National Aeronautics and Space Administration
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Biographies of Aerospace Officials
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Robert W. Kamm (1917- ) graduated from New York University in 1939 with a bachelors degree in aeronautical engineering and joined the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory, where he investigated spin characteristics of various military aircraft in wind tunnels. In 1946 he left the NACA to become senior aerodynamicist with the Glenn L. Martin Company. In 1950 he went to work for the Air Force's Arnold Engineering Development Center, where he became chief of the plans and policy office in 1957. In 1959 he accepted an appointment as director of NASA's western operations office in Santa Monica, responsible for contract negotiations and administration, public information, technical representation, financial management, security, legal and patent administration. In 1968 he retired from that position and NASA to become assistant to the director of the Space Institute at the University of Tennessee, Tullahoma.

Arthur Kantrowitz (1913- ) earned his Ph.D. in physics from Columbia in 1947 after having worked as a physicist for the NACA from 1936 to 1946. He taught at Cornell for the next decade, meanwhile founding the Avco-Everett Research Lab in Everett, Massachusetts, in 1955. He served as its director, senior executive officer, and chairman until 1978 when he became a professor at Dartmouth. From 1956 to 1978 he also served as a vice president and director of Avco Corporation.

Joseph Kaplan (1902-1991) was born in Tapolcza, Hungary, and came to the U.S. in 1910. He trained as a physicist at the Johns Hopkins University and worked on the faculty of the University of California-Berkeley from 1928 until his retirement in 1970. He directed the university's Institute of Geophysics, later the Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, from the time of its creation in 1944. Kaplan was heavily involved in efforts in the 1950s to launch the artificial first Earth satellite, serving as the chair of the U.S. National Committee for the International Geophysical Year, 1953-1963. See "Kaplan, Joseph" biographical folder, NASA Historical Reference Collection; Joseph Kaplan, "The Aeronomy Story: A Memoir," in R. Cargill Hall, ed., Essays on the History of Rocketry and Astronautics: Proceedings of the Third Through the Sixth History Symposia of the International Academy of Astronautics (Washington, DC: NASA Conference Publication 2014, 1977), 2: 423-27; Joseph Kaplan, "The IGY Program," Proceedings of the IRE, June 1956, pp. 741-43.

Frederick R. Kappel was the chairman of the board of directors of the American Telephone and Telegraph Company in 1963. "Miscellaneous Industry," Biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, Washington, DC.

Theodore von Karman (1881-1963) was a Hungarian aerodynamicist who founded an Aeronautical Institute at Aachen before World War I and made a world-class reputation in aeronautics through the 1920s. In 1930 Robert A. Millikan and his associates at the California Institute of Technology lured von Kármán from Aachen to become the director of the Guggenheim Aeronautical Laboratory at Caltech (GALCIT). There he trained a generation of engineers in theoretical aerodynamics and fluid dynamics. With its eminence in physics, physical chemistry, and astrophysics as well as aeronautics, it proved to be an almost ideal site for the early development of U.S. ballistic rocketry. See Judith R. Goodstein, Millikan's School: A History of California Institute of Technology (New York: W.W. Norton, 1991); Clayton R. Koppes, JPL and the American Space Program: A History of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1982); Michael H. Gorn, The Universal Man: Theodore von Kármán's Life in Aeronautics (Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1992).

Joseph E. Karth (1922- ) (Democrat-Farmer-Labor-MN) was first elected to the House of Representatives in 1958 and served through the mid-1970s.

Amron Harry Katz (1915- ) was a physicist who worked with the Rand Corp, Santa Monica, California, between 1954 and 1969. He was a specialist aerospace reconnaissance.

Nicholas Katzenbach (1922- ) was twenty-one when he was captured by the Germans during World War II, and was a prisoner of war for two years until the war ended. He returned to the states and became a Rhodes Scholar in 1947. When he returned from England in 1950, he was admitted to the New Jersey bar. He became a law professor at Yale University in 1952 and then at the University of Chicago from 1956 until 1960. He joined the Justice Department in 1961 as assistant attorney general, and was promoted to deputy attorney general in 1962. He remained in that position until the end of 1964 and was instrumental in drafting the Civil Rights Act of that same year. He became attorney general in 1965 and undersecretary of state in 1966. He left government service to work for IBM in 1969, where he stayed until 1986. He returned to private practice and was named chairman of the failing Bank Credit and Commerce International (BCCI) in 1991. See ìKatzenbach, Nicholas (de Belleville)î in John S. Bowman, ed., The Cambridge Dictionary of American Biography (Cambridge, England: The Cambridge University Press, 1995).

William C. Keathley came to NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in 1966. He served as the project manager for the Apollo Telescope Mount experiments that were flown on Skylab and as chief of the Skylab Optical Telescope Assembly project. In 1977 he was named manager of the Space Telescope Project (later named the Hubble Space Telescope). Marshall Star, March 16, 1977, p.4 from the Marshall Space Flight Center History Office, Huntsville, AL.

Kenneth B. Keating (1900-1975) (R-NY) was elected to the House of Representatives in 1946 and served there through 1958. Elected to the Senate the latter year, he served through 1965 and then became an associate justice in the New York Court of Appeals for three years before becoming ambassador to India in 1969.

William B. Keese (1910- ) was a career Air Force officer who became a major general in 1960 and was the director of developmental planning at Headquarters, U.S. Air Force from 1960- 1962.

Estes Kefauver (1903-1963) was a Democrat from Tennessee who served in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1939-1949 and in the U.S. Senate from 1949-1963. He ran unsuccessfully as Adlai Stevenson's Vice Presidential choice in 1956. See Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774-1989, (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1989).

M.V. Keldysh (1911-1978) was trained in physics and mathematics at Moscow University (Ph.D., 1938), and he became the chief theoretician of Soviet cosmonautics in the 1960s. He had previously served many years in a variety of positions at the Central Institute of Aerohydrodynamics, Moscow University, and the Steklov Mathematical Institute. In 1960-1961 he was Vice President of the Soviet Academy of Sciences, and thereafter as President of the Soviet Academy of Sciences until 1975. See "M.V. Keldysh, Soviet Scientist, Dies," Washington Post, June 27, 1978.

Robert F. Keller (1913-1980) had worked for the General Accounting Office from 1935-42 and 1946-69. He became general counsel in 1958. In 1969 he became controller general of the U.S.

William W. Kellogg (1917- ) was a meteorologist with the Rand Corp. between 1947 and 1959. Thereafter, he held a senior position with the National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado.

Mervin J. Kelly (1894-1971) was a longtime research physicist with Bell Telephone Laboratories, becoming director of research in 1934, vice president in 1944, and president of the organization between 1951 and 1959. His work at the laboratories focused on radar, gunfire control, and bombsights. After his retirement from Bell, Kelly was named advisor to NASA Administrator James E. Webb in 1961. (Obituary, _New York News Herald_, 20 March 1971, p. 32.)

David W. Kendall (1903-1976) served as special counsel to the president from 1958-1961. He had previously been general counsel of the U.S. Treasury, 1954-1955 and then assistant secretary of the Treasury, 1955-57.

Edward M. (Ted) Kennedy (1932- ) has been a longtime Democratic member of the Senate from Massachusetts who was first elected in 1962.

Robert F. Kennedy (1925-1968) was attorney general during the administration of his brother, John F. Kennedy, and a candidate for the Democratic nomination for the presidency in 1968 before his assassination. He was involved in the 1961 decision to go to the Moon as a senior advisor in the Kennedy administration. On his career see Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., Robert Kennedy and His Times (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1978).

John F. Kennedy (1916-1963) was President of the United States, 1961-1963. In 1960 John F. Kennedy, a Senator from Massachusetts between 1953 and 1960, ran for president as the Democratic candidate, with party wheelhorse Lyndon B. Johnson as his running mate. Using the slogan, "Let's get this country moving again," Kennedy charged the Republican Eisenhower Administration with doing nothing about the myriad social, economic, and international problems that festered in the 1950s. He was especially hard on Eisenhower's record in international relations, taking a Cold Warrior position on a supposed "missile gap" (which turned out not to be the case) wherein the United States lagged far behind the Soviet Union in ICBM technology. On May 25, 1961, President Kennedy announced to the nation a goal of sending an American to the Moon before the end of the decade. The human spaceflight imperative was a direct outgrowth of it; Projects Mercury (at least in its latter stages), Gemini, and Apollo were each designed to execute it. On this subject see, Walter A. McDougall, . . . The Heavens and the Earth: A Political History of the Space Age (New York: Basic Books, 1985); John M. Logsdon, The Decision to Go to the Moon: Project Apollo and the National Interest (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1970).

Johann Kepler (1571-1630), a young German astronomer, began work with Tycho Brahe in Prague, Czechoslovakia, in 1599. When Brahe died in 1601, Kepler inherited his position and continued his observations as a method of mathematically solidifying the Copernican view of the universe. There, he developed his three laws of planetary motion. He also was interested in cosmology and dabbled in astrology. His last book, Somnium, was completed shortly before his death and related a fantastic story of space travel that was memorable for its exposition of the Copernican model to explain planetary motion. (Owen Gingerich, "Johnnes Kepler," Dictionary of Scientific Biography (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1970), 7:289-90.)

Robert S. Kerr (1896-1963) (D-OK) had been governor of Oklahoma from 1943-1947 and was elected to the Senate the following year. From 1961 until 1963 he chaired the Aeronautical and Space Sciences Committee. See Anne Hodges Morgan, Robert S. Kerr: The Senate Years (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1977).

Seymour S. Kety (1915- ) was a physician who worked with the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) throughout the 1950s. In 1951 he became associate director in charge of research for NIMH and for neurological diseases and blindness, and in 1956 he moved to the directorship of the Laboratory of Clinical Sciences. In 1959 Kety was the chair of NASA's bioscience advisory committee. In 1967 he left NIMH and became a professor of psychiatry at Harvard Medical School, where he assumed emeritus status in 1983. (See esp. "Seymour S. Kety" biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C.)

David Keyser (1918- ) became chief congressional liaison officer for NASA in 1959. He had worked from 1951-1955 as administrative assistant to Congressman Charles J. Kersten of Wisconsin. Just before his NASA appointment, he had worked as a municipal consultant to various city governments.

George A. Keyworth II (1939- ) was director of the office of Science and Technology Policy and science advisor to President Ronald Reagan between 1981 and 1986. Formerly the head of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Keyworth was a Ph.D. in nuclear physics from Duke University in 1968. He began work at Los Alamos after graduation and remained there until 1981. See "Keyworth, George A(lbert), 2d," 1986 Current Biography Yearbook, pp. 265-68.

Nikita S. Khrushchev (1894-1971) was premier of the USSR from 1958 to 1964 and first secretary of the Communist party from 1953 to 1964. He was noted for an astonishing speech in 1956 denouncing the crimes and blunders of Joseph Stalin and for gestures of reconciliation with the West in 1959-1960, ending with the breakdown of a Paris summit with President Eisenhower and the leaders of France and Great Britain in the wake of Khrushchev's announcement that the Soviets had shot down an American U-2 reconnaissance aircraft over the Urals on 1 May 1960. Then in 1962 Khrushchev attempted to place Soviet medium range-missiles in Cuba. This led to an intense crisis in October, following which Khrushchev agreed to remove the missiles if the U.S. promised to make no more attempts to overthrow Cuba's Communist government. Although he could be charming at times, Khrushchev was also given to bluster (extending even to shoe-pounding at the U.N). and was a tough negotiator, although he believed, unlike his predecessors, in the possibility of Communist victory over the West without war. See his Khrushchev Remembers: The Last Testament (Boston: Little, Brown, 1974); Edward Crankshaw, Khrushchev: A Career (New York: Viking, 1966); Michael R. Beschloss, Mayday: Eisenhower, Khrushchev and The U-2 Affair (New York: Harper and Row, 1986); and Robert A. Divine, Eisenhower and the Cold War (New York: Oxford University Press, 1981) for further information about him.

James R. Killian, Jr., (1904-1988) was president of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology between 1949 and 1959, on leave between November 1957 and July 1959 when he served as the first presidential science advisor. President Dwight D. Eisenhower established the President's Science Advisory Committee (PSAC), which Killian chaired, following the Sputnik crisis. After leaving the White House staff in 1959, Killian continued his work at MIT but in 1965 began working with the Corporation for Public Broadcasting to develop public television. Killian described his experiences as a presidential advisor in Sputnik, Scientists, and Eisenhower: A Memoir of the First Special Assistant to the President for Science and Technology (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1977). For a discussion of the PSAC see Gregg Herken, Cardinal Choices: Science Advice to the President from Hiroshima to SDI (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992).

David S. King (1917- ) (D-UT) was elected to the House of Representatives in 1958 and served through 1962. He was reelected in 1964 for one term and then became an ambassador to the Malagasy Republic.

V.A. Kirillin (1913- ), was Deputy Chairmen of the Council of Ministers and Chairman of the State Committee for Science and Technology for the Soviet Union in the 1960s. Educated as a physicist, he worked in thermodynamics and became chair in 1965, serving until stripped of his position in 1980 after the ascension of Leonid Brezhnev as head of the Soviet Union. See "Biography, Soviet, Miscellaneous (K-O)," NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC.

Jeane J. Kirkpatrick (1926- ) was United States Permanent Representative to the United Nations.

Henry A. Kissinger (1923- ) was assistant to the president for National Security Affairs, 1969-1973, and secretary of state thereafter until 1977. In these positions, he was especially involved in international aspects of spaceflight, particularly the joint Soviet/American flight, the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project, in 1975. See "Kissinger, Henry," Biographical File, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC.

George B. Kistiakowsky (1900-1982) was a pioneering chemist at Harvard University, associated with the development of the atomic bomb, and later an advocate of banning nuclear weapons. He served as science advisor to President Eisenhower from July 1959 to the end of the administration. He later served on the advisory board to the United States Arms Control and Disarmament Agency from 1962 to 1969. (New York Times, December 9, 1982, p. B21; "George B. Kistiakowsky," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection.)

Kenneth S. Kleinknecht started his career in 1942 at the Lewis Research Center after graduating from Perdue University with a B.S. in mechanical engineering. In 1951, Kleinknecht transferred to the Flight Research Center in Edwards, CA. After NASA formed, he then transferred to the Manned Spacecraft Center in Houston in 1959. Before being named the manager of the Mercury project, Kleinknecht was active in the National Air Races, served as supervisor for a number of avionics tests at Lewis, and was the Head of the Project Engineering Station for the X-1E. Additionally, Kleinknecht served as the Advanced Projects Management Officer on the X-15 project and as the Technical Assistant to the Director of the Manned Spacecraft Center. Source: "Kenneth Kleinknecht" biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection.

Joseph J. Knopow was a young Lockheed engineer who helped develop an infrared radiometer and telescope to detect the hot exhaust gases emitted by long-range jet bombers and, more important, large rockets in the mid-1950s. This aircraft-tracker and missile-detection system became a standard method of targeting enemy air and spacecraft.

William F. Knowland (1908-1974) (R-CA) served in the Senate between 1945 and 1959. (Washington Post, October 5, 1959, p. C3; Guide to Research Collections of Former United States Senators, 1789-1982 [Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1983], p. 291).

Yuri N. Koptev (1940- ) became General Director of the Russian Space Agency. Trained as an engineer, he began work in 1965 at NPO S.A. Lavochkina, as head o the organization for spacecraft design. Beginning in 1969 he served in administration and eventually was appointed as senior engineer to the Deputy Minister at the design bureau. See "Koptev, Yuri N.," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC.

Christopher C. Kraft, Jr. (1924- ) was a long-standing official with NASA throughout the Apollo program. He received as B.S. in aeronautical engineering from Virginia Polytechnic University in 1944 and joined the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) the next year. In 1958, still at Langley, he became a member of the Space Task Group developing Project Mercury and moved with the Group to Houston in 1962. He was flight director for all of the Mercury and many of the Gemini missions and directed the design of Mission Control at the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC), redesignated the Johnson Space Center in 1973. He was named the MSC deputy director in 1970 and its director two years later, a position he held until his retirement in 1982. Since then he has remained active as an aerospace consultant. See "Kraft, Christopher C., Jr.," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC.

Robert L. Krieger (1916-1990) began his career with the NACA and NASA at the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory in 1936 as a laboratory apprentice. Leaving the NACA for college, he earned a B.S. in mechanical engineering at Georgia Tech in 1943 and returned to Langley. From there, he was part of the group that set up the Pilotless Aircraft Research Station at Wallops Island under Robert R. Gilruth in 1945. In 1948 he became the head of the Wallops facility, which performed aerodynamic tests on instrumented models propelled at high speeds. In 1958 Wallops became an independent field center of NASA; there, Krieger led the first successful test flight of the Mercury capsule. During his career there, Wallops launched thousands of test vehicles, including 19 satellites. He retired as director in 1981. ("Robert L. Krieger," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C.)

Hermann H. Kurzweg (1908- ) was born in Germany and earned his Ph.D. from the University of Leipzig in 1933. During the Second World War, he was chief of the research division and deputy director of the aerodynamic laboratories at Peenemnde, where he did aerodynamic research on the V-2 rocket and the antiaircraft rocket Wasserfall as well as participated in the design of the supersonic wind tunnels there. In 1946 he came to the U.S. and worked for the Naval Ordnance Laboratory at White Oak, Maryland, doing aerodynamics and aeroballistics research and becoming associate technical director of the lab in 1956. He joined NASA Headquarters in September 1960 as assistant director for aerodynamics and flight mechanics in the office of advanced research programs. In 1961 he became director of research in the office of advanced research and technology. Nine years later, he was appointed chief scientist and chairman of the research council in the same office. He retired in 1974. ("Hermann H. Kurzweg," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C.)


Robert J. Lacklen had joined the NACA in 1945 as classification and organization officer. He became head of the NACA personnel administration two years later. When NASA succeeded the NACA, he became director of the personnel division, a position he held until 1964, when he resigned to become head of a personnel research institute at the Richardson Foundation in Greensboro, North Carolina. ("Robert J. Lacklen," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C.)

Melvin Laird (1922- ) was Secretary of Defense during the Nixon Administration.

Edwin Land was president of the Polaroid Corporation, and a member of the Purcell Panel that assessed space flight capabilities for the U.S. government in 1957-1958.

Richard E. Lankford (1914- ) (D-MD) was elected as a representative of Maryland's fifth district in Congress in 1954, a seat he retained through 1964.

Thomas G. Lanphier, Jr. (1915- ) was a special assistant to the secretary of the Air Force, 1949-1950, and became vice president of Consolidated Vultee Aircraft Corp., 1951-1960; then president of Fairbanks, Morse, and Co, 1960-1962; before becoming vice president for corporate planning of Raytheon in 1962.

Harold Lasswell (1902-1978) was a political scientist at Yale University. He was especially interested in pubic opinion polling, the uses of propaganda, and the democratic political process.

Harold R. Lawrence was assistant director of NASA's Office of International Programs. He resigned in 1960 to take a job at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. See correspondence files of T. Keith Glennan, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC.

James S. Lay, Jr., (1911-1987) was a senior official in the National Security Council, first as assistant executive secretary, 1947-1950, and then as executive secretary, 1950-1961. He then served as deputy assistant to the director of Central Intelligence, 1961-1964, and the executive secretary of the Intelligence Board through 1971.

Ludwig George Lederer (1911-1978) was a specialist in internal and aviation medicine. He was medical director for Capital Airlines from 1942-1960 and was simultaneously medical examiner and physician in chief of the Washington National Airport. In 1960 he became medical director for American Airlines. At about this time he was president of the aerospace medical association.

Tom Lehrer (1928- ) was a satirist who wrote and recorded several folk songs in the 1960s that made light of current events. His last album, That Was the Year That Was (1965), contained the satirical song, "Wernher von Braun," dealing with the relationship of science to ethics. See "Lehrer, Tom," 1982 Current Biography, pp. 227-30.

Curtis E. LeMay (1906-1990) was a career Air Force officer who entered the Army Air Corps in the 1920s and rose through a series of increasingly responsible Army Air Forces commands in World War II. After the war LeMay built the Strategic Air Command into the premier nuclear deterrent force in the early 1950s. He also served as deputy chief of staff, 1957-1961, and chief of staff, 1961-1965, of the U.S. Air Force. He retired as a four-star general in 1965, and ran for vice president with independent candidate George C. Wallace in 1968. See Thomas M. Coffey, Iron Eagle: The Turbulent Life of General Curtis LeMay (New York: Crown Pub., 1986).

Lyman L. Lemnitzer (1899-1988) was a career army officer who served as Army vice chief of staff between 1957 and 1959; Army chief of staff, 1959-1960; chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, 1960-1962; commanding general of United States Forces, Europe, 1962-1969; and Supreme Allied Commander, Europe, 1963-1969. (William Gardner Bell, _Commanding Generals and Chiefs of Staff: Portraits & Biographical Sketches_ [Washington, D.C.: Center of Military History, 1982], p. 132; _New York Times_, 13 November 1988, p. 44).

Samuel Lenher (1905- ) was a chemical manufacturing executive with the Dupont Corporation in Wilmington, Delaware, from 1929 until his retirement.

Reimar Leust (1923- ) is a German theoretical physicist who held a variety of prestigious academic and advisory council posts before serving as Director General of ESA from 1984-1990. Miscellaneous foreign biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC.

Robert B. Lewis was a longtime government official who joined NASA in 1961 as Director of Financial Management. He served until 1965, when he left the agency to return to the Office of the Secretary of Defense. Miscellaneous NASA biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC.

Willy Ley (1906-1969) was an extremely effective popularizer of spaceflight first in Germany and then after 1935 in the United States, to which he emigrated after Hitler's accession to power. He helped to found the large and significant German "Verein fur Raumschiffahrt" (Society for Spaceship Travel, or VfR) in 1927. He also wrote several books that dealt with the dream of spaceflight. One of the most important was Rockets: the Future of Travel Beyond the Stratosphere, first published in 1944. In it Ley labored to convince interested readers that rockets would soon be able to carry humans off the surface of the earth. One of the earliest books on rocketry for the general public, this work became a reference source for future science fiction and reality writing. A revised edition appeared in 1947, entitled Rockets and Space Travel, and another in 1952, Rockets, Missiles, and Space Travel. An obituary can be found in the New York Times, June 25, 1969, p. 47.

William E. Lilly (1921- ) entered federal civilian service in 1950 as a budget and program analyst with the Navy Ordnance Test Station in California and held a variety of positions with the Navy and the Bureau of Standards until 1960 when he joined NASA as chief, plans and analysis, office of launch vehicles. He served NASA for 21 years, becoming its first comptroller--a position with associate administrator status--in 1973. He retired in 1981 with 37 years of federal service including service in the Navy from 1940-1946. See ìLilly, W.E.,î Biographical File, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC.

Charles A. Lindbergh (1902-1974) was an early aviator who gained fame as the first pilot to fly solo across the Atlantic in 1927. His public stature following this flight was such that he became an important voice on behalf of aerospace activities until his death. He served on a variety of national and international boards and committees, including the central committee of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics in the United States. He became an expatriate living in Europe, following the kidnapping and murder of his two year old son in 1932. In Europe during the rise of fascism, Lindbergh assisted American aviation authorities by providing them with information about European technological developments. After 1936 he was especially important in warning the U.S. of the rise of Nazi air power. He assisted with the war effort in the 1940s by serving as a consultant to aviation companies and the government, and after the war he lived quietly in Connecticut and then Hawaii. See Walter S. Ross, The Last Hero: Charles A. Lindbergh (New York: Harper and Row, 1967).

Ernest K. Lindley (1899-1979) was a Rhodes scholar in 1923 and served as a reporter and political writer for the _New York World_ from 1924-1931, then wrote for the _Herald Tribune_ from 1931- 1937. He became chief of the Washington bureau of _Newsweek_ from 1937-1961 and also served as a political commentator for the _Washington Post_ for part of that period.

John V. Lindsay (1921- ) (R-NY) served in the House of Representatives from 1959-1965, when he became mayor of New York City.

Albert W. Lines (1914- ) was a British physicist who had previously been the principal scientific officer at the U.K. Ministry of Supply. His appointment to the directorship of the Royal Aircraft Establishment at Farnsborough apparently was quite recent because the 1959 _Directory of British Aviation_ listed Sir George Gardner in that position and its "Who's Who in British Aviation" did not even mention Lines.

Donald P. Ling was on the staff at Bell Telephone Laboratories. In 1954 he had co-authored a two-volume report entitled "Command Guidance for a Ballistic Missile." He continued working in this area and later became vice president of Bell Labs and, in 1970, president of Bellcom, Inc., a subsidiary incorporated in 1962. He retired in 1971. (_A History of Engineering and Science in the Bell System: National Service in War and Peace (1925-1975)_, M. D. Fagen, ed. [Bell Telephone Laboratories, 1978], pp. 396, 447, 506, 699.)

James E. Lipp (1910- ) earned a Ph.D. in aeronautical engineering from the California Institute of Technology in 1935, and worked for the Douglas Aircraft Co., 1935-1948. Thereafter, he went to work for the Rand Corp., and eventually headed its aerospace division.

Walter Lippmann (1889-1974) was perhaps the most eminent and influential journalist of his day. He helped found and then edit _The New Republic_ in 1914. He wrote editorials for and then edited the _World_ from 1921 to 1931 and then began a column for the _New York Herald Tribune_ that was eventually syndicated in more than 250 newspapers and won two Pulitzer Prizes (1958, 1962).

William Littlewood (1898-1967) was a vice president of American Airlines in charge of engineering from 1937 to 1963. Before that, he was regarded as the developer of the DC-3 that helped revolutionize air travel. From 1946 to 1964 he chaired the NACA committee on operating problems and its NASA successor, the committee on aircraft operating problems and was one of the country's most highly regarded aircraft engineers, known as an advocate of the government's devoting more resources to the research and development of aircraft rather than spacecraft. ("William Littlewood," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C.)

Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. (1902-1985) had been a senator from Massachusetts (1937-1944, 1947-1952) and had been active in promoting President Eisenhower's presidential candidacy. Eisenhower appointed him permanent representative to the U.N. (1953-1960), from which position he advised the president on domestic affairs as well as U.N. issues. He was Richard M. Nixon's vice presidential running mate in 1960 and then U.S. ambassador to South Vietnam(1963-1964, 1965-1967). See his _As It Was: An Inside View of Politics and Power in the '50s and '60s_ (New York: W. W. Norton, 1976).

Russell Long (1918- ) served as a U.S. Senator from Louisiana from 1948-1987. Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774-1989, (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office).

Alan M. Lovelace (1929- )

A. C. Bernard Lovell (1913- ) taught physics at the University of Manchester in England before World War II, specializing in cosmic ray investigations. During the war he worked on radar development. Upon return to Manchester, he established the Jodrell Bank station in nearby Cheshire, setting up a radio telescope with a 250-foot antenna. It was completed in 1957 and was used by NASA to receive signals from the Pioneer series of moon probes and as a sensitive receiver of signals bounced off the passive Echo satellite in the period of this diary. ("Bernard Lovell," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C.)

George M. Low (1926-1984),

Percival Lowell (1855-1916) was the U.S. astronomer who predicted the existence of the planet Pluto. A Boston Brahmin, Lowell was a gentleman scholar who was involved in literature, writing several books on his travels around the globe. He also served as counselor and foreign secretary to the Korean Special Mission to the U.S. Lowell developed an interest in astronomy in middle age, and founded an observatory in Flagstaff, Arizona, to study the Solar System, especially Mars. He was enamored with the prospect of life on the Red Planet and theorized that its "canals" were the product of intelligent life (William Graves Hoyt, Lowell and Mars [Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1976]).

Alvin R. Luedecke (1910- ) served in the Army Air Corps and the Air Force from 1934 to 1958, rising through the ranks to become a major general. He served as the executive secretary of the military liaison committee to the Atomic Energy Commission from 1949-1951 and was thereafter deputy chief and then chief of the Armed Forces Special WeaponsProject, 1951-1957, and commander of Joint Task Force 7, 1957-1958. >From 1958 to 1964 he was general manager of the AEC. Thereafter, he became deputy director of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1964-1967; associate dean of engineering at Texas A&M, 1968-1970; acting president of Texas A&M, 1970; and the university's executive vice president beginning in 1971. ("Alvin R. Luedecke," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C.)

Bruce T. Lundin (1919- ) earned a B.S. in mechanical engineering from the University of California in 1942 and worked for Standard Oil of California before joining the staff at Lewis Laboratory in 1943. He investigated heat transfer and worked to improve the performance of World War II aircraft engines. Then in 1946 he became chief of the jet propulsion research section, which conducted some of America's early research on turbojet engines. He became assistant director of Lewis in 1958 and directed much of the center's efforts in space propulsion and power generation. He advanced through the positions of associate director for development (1961) at Lewis, managing the development and operation of the Centaur and Agena launch vehicles, and of deputy associate administrator for advanced research and technology at NASA Headquarters (1968), before becoming acting associate administrator for advanced research and technology there (1969). Later that year, he received the appointment as director of the Lewis Research Center, where he remained until his retirement in 1977. ("Bruce T. Lundin," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C.)

Glynn S. Lunney (1936- ) was a longtime NASA official. Trained as an aeronautical engineer, he came to the Lewis Research Center near the time of the creation of NASA in 1958, and became a part of the Space Task Group developing Project Mercury the next year. He worked on the Apollo program in series of positions, including Manager of the Apollo Spacecraft Program in 1973, and manager of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project at the Johnson Space Center, in Houston, Texas. Thereafter, he managed the development of the Space Shuttle and served in several other NASA positions. Lunney retired from NASA in 1985 and became vice president and general manager, Houston Operations, for Rockwell International's Space Systems Division. See "Lunney, Glenn S.," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC.


Harold Macmillan (1894-1986) became a British Member of Parliament in 1924, Foreign Secretary in 1955, and then served as Prime Minister from 1957-1963. "Macmillan, (Maurice) Harold," 1987 Current Biography Yearbook, p. 637.

Walter A. MacNair (1901- ) was an electrical engineer who worked with the Bell Telephone Laboratories, 1929-1952, and the Consolidated Electrodynamics Corp., thereafter.

John W. Macy, Jr. was chair of the Civil Service Commission during the Kennedy administration. He served as a member of a study committee in 1961 to ascertain the viability of contracting-out considerable functions in aerospace research and development. The 1961 study was known as the "Bell Report" because the chair of the committee was David E. Bell, director of the Bureau of the Budget.

Warren G. Magnuson (1905-1989) (D-WA) was elected to the House of Representatives in 1936 and served until 1944 when he was appointed to fill an unexpired term in the Senate. He was subsequently elected to the Senate later that year and remained a senator until 1981.

Frank J. Malina (1912-1981) was a young Caltech Ph.D. student in the mid-1930s when he began an aggressive rocket research program to design a high-altitude sounding rocket. Beginning in late 1936 Malina and his colleagues started the static testing of rocket engines in the canyons above the Rose Bowl, with mixed results, but a series of tests eventually led to the development of the WAC-Corporal rocket during World War II. After the war, Malina worked with the United Nations and eventually retired to Paris to pursue a career as an artist. See "Malina, Frank J.," biographical folder, NASA Historical Reference Collection.

Gordon Manning was a journalist with several periodicals. He was a staff writer for Collier's, 1948-1949, and worked in a series of increasingly responsible positions for Newsweek, 1949-1964. Between 1961 and 1964 he was executive editor. Thereafter he worked with television, first as vice president, director of news for CBS, 1964-1972, and executive producer of NBC News, 1975-1978.

Vittorio Manno (1938- ) is an Italian physicist who was a senior scientist at ESA's Science Directorate from 1972-1989. From 1989-1995, Manno served as the scientific attaché at the Italian Embassy in Vienna. Miscellaneous foreign biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC.

Hans Mark (1929- )

Leonard H. Marks was one of the original Comsat incorporators appointed by President Kennedy. He resigned from Comsat's board of directors in 1965 to become director of the U.S. Information Agency. "Miscellaneous Industry," Biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, Washington, DC.

Robert T. Marsh, a general in the Air Force, was commander of the Air Force Systems Command from 1982-1984. Miscellaneous DoD biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC.

George C. Marshall (1880-1959) was a career Army officer who served as general of the army and U.S. Army chief of staff during World War II. He became secretary of state (1947-1949) and of defense (1950-1951) and was the author of the European recovery program known to the world as the Marshall Plan; it played a critical role in reconstructing a Europe ravaged by the war that Marshall had done so much to direct to a victorious end. In recognition of the effects of the Marshall Plan and his contributions to world peace, he received the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1953. It was fitting that a NASA center should be named after the only professional soldier to receive the prize, given NASA's charter to devote itself to the peaceful uses of outer space and yet to cooperate with the military services. (The standard source on Marshall is the magisterial, multivolume biography by Forrest C. Pogue, _George C. Marshall_ [New York: Viking, 1963-1966], but there are several recent one-volume studies, including Mark A. Stoler, _George C. Marshall: Soldier-Statesman of the American Century_ [Boston: Twayne, 1989].)

John J. Martin was educated as a mechanical engineer, receiving a Ph.D. from Purdue University in 1951. He joined North American Aviation in 1951 and moved to the Bendix Corp. in 1953. In 1960 he joined the Institute for Defense Analyses and in 1969 moved to the staff of the President's Science Advisor at the White House. During 1973-1974 he served as the Associate Deputy to the Director of Central Intelligence and was Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Air Force (Research and Development), 1974-1976, before returning to Bendix. He became a NASA official in 1984, as Associate Administrator for Aeronautics and Space Technology at the NASA Headquarters, before returning to industry in 1985. See "Martine, Dr. John J.," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC.

Joseph W. Martin, Jr. (1884-1968) (R-MA) had been a member of Congress since 1924 and until 1958, minority leader of the House of Representatives every session since 1939 except for the years 1947-1949 and 1953-1955, when he was speaker of the House.

Paul Logan Martin (1912-1978) worked for a variety of newspapers and the Press Association, Inc. before becoming the political and legal correspondent for Gannett Newspapers from 1947- 1950. From 1950 to 1966, he was chief of Gannett's bureau before becoming an editor for _U.S. News and World Report_.

Sir Harrie S.W. Massey (1908- ) was Quain Professor of Physics at University College, London, and chairman of the British National Space Research Committee in the early 1960s. He was the leader of a team of British scientists responsible for the selection of the experiments and instruments for the S.51 satellite project, an Anglo-American cooperative effort begun in 1959 to launch individual instruments into space for scientific purposes. See "Biography Foreign Miscellaneous I-M," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC.

Owen Maynard (1924-2000)

Robert P. Mayo (1916- ) was an economist and President Richard Nixon's first Director of the Bureau of the Budget (BOB). On July 1, 1970, when the BOB was replaced with the Office of Management and Budget, Mayo was shifted to the White House as a presidential assistant. In July 1970 he left Washington to assume the presidency of the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago ("Mayo, Robert P(orter)," Current Biography 1970, pp. 282-84).

Edward A. McCabe (1917- ) was part of Eisenhower's congressional liaison staff. His formal titles were associate counsel to the president, 1956-1958, and administrative assistant, 1958-1961. After the end of the Eisenhower administration, McCabe became a partner in the law firm Hamel, Park, McCabe & Saunders.

John A. McCone (1902-1991) began his career as a construction engineer in 1929 and became executive vice president and director of the Consolidated Steel Corporation, 1933-1937. He was organizer and president of Bechtel-McCone Corporation (an engineering firm), 1937-1945, and subsequently served as a business executive with several other firms. He worked in the Defense Department from 1948 to 1951 and as chairman of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, 1958- 1960. He was appointed director of the Central Intelligence Agency in 1961 and remained in that position until 1965.

John W. McCormack (1891-1980) (D-MA) was a member of the House of Representatives serving the district in which Boston was located. He first entered the House in 1929 to fill the unexpired term of the late James A. Gallivan and served until his retirement in 1970. He was House majority leader from 1955 to 1962 and speaker of the House between 1962 and 1970. (_Official Congressional Directory for the Use of the United States Congress_ [Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1970], p. 81).

Richard C. McCurdy (1909- ), an engineer specializing in petroleum, was associate administrator for organization and management at NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C., 1970-1973, and a consultant to the agency from 1973 to 1982.

James A. McDivitt (1929- ) was a career Air Force officer, retiring as a brigadier general, who was chosen as a NASA astronaut in the second group selected, in 1962. He served as command pilot of the Gemini 4 and commander of the Apollo 9 missions. He also managed the Apollo Spacecraft Program at Johnson Space Center from September 1969 to August 1972, and then resigned from NASA and the Air Force. He then joined Pullman, Inc., of Chicago Illinois in 1975, and served as Vice President, President-Pullman Standard, and Executive Vice President, in that order. He resigned from Pullman on January 31, 1981, to become Vice President, Strategic Management, Rockwell International, Pittsburgh. He then became Senior Vice President, Government and International Operations, Rockwell International Corp., Washington, DC. See "McDivitt, James A.," biographical folder, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC.

Frank B. McDonald (1925- ) began a career with NASA in 1959 as head of the Energetic Particles Branch in the Space Science Division at Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland. Thereafter he served as project scientist on nine NASA satellite programs. In 1982 he became NASA Chief Scientist, serving until 1987 when he returned to Goddard as associate director/chief scientist. "McDonald, Dr. Frank B. (Chief Scientist)," biographical folder, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC.

James S. McDonnell, Jr. (1899-1980) graduated from MIT with an M.S. in aeronautical engineering in 1925 and worked as an engineer and pilot with a variety of aircraft companies before he founded McDonnell Aircraft Corp. in St. Louis in 1939. He served as its president until 1962. The FH-1 Phantom, which first flew in 1946, was the first in a line of fighter aircraft his company produced, including the F-4 Phantom 2, the F-15 Eagle, and the F- 18 Hornet. In 1959 the company became the contractor for the Mercury spacecraft; almost three years later it also became contractor for the Gemini spacecraft. In 1967, McDonnell Aircraft merged with Douglas Aircraft Co. to form McDonnell Douglass Corp., with James McDonnell serving as chairman and chief executive officer until 1972 and chairman thereafter. (See esp. obituaries in _Aviation Week and Space Technology_, 1 Sept. 1980, p. 50 and the _New York Times_, 23 Aug. 1980, p. 11.)

Neil H. McElroy (1904-1972) became secretary of defense in 1957 and served through 1959. He had previously been president of Procter & Gamble and returned there in December 1959 to become chair of the board. He served in that position until October 1972, a month before his death.

Robert S. McNamara (1916- ) was Secretary of Defense during the Kennedy and Johnson administrations, 1961-1968. Thereafter he served as president of the World Bank, where he remained until retirement in 1981. As Secretary of Defense in 1961, McNamara was intimately involved in the process of approving Project Apollo by the Kenned Administration. See "McNamara, Robert S(trange)," Current Biography Yearbook 1987, pp. 408-13; John M. Logsdon, The Decision to Go to the Moon: Project Apollo and the National Interest (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1970).

H. Roemer McPhee (1925- ) served at this time as associate special counsel to the president in the White House, where he began work in 1957. A lawyer educated at Princeton and Harvard, at the end of the Eisenhower administration he became a partner in the law firm of Hamel, Morgan, Park and Saunders.

John M. McSweeney (1916-1979) was a career foreign service officer. From 1959 to 1961 he was deputy director and then director of the office of Soviet Union affairs in the State Department. He became the U.S. ambassador to Bulgaria from 1967 to 1970.

George Meader (1907- ) (R-MI) began serving in the House of Representatives in 1950 and served until 1964.

John B. Medaris (1902-1990) was a major general commanding the Army Ballistic Missile Agency when T. Keith Glennan tried to incorporate it into NASA in the late 1950s. He attempted to retain the organization as part of the Army, but with a series of Department of Defense agreements the Air Force obtained primacy in space activities and Medaris could not succeed in his effort. Medaris also worked with Wernher von Braun to launch Explorer I in early 1958. He retired from the Army in 1969 and became an Episcopal priest, later joining an even more conservative Anglican-Catholic church. ("John Bruce Medaris," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection; John B. Medaris with Arthur Gordon, Countdown for Decision (New York: Putnam, 1960).)

John T. Mengel (1918- ) taught physics at Lafayette College from 1939-1940, worked for General Electric from 1940-1942, and then developed and evaluated special detection devices at the Bureau of Ships from 1942-1946. He joined the Naval Research Laboratory in 1946, becoming head of the electronic instrument section in 1947. In 1955 he became head of the tracking and guidance branch for Project Vanguard. He joined NASA in 1958 in the same position. From 1959-1973 he was director for tracking and data systems at Goddard Space Flight Center. ("John T. Mengel," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C.)

Livingston T. Merchant (1903-1976) was under secretary of state for political affairs during the period of the Glennan diary. He served in the Department of State from 1942 to 1962.

Robert E. Merriam (1918-1988) was deputy assistant to the president for interdepartmental affairs between 1958 and 1961. Previously he had been an urban planner and housing administrator in Chicago, 1946-1955, and deputy director of the Bureau of the Budget, 1955-1958. At the conclusion of the Eisenhower administration, Merriam became president successively of Spaceonics, Inc., 1961-1964 and Universal Patents, Inc., 1964- 1971; then chair of the board of MGA Tech., Inc., 1971-1988.

Ruben F. Mettler (1924- ) was an electronics and engineering company executive who worked for the Hughes Aircraft Co., 1949-1954; Ramo-Wooldridge Corp., 1955-1958; TRW Space Technology Laboratories, 1958-1965; TRW Systems Group, 1965-1968; president and chief operating officer of TRW Inc., 1969-1977; and TRW chairman of the board and CEO, 1977-1988.

Stuart Miller (1927- ) was a research engineer in industry, working with the Chrysler Corp, 1952-1953; and the General Electric Co., 1953-1977.

Robert A. Millikan (1868-1953) was a Nobel Prize-winning physicist at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). Best known for his research on cosmic rays, he also built Caltech into a world-class educational and scientific institution which he presided over until his retirement in 1946. For more information on Millikan see Robert H. Kargon, The Rise of Robert Millikan: Portrait of a Life in American Science (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1982), and The Autobiography of Robert A. Millikan (New York: Prentice-Hall, 1950).

Wilbur D. Mills (1909-1992) (D-AR) was a member of the U.S. House of Representatives from 1939 to 1977. He served as chair of the powerful House Ways and Means Committee, 1957-1975 (obituary in New York Times, May 3, 1992, p. I53).

L. Arthur Minnich, Jr. (1918- ) was assistant staff secretary in the Office of the White House, 1953-1960. A historian by training, he also served on the faculty of Lafayette College before 1953. After leaving the White House, he served as the Executive Secretary of UNESCO.

Newton Minow (1926- ) was a lawyer in Chicago before being appointed to the chairmanship of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) by President Kennedy. He gained a reputation by attacking the quality of television programming and threatening to revoke broadcast licenses based on programming. He returned to his law practice following Kennedyís assassination and joined the Public Broadcasting System board in 1973. He became chairman of that organization in 1978, and then moved to the directorship of the Annenberg Communications Program in Washington in 1987. See ìMinow, Newton (Norman)î in John S. Bowman, ed., The Cambridge Dictionary of American Biography (Cambridge, England: The Cambridge University Press, 1995).

Elliott Mitchell earned a B.S. in chemistry from William and Mary in 1941 and served from 1942 to 1950 as a physical chemist and chemical engineer in the Department of the Navy. From then until 1958 he was physical sciences administrator and then chief of propulsion research and development in the Navy's Bureau of Ordnance. In 1958 he joined NASA as chief of the solid rocket development program. When he left NASA in 1961, he was assistant director of manned space flight programs for propulsion. Thereafter, he became a consultant. ("Elliott Mitchell," biographical files, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C.)

Erwin Mitchell (1924- )served as a Democratic Congressman from Georgia from 1958-1961. He was Chairman of the House Subcommittee on Patents and Scientific Inventions, Committee on Science and Astronautics. Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774-1989, (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1989).

James P. Mitchell (1900-1964) had served as director of personnel and industrial relations for R. H. Macy & Co. from 1945- 1947 and became vice president of Bloomingdale's in the latter year, with responsibility for labor relations. He became secretary of labor in 1953 after his predecessor had resigned over the failure of the Eisenhower administration to amend the Taft-Hartley law to abolish its right-to-work provision in favor of organized labor. Mitchell served as secretary of labor until 1961, making some efforts to recommend amendments to Taft-Hartley but without either success or the fervor his predecessor had exhibited in the interests of organized labor. (See Steven E. Ambrose, _Eisenhower, the President_, pp. 116-118.)

Richard T. Mittauer (1927-1973) had worked as a news editor for radio station WOW in his native Omaha, Nebraska, and as a newswriter for ABC in Chicago before coming to Washington, D.C., in 1954 as a congressional intern at the American Political Science Association. From 1955-1959 he was press secretary for Senator Roman L. Hruska before joining NASA's office of public information the latter year. He became director of that office in 1972.

James J. Modarelli had headed the research reports division at Lewis Laboratory when NACA Executive Secretary John Victory requested suggestions for a NASA seal. Members of the illustration section in Modarelli's division sent in some designs, one of which (referred to as the "meatball" to distinguish it from a later insignia called the "worm") was selected and approved. Modarelli is generally credited as the designer. By 1959, Modarelli had moved to NASA Headquarters as head of the exhibits branch of the office of public information. ("James J. Modarelli," biographical file and headquarters telephone directories, 1959-1960, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C.)

Jack Pendleton Monroe (1904- ) was a career naval officer who became a rear admiral in 1956. He served as commander of the Pacific Missile Range from 1957-1961 before becoming the director of astronautics for the chief of naval operations from 1961-1963.

A. S. Mike Monroney (1902-1980) (D-OK) was first elected to the House of Representatives in 1938 and served there through 1950 when he won election to the Senate, where he served through 1969.

Gerald D. Morgan (1908-1976) served in a variety of capacities in the Eisenhower White House--special assistant, 1953; administrative assistant to the president, 1953-1955; special counsel to the president, 1955-1958; and deputy assistant, 1958- 1961. Previously he had been a partner with the Washington law firms of Morgan and Calhoun (1946-1950) and Hamel, Park, and Saunders (1950-1953), and assistant legislative counsel with the U.S. House of Representatives (1935-1945).

Oskar Morgenstern (1902- ) was a German born and trained economist. He came to the United States in 1925, and worked at Princeton University after 1938. He founded and headed Mathematica, Inc., which provided economic analyses to government and industry.

Robert S. Morison (1906-1986) was at this time director of the natural and medical sciences for the Rockefeller Foundation and a member of the Kety committee (see entry under Kety). He had worked for the Rockefeller Foundation in various capacities since 1944.

Brooks Morris (1913-?) was an aerospace engineer who worked as a manager of quality assurance and reliability at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory from 1961-1981. Who's Who in Aviation and Aerospace, U.S. edition, (Boston and New York: National Aeronautical Institute and Jane's Publishing Company, Ltd., 1983).

Delmar M. Morris (1913-1961) was deputy director for administration at the Marshall Space Flight Center. Until his untimely death from a heart attack, he had worked since March 1960 helping Wernher von Braun transfer his organization from the Army Ballistic Missile Agency to NASA. At his death, Morris had almost 25 years of government service with a variety of agencies, most recently the Atomic Energy Commission. ("Delmar M. Morris," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C.)

Donald Morris was a former Foreign Service Officer who joined NASA in 1967. Morris served as Deputy Assistant Administrator for International Affairs and then became Deputy Associate Administrator for Applications - Management in 1976. In 1977 he was detailed to the President's Committee on Science and Technology. See Assorted NASA officials biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC.

Richard S. Morse (1911-1988) was at this time director of research and development for the Army (1959-1961). He had previously served as director of the National Research Corporation from 1940-1959.

Frank E. "Ted" Moss (1906- ) (D-UT) was first elected to the Senate in 1958 and served until 1977. Between 1972 and 1977 he served as chair of the Senate Space Committee.

Michael Mott (1949-2005) was a NASA associate deputy administrator from 1993 to 1998, during which he chaired the Space Operations Management Council and the Space Transportation Council. A former F-18 pilot and lieutenant colonel in the U.S. Marine Corps, Mott worked to forge ties with the Russians after the Cold War. In 1998, Mott became vice president and general manager of NASA systems for the Boeing Company in Houston, where he oversaw 4,120 employees charged with operational support for the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station. (Houston Chronicle, November 23, 2005;"Michael A. Mott," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C.)

George E. Mueller (1918- ) was Associate Administrator for the Office of Manned Space Flight at NASA Headquarters, 1963-1969, where he responsible for overseeing the completion of Project Apollo and of beginning the development of the Space Shuttle. He moved to the General Dynamics Corp., as senior vice president in 1969, and remained until 1971. He then became president of the Systems Development Corporation, 1971-1980, and its chairman and CEO, 1981-1983. See "Mueller, George E.," Biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC.

Karl Mundt (1900-1974) was served as Republican Representative from South Dakota from January 3, 1939 until December 30, 1948. He then served as a Senator from December 31, 1948 until January 3, 1973. Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774-1996 (Washington, DC: CQ Staff Directories, Inc., 1997).

Robert Murphy (1894-1978) was a career foreign service officer and State Department official. He served as Deputy Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs and then as Under Secretary in the 1950s. Biographical information from the Biographic Register of the Department of State, 1959, the Department of State History Office, Washington, DC.

Edmund Muskie (1914- ) (D-ME) served in the United States Senate, 1959-1981.

Dale D. Myers (1922- )

Jason John Nassau (1893-1965) earned a Ph.D. from Syracuse in 1920 and became an assistant professor of astronomy at Case Institute of Technology in 1921. He continued to teach there, serving as chairman of the graduate division from 1936-1940, and became the director of the Warner and Swasey Observatory from 1924- 1959. Thereafter he was a professor emeritus at Case.

John E. Naugle (1923- ) was trained as a physicist at the University of Minnesota and began his career studying cosmic rays by launching balloons to high altitudes. In 1959 he joined NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, where he developed projects to study the magnetosphere. In 1960 he took charge of NASA's Fields and Particles research program. He also served as NASA's Associate Administrator for the Office of Space Science and as the agency's Chief Scientist before his retirement in 1981. See John E. Naugle, First Among Equals: The Selection of NASA Space Science Experiments (Washington, DC: NASA SP-4215, 1991).

Richard G. Neustadt (1919- ) was a Harvard University-trained political scientist who made a career in public policy analysis. He served for a time, 1946-1953, with the Federal Government in Washington, and thereafter in academe at Columbia University (1954-1964) and Harvard University, since 1964. He was an informal advisor to presidents and their associates between the 1940s and the 1980s. See Richard E. Neustadt and Ernest R. May, Thinking in Time: The Uses of History for Decision Makers (New York: Free Press, 1986).

Homer E. Newell (1915-1983) earned his Ph.D. in mathematics at the University of Wisconsin in 1940 and served as a theoretical physicist and mathematician at the Naval Research Laboratory from 1944-1958. During part of that period, he was science program coordinator for Project Vanguard and was acting superintendent of the atmosphere and astrophysics division. In 1958 he transferred to NASA to assume responsibility for planning and development of the new agency's space science program. He soon became deputy director of space flight programs. In 1961 he assumed directorship of the office of space sciences; in 1963, he became associate administrator for space science and applications. Over the course of his career, he became an internationally known authority in the field of atmospheric and space sciences as well as the author of numerous scientific articles and seven books, including Beyond the Atmosphere: Early Years of Space Science (Washington, DC: NASA SP-4211, 1980). He retired from NASA at the end of 1973. "Newell, Homer," Biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC.

Frank Clarke Newlon (1905- ) had been city editor and then managing editor for the _Dallas Dispatch-Journal_ and then managing editor of the National Education Association Service in Cleveland. Following military service during World War II and a subsequent career in the Air Force, he became editor of _Missiles and Rockets Magazine_ from 1958-1961. Thereafter, he became a free-lance writer.

Isaac Newton (1642-1727) created a scientific explanation of the workings of the university that held sway until the twentieth century. Based on the concept of gravity and three laws of motion that related to it, the Newtonian construct placed astronomy and physics on a firm mathematical foundation. Born in England, Newton was educated at Trinity College in Cambridge. As a relatively young man, by 1667 he had developed his ideas on universal gravitation and its consequences, the nature of white light, and the calculus. In the same year he was elected a fellow of Trinity College and two years later succeeded to the chair of his mentor Isaac Barrow. In 1696 Newton was named warden of the Mint and in 1699 he became its master. While still officially associated with Cambridge, his work at the mint effectively ended Newton's academic career. (James R. Newman, ed., The World of Mathematics [New York: Simon and Schuster, 1956], pp. 256-78; Lloyd Motz and Jefferson Hane Weaver, The Story of Physics [New York: Avon Books, 1992].)

Kenneth D. Nichols (1907- ) worked on the Manhattan Project in World War II and served in a variety of special weapons activities with the Department of Defense. In the early 1950s he was involved in directing the guided missile research and development effort for the Secretary of Defense. He also held posts with the Atomic Energy Commission and with industry.

Paul H. Nitze (1907- ) had been with the investment firm of Dillon, Read, and Co., before World War II, and then entered federal service. He held a variety of posts, including director of the U.S. Strategic Bombing Survey, 1944-1946, and served with the State Department during the remainder of the Truman administration. Between 1953 and 1961 he was president of the Foreign Service Educational Foundation. He was assistant secretary of defense for international security affairs, 1961-1963; secretary of the Navy, 1963-1967; and deputy secretary of defense, 1967- 1969.

Richard M. Nixon (1913-1994) was president of the United States between January 1969 and August 1974. Early in his presidency, Nixon appointed a Space Task Group under the direction of Vice President Spiro T. Agnew to assess the future of spaceflight in the nation. Its report recommended a vigorous post-Apollo exploration program culminating in a human expedition to Mars. Nixon did not approve this plan, but did decide in favor of building one element of it, the Space Shuttle, which was approved on January 5, 1972. See Roger D. Launius, "NASA and the Decision to Build the Space Shuttle, 1969-72," The Historian 57 (Autumn 1994): 17-34.

Warren J. North (1922- ) earned a B.S. from the University of Illinois in 1947. From then until 1955 he was an engineer and test pilot for the Lewis Laboratory. From 1956-1959 he served as assistant chief of the aerodynamics branch at Lewis. He then transferred to NASA Headquarters, where he took part in early planning for Project Mercury, including the selection and training of the seven Mercury astronauts. He moved in 1962 to the Manned Spacecraft Center (later the Johnson Space Center), where he headed the division responsible for training the astronauts for the Gemini rendezvous and docking operations and the Apollo lunar landings. He continued to work in the fields of astronaut selection and training until he retired in 1985 as special assistant to the director of flight operations in planning space shuttle crew training. ("Warren North," biographical file, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C.)

Herman Noordung (1892-1929) was a pseudonym for Herman Potocnik. He was a relatively obscure officer in the Austrian army who became an engineer. Encouraged by Hermann Oberth, he wrote an early seminal book called The Problem of Space Travel: The Rocket Motor that largley focused on the engineering aspects of space stations. See Hermann Noordung, edited by Ernst Stuhlinger and J.D. Hunley with Jennifer Garland, The Problem of Space Travel: The Rocket Motor (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, NASA SP-4026, 1995).

Robert G. Nunn, Jr. (1917-1975) earned a law degree from the University of Chicago in 1942. After four years in the Army during World War II, then private practice of law for eight years in Washington, D.C., and in his home town of Terre Haute, Indiana, he joined the office of general counsel of the Air Force in 1954. He became NASA assistant general counsel in November 1958 and then special assistant to T. Keith Glennan in September 1960. He helped draft many legal and administrative regulations for NASA, then went to work for the Washington law firm of Sharp and Bogan. Later he formed the firm of Batzell and Nunn, specializing in energy legislation and administrative law. See ìNunn, R.G., Jr.,î Biographical File, NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC.

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