, dental erosion has a multifactorial etiology. The majority of dental erosion that originates from extrinsic sources is the result of dietary intake, particularly acidic beverages. Several preventive means have been proposed to minimize the damage to the dentition, including a reduction in the consumption of causative beverages and the adoption of a specific method of drinking, utilizing a straw instead of a cup.

This article presents two cases involving the clinical and radiographic features of erosion lesions associated with chronic and excessive intake of acidic carbonated beverages. These examples embody how drinking patterns influence the formation of erosion lesions in various anatomic locations within the dentition. The clinical and radiographic evidence presented in this report cautions against the use of nonspecific terms, such as “cup versus straw,” and instead suggests implementing a more precise description of the suggested method. In view of the extensive damage inflicted by the chronic, excessive intake of carbonated beverages, preventive measures are considered to be the only effective course of management.

This article offers illustrative examples of erosion lesions associated with long-term excessive intake of carbonated beverages. The influence of the drinking method—that is, a straw positioned into the labial vestibule versus a cup—on the anatomic location of the erosion lesions will be demonstrated through clinical and radiographic evidence.

Received: March 24, 2004
Final revisions: November 8, 2004
Accepted: November 11, 2004

Using Parapost Tenax fiberglass and ParaCore build-up material to restore severely damaged teeth
Ricardo Caicedo, DDS
Paulino Castellon, DDS

This article describes a technique using ParaPost Tenax Fiber White, ParaPost Cement, and ParaPost ParaCore build-up material to restore a tooth with a significant loss of tooth structure. After successful root canal therapy, the posts were bonded in the canals and the core was built using ParaPost ParaCore build-up material. At that point, the tooth was prepared to receive a conventional porcelain-fused-to-metal crown.

Received: June 24, 2004
Accepted: September 9, 2004

A comparative study of two CEREC software systems in evaluating manufacturing time and accuracy of restorations
Sven M. Reich, DDS
Ivy D. Peltz, DDS
Manfred Wichmann, DDS
Denise J. Estafan, DDS, MS

Text of abstract: This study compared the manufacturing times and the accuracy of proximal and occlusal contacts on restorations produced by two different versions of CEREC 3 software, COS and 3D. Fourteen casts containing pre-existing inlay and onlay preparations of premolars and molars were mounted on articulators. A bite registration was made in maximum intercuspation. Optical impressions of the preparation and the bite registration were made. The Wilcoxon signed rank test was applied for a statistical analysis of time expended in the different design and manufacturing steps of both software versions. The chi-square test was applied for the statistical analysis of proximal and occlusal contacts.

Compared to COS, the 3D software version produced greater accuracy in the design and manufacture of restorations and required less time to create proximal contacts.

Received: December 1, 2004
Accepted: January 27, 2005

Preventing sharps, splash, and needlestick injuries in dentistry: A comprehensive overview
Author: John S. Mamoun, DMD
S. Mairaj Ahmed, DMD

This article presents a comprehensive collection of precautions and suggestions for preventing sharps, splash, and needlestick injuries in dentistry. The authors looked at studies of sharps and splash injuries in dentistry to determine which of these injuries are most common. They then assembled a set of precautions to prevent these injuries based on published literature, tips learned from other dentists, and their own clinical observations. Dentists must remember and apply many precautions to prevent the broad spectrum of sharps and splash injuries that could occur during the delivery of dental care.

Received : November 12, 2004
Final revisions : January 5, 2005
Accepted : January 27, 2005